Nobel Prize winners by year


Nobel Prize winners by year

Table
Nobel Prize winners by year
1901–10
1941–50
1981–90 1911–20
1951–60
1991–2000
1921–30
1961–70
2001–08 1931–40
1971–80
1901–10
year category name country* achievement literary area
1901
chemistry
Henricus van 't (Hoff, Jacobus Henricus van 't) The Netherlands laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure
literature Sully Prudhomme France poet
peace Dunant, Henri Switzerland
peace Passy, Frédéric France
physics Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad Germany discovery of X-rays
physiology/
medicine Behring, Emil von Germany work on serum therapy
1902
chemistry Fischer, Emil Germany work on sugar and purine syntheses
literature Mommsen, Theodor Germany historian
peace Ducommun, Élie Switzerland
peace Gobat, Charles-Albert Switzerland
physics Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon The Netherlands investigation of the influence of magnetism on radiation
physics Zeeman, Pieter The Netherlands investigation of the influence of magnetism on radiation
physiology/
medicine Ross, Sir Ronald U.K. discovery of how malaria enters an organism
1903
chemistry Arrhenius, Svante (Arrhenius, Svante August) Sweden theory of electrolytic dissociation
literature Bjørnson, Bjørnstjerne Martinius Norway novelist, poet, dramatist
peace Cremer, Sir Randal U.K.
physics Becquerel, Henri France discovery of spontaneous radioactivity
physics Curie, Marie France investigations of radiation phenomena discovered by Becquerel
physics Curie, Pierre France investigations of radiation phenomena discovered by Becquerel
physiology/
medicine Finsen, Niels Ryberg Denmark treatment of skin diseases with light
1904
chemistry Ramsay, Sir William U.K. discovery of inert gas elements and their places in the periodic system
literature Echegaray y Eizaguirre, José Spain dramatist
literature Mistral, Frédéric France poet
peace Institute of International Law (International Law, Institute of) (founded
1873)
physics Rayleigh (of Terling Place), John William Strutt, 3rd Baron (Rayleigh, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron) U.K. discovery of argon
physiology/
medicine Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich Russia work on the physiology of digestion
1905
chemistry Baeyer, Adolf von Germany work on organic dyes, hydroaromatic compounds
literature Sienkiewicz, Henryk Poland novelist
Hungary
physics Lenard, Philipp Germany research on cathode rays
physiology/
medicine Koch, Robert Germany tuberculosis research
1906
chemistry Moissan, Henri France isolation of fluorine; introduction of Moissan furnace
literature Carducci, Giosuè Italy poet
peace Roosevelt, Theodore U.S.
physics Thomson, Sir J.J. U.K. researches into electrical conductivity of gases
physiology/
medicine Golgi, Camillo Italy work on the structure of the nervous system
physiology/
medicine Ramón y Cajal, Santiago Spain work on the structure of the nervous system
1907
chemistry Buchner, Eduard Germany discovery of noncellular fermentation
literature Kipling, Rudyard U.K. poet, novelist
peace Renault, Louis France
physics Michelson, A.A. U.S. spectroscopic and metrological investigations
physiology/
medicine Laveran, Alphonse France discovery of the role of protozoa in diseases
1908
chemistry Rutherford, Ernest (Rutherford, Ernest, Baron Rutherford of Nelson, of Cambridge) U.K. investigations into the disintegration of elements and the chemistry of radioactive substances
literature Eucken, Rudolf Christoph Germany philosopher
peace Arnoldson, Klas Pontus Sweden
peace Bajer, Fredrik Denmark
physics Lippmann, Gabriel France photographic reproduction of colours
physiology/
medicine Ehrlich, Paul Germany work on immunity
physiology/
medicine Metchnikoff, Élie Russia work on immunity
1909
chemistry Ostwald, Wilhelm Germany pioneer work on catalysis, chemical equilibrium, and reaction velocities
literature Lagerlöf, Selma Sweden novelist
peace Estournelles de Constant, Paul-H.-B. d' France
physics Braun, Ferdinand Germany development of wireless telegraphy
physics Marconi, Guglielmo Italy development of wireless telegraphy
physiology/
medicine Kocher, Emil Theodor Switzerland physiology, pathology, and surgery of the thyroid gland
1910
chemistry Wallach, Otto Germany pioneer work in alicyclic combinations
literature Heyse, Paul Johann Ludwig von Germany poet, novelist, dramatist
peace International Peace Bureau (founded 1891)
Netherlands research concerning the equation of state of gases and liquids
physiology/
medicine Kossel, Albrecht Germany researches in cellular chemistry
1911–20
year category name country* achievement literary area
1911
chemistry Curie, Marie France discovery of radium and polonium; isolation of radium
literature Maeterlinck, Maurice Belgium dramatist
peace Asser, Tobias Michael Carel The Netherlands
peace Fried, Alfred Hermann Austria-
Hungary
physics Wien, Wilhelm Germany discoveries regarding laws governing heat radiation
physiology/
medicine Gullstrand, Allvar Sweden work on dioptrics of the eye
1912
chemistry Grignard, Victor France discovery of the Grignard reagents
chemistry Sabatier, Paul France method of hydrogenating
organic compounds
literature Hauptmann, Gerhart Germany dramatist
peace Root, Elihu U.S.
physics Dalén, Nils Sweden invention of automatic regulators for lighting coastal beacons and light buoys
physiology/
medicine Carrel, Alexis France work on vascular suture; transplantation of organs
1913
chemistry Werner, Alfred Switzerland work on the linkage of atoms in molecules
literature Tagore, Rabindranath India poet
peace Lafontaine, Henri-Marie Belgium
physics Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike The Netherlands investigation into the properties of matter at low temperatures; production of liquid helium
physiology/
medicine Richet, Charles France work on anaphylaxis
1914
chemistry Richards, Theodore William U.S. accurate determination of the atomic weights of numerous elements
physics Laue, Max von Germany discovery of diffraction of
X-rays by crystals
physiology/
medicine Bárány, Robert Austria-
Hungary work on vestibular apparatus
1915
chemistry Willstätter, Richard Germany pioneer researches in plant pigments, especially chlorophyll
literature Rolland, Romain France novelist
physics Bragg, Sir Lawrence U.K. analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays
physics Bragg, Sir William U.K. analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays
1916
literature Heidenstam, Verner von Sweden poet
1917
literature Gjellerup, Karl Adolph Denmark novelist
literature Pontoppidan, Henrik Denmark novelist
physics Barkla, Charles Glover U.K. discovery of characteristic
X-radiation of elements
1918
chemistry Haber, Fritz Germany synthesis of ammonia
literature Karlfeldt, Erik Axel (declined) Sweden poet
physics Planck, Max Germany discovery of the elemental quanta
1919
literature Spitteler, Carl Switzerland poet, novelist
peace Wilson, Woodrow U.S.
physics Stark, Johannes Germany discovery of Doppler effect in positive ion rays and division of spectral lines in electric field
physiology/
medicine Bordet, Jules Belgium work on immunity factors in blood serum
1920
chemistry Nernst, Walther Hermann Germany work in thermochemistry
literature Hamsun, Knut Norway novelist
peace Bourgeois, Léon France
physics Guillaume, Charles Édouard Switzerland discovery of anomalies in alloys
physiology/
medicine Krogh, August Denmark discovery of capillary motor-regulating mechanism
1921–30
year category name country* achievement literary area
1921
chemistry Soddy, Frederick U.K. chemistry of radioactive substances; occurrence and nature of isotopes
literature France, Anatole France novelist
peace Branting, Karl Hjalmar Sweden
peace Lange, Christian Lous Norway
physics Einstein, Albert Switzerland work in theoretical physics
1922
chemistry Aston, Francis William U.K. work with mass spectrograph; whole-number rule
literature Benavente y Martínez, Jacinto Spain dramatist
peace Nansen, Fridtjof Norway
physics Bohr, Niels Denmark investigation of atomic structure and radiation
physiology/
medicine Hill, A.V. U.K. discoveries concerning heat production in muscles
physiology/
medicine Meyerhof, Otto Germany work on metabolism of lactic acid in muscles
1923
chemistry Pregl, Fritz Austria method of microanalysis of organic substances
literature Yeats, William Butler Ireland poet
physics Millikan, Robert Andrews U.S. work on elementary electric charge and the photoelectric effect
physiology/
medicine Banting, Sir Frederick Grant Canada discovery of insulin
physiology/
medicine Macleod, J.J.R. U.K. discovery of insulin
1924
literature Reymont, Wladyslaw Stanislaw (Reymont, Władysław Stanisław) Poland novelist
physics Siegbahn, Karl Manne Georg Sweden work in X-ray spectroscopy
physiology/
medicine Einthoven, Willem The Netherlands discovery of electrocardiogram mechanism
1925
chemistry Zsigmondy, Richard Austria elucidation of the heterogeneous nature of colloidal solutions
literature Shaw, George Bernard Ireland dramatist
peace Dawes, Charles G. U.S.
physics Franck, James Germany discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom
physics Hertz, Gustav Germany discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom
1926
chemistry Svedberg, Theodor H.E. Sweden work on disperse systems
literature Deledda, Grazia Italy novelist
peace Briand, Aristide France
peace Stresemann, Gustav Germany
physics Perrin, Jean France work on discontinuous structure of matter
physiology/
medicine Fibiger, Johannes Denmark contributions to cancer research
1927
chemistry Wieland, Heinrich Otto Germany researches into the constitution of bile acids
literature Bergson, Henri France philosopher
peace Buisson, Ferdinand- Édouard (Buisson, Ferdinand-Édouard) France
peace Quidde, Ludwig Germany
physics Compton, Arthur Holly U.S. discovery of wavelength change in diffused X-rays
physics Wilson, C.T.R. U.K. method of making visible the paths of electrically charged particles
physiology/
medicine Wagner-Jauregg, Julius Austria work on malaria inoculation in dementia paralytica
1928
chemistry Windaus, Adolf Germany constitution of sterols and their connection with vitamins
literature Undset, Sigrid Norway novelist
physics Richardson, Sir Owen Willans U.K. work on electron emission by hot metals
physiology/
medicine Nicolle, Charles-Jules-Henri France work on typhus
1929
chemistry Euler-Chelpin, Hans von Sweden investigations in the fermentation of sugars and the enzyme action involved
chemistry Harden, Sir Arthur U.K. investigations in the fermentation of sugars and the enzyme action involved
literature Mann, Thomas Germany novelist
peace Kellogg, Frank B. U.S.
physics duc (duke) de (Broglie, Louis-Victor, 7e duc de) France discovery of the wave nature of electrons
physiology/
medicine Eijkman, Christiaan The Netherlands discovery of the antineuritic vitamin
physiology/
medicine Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland U.K. discovery of growth-stimulating vitamins
1930
chemistry Fischer, Hans Germany hemin, chlorophyll research; synthesis of hemin
literature Lewis, Sinclair U.S. novelist
peace Söderblom, Nathan Sweden
physics Raman, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata India work on light diffusion; discovery of Raman effect
physiology/
medicine Landsteiner, Karl U.S. grouping of human blood types
1931–40
year category name country* achievement literary area
1931
chemistry Bergius, Friedrich Germany invention and development of chemical high-pressure methods
chemistry Bosch, Carl Germany invention and development of chemical high-pressure methods
literature Karlfeldt, Erik Axel (posthumous award) Sweden poet
peace Addams, Jane U.S.
physiology/
medicine Warburg, Otto Germany discovery of nature and action of respiratory enzyme
1932
chemistry Langmuir, Irving U.S. discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry
literature Galsworthy, John U.K. novelist
physics Heisenberg, Werner Germany creation of quantum mechanics
physiology/
medicine Adrian (of Cambridge), Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron (Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron) U.K. discoveries regarding function of neurons
physiology/
medicine Sherrington, Sir Charles Scott U.K. discoveries regarding function of neurons
1933
literature Bunin, Ivan Alekseyevich U.S.S.R. poet, novelist
peace Angell, Sir Norman U.K.
physics Dirac, P.A.M. U.K. introduction of wave equations in quantum mechanics
physics Schrödinger, Erwin Austria introduction of wave equations
in quantum mechanics
physiology/
medicine Morgan, Thomas Hunt U.S. heredity transmission functions of chromosomes
1934
chemistry Urey, Harold C. U.S. discovery of heavy hydrogen
literature Pirandello, Luigi Italy dramatist
peace Henderson, Arthur U.K.
physiology/
medicine Minot, George Richards U.S. discoveries concerning liver
treatment for anemia
physiology/
medicine Murphy, William P. U.S. discoveries concerning liver treatment for anemia
physiology/
medicine Whipple, George H. U.S. discoveries concerning liver
treatment for anemia
1935
chemistry Joliot-Curie, Frédéric and Irène France synthesis of new radioactive elements
peace Ossietzky, Carl von Germany
physics Chadwick, Sir James U.K. discovery of the neutron
physiology/
medicine Spemann, Hans Germany organizer effect in embryo
1936
chemistry Debye, Peter The Netherlands work on dipole moments and diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases
literature O'Neill, Eugene Karlfeldt, Erik AxelU.S. dramatist
peace Saavedra Lamas, Carlos Argentina
physics Anderson, Carl David U.S. discovery of the positron
physics Hess, Victor Francis Austria discovery of cosmic radiation
physiology/
medicine Dale, Sir Henry U.K. work on chemical transmission
of nerve impulses
physiology/
medicine Loewi, Otto Germany work on chemical transmission of nerve impulses
1937
chemistry Haworth, Sir Norman U.K. research on carbohydrates and vitamin C
chemistry Karrer, Paul Switzerland research on carotenoids,
flavins, and vitamins
literature Martin du Gard, Roger France novelist
peace Cecil (of Chelwood), Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount (Cecil, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount) U.K.
physics Davisson, Clinton Joseph U.S. experimental demonstration of the interference phenomenon in crystals irradiated by electrons
physics Thomson, Sir George Paget U.K. experimental demonstration of the interference phenomenon in crystals irradiated by electrons
physiology/
medicine Szent-Györgyi, Albert Hungary work on biological combustion
1938
chemistry Kuhn, Richard (declined) Germany carotenoid and vitamin research
literature Buck, Pearl U.S. novelist
physics Fermi, Enrico Italy disclosure of artificial radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation
physiology/
medicine Heymans, Corneille Belgium discovery of role of sinus and aortic mechanisms in respiration regulation
1939
chemistry Butenandt, Adolf (declined) Germany work on sexual hormones
chemistry Ruzicka, Leopold (Ružička, Leopold) Switzerland work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes
literature Sillanpää, Frans Eemil Finland novelist
physics Lawrence, Ernest Orlando U.S. invention of the cyclotron
physiology/
medicine Domagk, Gerhard (declined) Germany antibacterial effect of Prontosil
1941–50
year category name country* achievement literary area
1943
chemistry Hevesy, Georg Charles von Hungary use of isotopes as tracers in chemical research
physics Stern, Otto U.S. discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton
physiology/
medicine Dam, Henrik Denmark discovery of vitamin K
physiology/
medicine Doisy, Edward Adelbert U.S. discovery of chemical nature of vitamin K
1944
chemistry Hahn, Otto Germany discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei
literature Jensen, Johannes V. Denmark novelist
peace International Committee of the Red Cross (founded 1863)
physics Rabi, Isidor Isaac U.S. resonance method for registration of various properties of atomic nuclei
physiology/
medicine Erlanger, Joseph U.S. researches on differentiated functions of nerve fibres
physiology/
medicine Gasser, Herbert Spencer U.S. researches on differentiated functions of nerve fibres
1945
chemistry Virtanen, Artturi Ilmari Finland invention of fodder preservation method
literature Mistral, Gabriela Chile poet
peace Hull, Cordell U.S.
physics Pauli, Wolfgang Austria discovery of the exclusion principle of electrons
physiology/
medicine Chain, Sir Ernst Boris U.K. discovery of penicillin and its curative value
physiology/
medicine Fleming, Sir Alexander U.K. discovery of penicillin and its curative value
physiology/
medicine Florey, Howard Walter Florey, Baron Australia discovery of penicillin and its curative value
1946
chemistry Northrop, John Howard U.S. preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form
chemistry Stanley, Wendell Meredith U.S. preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form
chemistry Sumner, James Batcheller U.S. discovery of enzyme crystallization
literature Hesse, Hermann Switzerland novelist
peace Balch, Emily Greene U.S.
peace Mott, John R. U.S.
physics Bridgman, Percy Williams U.S. discoveries in the domain of high-pressure physics
physiology/
medicine Muller, Hermann Joseph U.S. production of mutations by X-ray irradiation
1947
chemistry Robinson, Sir Robert U.K. investigation of alkaloids and other plant products
literature Gide, André France novelist, essayist
peace American Friends Service Committee U.S.
peace Friends Service Council (FSC) U.K.
physics Appleton, Sir Edward Victor U.K. discovery of Appleton layer in upper atmosphere
physiology/
medicine Cori, Carl and Gerty U.S. discovery of how glycogen is catalytically converted
physiology/
medicine Houssay, Bernardo Alberto Argentina pituitary hormone function in sugar metabolism
1948
chemistry Tiselius, Arne Sweden researches in electrophoresis and adsorption analysis; serum proteins
literature Eliot, T.S. U.K. poet, critic
physics Blackett, Patrick M.S. U.K. discoveries in the domain of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation
physiology/
medicine Müller, Paul Hermann Switzerland properties of DDT
1949
chemistry Giauque, William Francis U.S. behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures
literature Faulkner, William U.S. novelist
peace Boyd-Orr of Brechin Mearns, John Boyd Orr, Baron U.K.
physics Yukawa Hideki Japan prediction of the existence of mesons
physiology/
medicine Egas Moniz, António Portugal therapeutic value of leucotomy in psychoses
physiology/
medicine Hess, Walter Rudolf Switzerland discovery of function of interbrain
1950
chemistry Alder, Kurt West Germany discovery and development of diene synthesis
chemistry Diels, Otto Paul Hermann West Germany discovery and development of diene synthesis
literature Russell, Bertrand U.K. philosopher
peace Bunche, Ralph U.S.
physics Powell, Cecil Frank U.K. photographic method of studying nuclear processes; discoveries concerning mesons
physiology/
medicine Hench, Philip Showalter U.S. research on adrenal cortex hormones, their structure and biological effects
physiology/
medicine Kendall, Edward Calvin U.S. research on adrenal cortex hormones, their structure and biological effects
physiology/
medicine Reichstein, Tadeus Switzerland research on adrenal cortex hormones, their structure and biological effects
1951–60
year category name country* achievement literary area
1951
chemistry McMillan, Edwin Mattison U.S. discovery of and research on transuranium elements
chemistry Seaborg, Glenn T. U.S. discovery of and research on transuranium elements
literature Lagerkvist, Pär Sweden novelist
peace Jouhaux, Léon France
physics Cockcroft, Sir John Douglas U.K. work on transmutation of atomic nuclei by accelerated particles
physics Walton, Ernest Thomas Sinton Ireland work on transmutation of atomic nuclei by accelerated particles
physiology/
medicine Theiler, Max South Africa yellow fever discoveries
1952
chemistry Martin, A.J.P. U.K. development of partition chromatography
chemistry Synge, R.L.M. U.K. development of partition chromatography
literature Mauriac, François France poet, novelist, dramatist
peace Schweitzer, Albert Alsace
physics Bloch, Felix U.S. discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in solids
physics Purcell, E.M. U.S. discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in solids
physiology/
medicine Waksman, Selman Abraham U.S. discovery of streptomycin
1953
chemistry Staudinger, Hermann West Germany work on macromolecules
literature Churchill, Sir Winston U.K. historian, orator
peace Marshall, George C. (Marshall, George Catlett) U.S.
physics Zernike, Frits The Netherlands method of phase-contrast microscopy
physiology/
medicine Krebs, Sir Hans Adolf U.K. discovery of coenzyme A–citric acid cycle in metabolism of carbohydrates
physiology/
medicine Lipmann, Fritz Albert U.S. discovery of coenzyme A–citric acid cycle in metabolism of carbohydrates
1954
chemistry Pauling, Linus U.S. study of the nature of the chemical bond
literature Hemingway, Ernest U.S. novelist
physics Born, Max U.K. statistical studies of atomic wave functions
physics Bothe, Walther West Germany invention of coincidence method
physiology/
medicine Enders, John Franklin U.S. cultivation of the poliomyelitis virus in tissue cultures
physiology/
medicine Robbins, Frederick Chapman U.S. cultivation of the poliomyelitis virus in tissue cultures
physiology/
medicine Weller, Thomas H. U.S. cultivation of the poliomyelitis virus in tissue cultures
1955
chemistry du Vigneaud, Vincent U.S. first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone
literature Laxness, Halldór Iceland novelist
physics Kusch, Polykarp U.S. measurement of magnetic moment of electron
physics Lamb, Willis Eugene, Jr. U.S. discoveries in the hydrogen spectrum
physiology/
medicine Theorell, Axel Hugo Teodor Sweden nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes
1956
chemistry Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman U.K. work on the kinetics of chemical reactions
chemistry Semyonov, Nikolay Nikolayevich U.S.S.R. work on the kinetics of chemical reactions
literature Jiménez, Juan Ramón Spain poet
physics Bardeen, John U.S. investigations on semiconductors and invention of the transistor
physics Brattain, Walter H. U.S. investigations on semiconductors and invention of the transistor
physics Shockley, William B. U.S. investigations on semiconductors and invention of the transistor
physiology/
medicine Cournand, André F. U.S. discoveries concerning heart catheterization and circulatory changes
physiology/
medicine Forssmann, Werner West Germany discoveries concerning heart catheterization and circulatory changes
physiology/
medicine Richards, Dickinson Woodruff U.S. discoveries concerning heart catheterization and circulatory changes
1957
chemistry Todd (of Trumpington), Alexander Robertus Todd, Baron (Todd, Alexander Robertus Todd, Baron) U.K. work on nucleotides and nucleotide coenzymes
literature Camus, Albert France novelist, dramatist
peace Pearson, Lester B. Canada
physics Lee, Tsung-Dao China discovery of violations of the principle of parity
physics Yang, Chen Ning China discovery of violations of the principle of parity
physiology/
medicine Bovet, Daniel Italy production of synthetic curare
1958
chemistry Sanger, Frederick U.K. determination of the structure of the insulin molecule
literature Pasternak, Boris Leonidovich (declined) U.S.S.R. novelist, poet
peace Pire, Dominique Belgium
physics Cherenkov, Pavel Alekseyevich U.S.S.R. discovery and interpretation of the Cherenkov effect
physics Frank, Ilya Mikhaylovich U.S.S.R. discovery and interpretation of the Cherenkov effect
physics Tamm, Igor Yevgenyevich U.S.S.R. discovery and interpretation of the Cherenkov effect
physiology/
medicine Beadle, George Wells U.S. genetic regulation of chemical processes
physiology/
medicine Lederberg, Joshua U.S. genetic recombination
physiology/
medicine Tatum, Edward L. U.S. genetic regulation of chemical processes
1959
chemistry Heyrovský, Jaroslav Czech. discovery and development of polarography
literature Quasimodo, Salvatore Italy poet
peace Noel-Baker (of the City of Derby), Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron (Noel-Baker, Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron) U.K.
physics Chamberlain, Owen U.S. confirmation of the existence of the antiproton
physics Segrè, Emilio U.S. confirmation of the existence of the antiproton
physiology/
medicine Kornberg, Arthur U.S. work on producing nucleic acids artificially
physiology/
medicine Ochoa, Severo U.S. work on producing nucleic acids artificially
1960
chemistry Libby, Willard Frank U.S. development of radiocarbon dating
literature Saint-John Perse France poet
peace Luthuli, Albert John South Africa
physics Glaser, Donald A. U.S. development of the bubble chamber
physiology/
medicine Burnet, Sir Macfarlane Australia acquired immunity to tissue transplants
physiology/
medicine Medawar, Sir Peter B. U.K. acquired immunity to tissue transplants
1961–70
year category name country* achievement literary area
1961
chemistry Calvin, Melvin U.S. study of chemical steps that take place during photosynthesis
literature Andric, Ivo (Andrić, Ivo) Yugoslavia novelist
peace Hammarskjöld, Dag Sweden
physics Hofstadter, Robert U.S. determination of shape and size of atomic nucleons
physics Mössbauer, Rudolf Ludwig West Germany discovery of the Mössbauer effect
physiology/
medicine Békésy, Georg von U.S. functions of the inner ear
1962
chemistry Kendrew, Sir John Cowdery U.K. determination of the structure of hemoproteins
chemistry Perutz, Max Ferdinand U.K. determination of the structure of hemoproteins
literature Steinbeck, John U.S. novelist
peace Pauling, Linus U.S.
physics Landau, Lev Davidovich U.S.S.R. contributions to the understanding of condensed states of matter
physiology/
medicine Crick, Francis Harry Compton U.K. discoveries concerning the molecular structure of DNA
physiology/
medicine Watson, James Dewey U.S. discoveries concerning the molecular structure of DNA
physiology/
medicine Wilkins, Maurice U.K. discoveries concerning the molecular structure of DNA
1963
chemistry Natta, Giulio Italy structure and synthesis of polymers in the field of plastics
chemistry Ziegler, Karl West Germany structure and synthesis of polymers in the field of plastics
literature Seferis, George Greece poet
physics Jensen, J. Hans D. West Germany development of shell model theory of the structure of the atomic nuclei
physics Mayer, Maria Goeppert U.S. development of shell model theory of the structure of the atomic nuclei
physics Wigner, Eugene Paul U.S. principles governing interaction of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
physiology/
medicine Eccles, Sir John Carew Australia study of the transmission of impulses along a nerve fibre
physiology/
medicine Hodgkin, Sir Alan U.K. study of the transmission of impulses along a nerve fibre
physiology/
medicine Huxley, Sir Andrew Fielding U.K. study of the transmission of impulses along a nerve fibre
1964
chemistry Hodgkin, Dorothy Mary Crowfoot (Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot) U.K. determining the structure of biochemical compounds essential in combating pernicious anemia
literature Sartre, Jean-Paul (declined) France philosopher, dramatist
physics Basov, Nikolay Gennadiyevich U.S.S.R. work in quantum electronics leading to construction of instruments based on maser-laser principles
physics Prokhorov, Aleksandr Mikhaylovich U.S.S.R. work in quantum electronics leading to construction of instruments based on maser-laser principles
physics Townes, Charles Hard U.S. work in quantum electronics leading to construction of instruments based on maser-laser principles
physiology/
medicine Bloch, Konrad (Bloch, Konrad E.) U.S. discoveries concerning cholesterol and fatty-acid metabolism
physiology/
medicine Lynen, Feodor West Germany discoveries concerning cholesterol and fatty-acid metabolism
1965
chemistry Woodward, R.B. (Woodward, Robert Burns) U.S. synthesis of sterols, chlorophyll, and other substances
literature Sholokhov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich U.S.S.R. novelist
peace United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (founded 1946)
physics Feynman, Richard P. U.S. basic principles of quantum electrodynamics
physics Schwinger, Julian Seymour U.S. basic principles of quantum electrodynamics
physics Tomonaga Shin'ichiro (Tomonaga Shin'ichirō) Japan basic principles of quantum electrodynamics
physiology/
medicine Jacob, François France discoveries concerning regulatory activities of the body cells
physiology/
medicine Lwoff, André France discoveries concerning regulatory activities of the body cells
physiology/
medicine Monod, Jacques France discoveries concerning regulatory activities of the body cells
1966
chemistry Mulliken, Robert Sanderson U.S. work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules
literature Agnon, S.Y. Israel novelist
literature Sachs, Nelly Sweden poet
physics Kastler, Alfred France discovery of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms
physiology/
medicine Huggins, Charles B. U.S. research on causes and treatment of cancer
physiology/
medicine Rous, Peyton U.S. research on causes and treatment of cancer
1967
chemistry Eigen, Manfred West Germany studies of extremely fast chemical reactions
chemistry Norrish, Ronald George Wreyford U.K. studies of extremely fast chemical reactions
chemistry Porter, Sir George (Porter, Sir George, Baron Porter of Luddenham) U.K. studies of extremely fast chemical reactions
literature Asturias, Miguel Ángel Guatemala novelist
physics Bethe, Hans Albrecht (Bethe, Hans) U.S. discoveries concerning the energy production of stars
physiology/
medicine Granit, Ragnar Arthur Sweden discoveries about chemical and physiological visual processes in the eye
physiology/
medicine Hartline, Haldan Keffer U.S. discoveries about chemical and physiological visual processes in the eye
physiology/
medicine Wald, George U.S. discoveries about chemical and physiological visual processes in the eye
1968
chemistry Onsager, Lars U.S. work on theory of thermodynamics of irreversible processes
literature Kawabata Yasunari Japan novelist
peace Cassin, René France
physics Alvarez, Luis W. U.S. work with elementary particles, discovery of resonance states
physiology/
medicine Holley, Robert William U.S. deciphering of the genetic code
physiology/
medicine Khorana, Har Gobind U.S. deciphering of the genetic code
physiology/
medicine Nirenberg, Marshall William (Nirenberg, Marshall Warren) U.S. deciphering of the genetic code
1969
chemistry Barton, Sir Derek H.R. U.K. work in determining actual three-dimensional shape of molecules
chemistry Hassel, Odd Norway work in determining actual three-dimensional shape of molecules
economics Frisch, Ragnar Norway work in econometrics
economics Tinbergen, Jan The Netherlands work in econometrics
literature Beckett, Samuel Ireland novelist, dramatist
peace International Labour Organisation (International Labour Organization) (founded 1919)
physics Gell-Mann, Murray U.S. classification of elementary particles and their interactions
physiology/
medicine Delbrück, Max U.S. research and discoveries concerning viruses and viral diseases
physiology/
medicine Hershey, A.D. U.S. research and discoveries concerning viruses and viral diseases
physiology/
medicine Luria, Salvador U.S. research and discoveries concerning viruses and viral diseases
1970
chemistry Leloir, Luis Federico Argentina discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates
economics Samuelson, Paul U.S. work in scientific analysis of economic theory
literature Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich U.S.S.R. novelist
physics Alfvén, Hannes Sweden work in magnetohydrodynamics and in antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism
physics Néel, Louis-Eugène-Félix France work in magnetohydrodynamics and in antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism
physiology/
medicine Axelrod, Julius U.S. discoveries concerning the chemistry of nerve transmission
physiology/
medicine Euler, Ulf von Sweden discoveries concerning the chemistry of nerve transmission
physiology/
medicine Katz, Sir Bernard U.K. discoveries concerning the chemistry of nerve transmission
1971–80
year category name country* achievement literary area
1971
chemistry Herzberg, Gerhard Canada research in the structure of molecules
economics Kuznets, Simon U.S. extensive research on the economic growth of nations
literature Neruda, Pablo Chile poet
peace Brandt, Willy West Germany
physics Gabor, Dennis U.K. invention of holography
physiology/
medicine Sutherland, Earl W., Jr. U.S. action of hormones
1972
chemistry Anfinsen, Christian B. U.S. fundamental contributions to enzyme chemistry
chemistry Moore, Stanford U.S. fundamental contributions to enzyme chemistry
chemistry Stein, William H. U.S. fundamental contributions to enzyme chemistry
economics Arrow, Kenneth J. U.S. contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory
economics Hicks, Sir John R. U.K. contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory
literature Böll, Heinrich West Germany novelist
physics Bardeen, John U.S. development of the theory of superconductivity
physics Cooper, Leon N. U.S. development of the theory of superconductivity
physics Schrieffer, John Robert U.S. development of the theory of superconductivity
physiology/
medicine Edelman, Gerald Maurice U.S. research on the chemical structure of antibodies
physiology/
medicine Porter, Rodney Robert U.K. research on the chemical structure of antibodies
1973
chemistry Fischer, Ernst Otto West Germany organometallic chemistry
chemistry Wilkinson, Sir Geoffrey U.K. organometallic chemistry
economics Leontief, Wassily U.S. input-output analysis
literature White, Patrick Australia novelist
peace Kissinger, Henry A. U.S.
peace Le Duc Tho (declined) North Vietnam
physics Esaki, Leo Japan tunneling in semiconductors and superconductors
physics Giaever, Ivar U.S. tunneling in semiconductors and superconductors
physics Josephson, Brian D. U.K. tunneling in semiconductors and superconductors
physiology/
medicine Frisch, Karl von Austria discoveries in animal behaviour patterns
physiology/
medicine Lorenz, Konrad Austria discoveries in animal behaviour patterns
physiology/
medicine Tinbergen, Nikolaas U.K. discoveries in animal behaviour patterns
1974
chemistry Flory, Paul J. U.S. studies of long-chain molecules
economics Hayek, Friedrich von (Hayek, F.A.) U.K. pioneering analysis of the interdependence of economic, social, and institutional phenomena
economics Myrdal, Gunnar Sweden pioneering analysis of the interdependence of economic, social, and institutional phenomena
literature Johnson, Eyvind Sweden novelist
literature Martinson, Harry Sweden novelist, poet
peace MacBride, Seán Ireland
peace Sato Eisaku (Satō Eisaku) Japan
physics Hewish, Antony U.K. work in radio astronomy
physics Ryle, Sir Martin U.K. work in radio astronomy
physiology/
medicine Claude, Albert U.S. research on structural and functional organization of cells
physiology/
medicine Duve, Christian René de Belgium research on structural and functional organization of cells
physiology/
medicine Palade, George E. U.S. research on structural and functional organization of cells
1975
chemistry Cornforth, Sir John Warcup (Cornforth, Sir John) U.K. work in stereochemistry
chemistry Prelog, Vladimir Switzerland work in stereochemistry
economics Kantorovich, Leonid Vitalyevich U.S.S.R. contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources
economics Koopmans, Tjalling C. U.S. contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources
literature Montale, Eugenio Italy poet
physics Bohr, Aage N. Denmark work on the atomic nucleus that paved the way for nuclear fusion
physics Mottelson, Ben R. Denmark work on the atomic nucleus that paved the way for nuclear fusion
physics Rainwater, James U.S. work on the atomic nucleus that paved the way for nuclear fusion
physiology/
medicine Baltimore, David U.S. interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell
physiology/
medicine Dulbecco, Renato U.S. interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell
physiology/
medicine Temin, Howard Martin U.S. interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell
1976
chemistry Lipscomb, William Nunn, Jr. U.S. structure of boranes
economics Friedman, Milton U.S. consumption analysis, monetary theory, and economic stabilization
literature Bellow, Saul U.S. novelist
peace Corrigan, Mairéad (Corrigan-Maguire, Mairéad) Northern Ireland
peace Williams, Betty Northern Ireland
physics Richter, Burton U.S. discovery of new class of elementary particles (psi, or J)
physics Ting, Samuel C.C. U.S. discovery of new class of elementary particles (psi, or J)
physiology/
medicine Blumberg, Baruch S. U.S. studies of origin and spread of infectious diseases
physiology/
medicine Gajdusek, D. Carleton U.S. studies of origin and spread of infectious diseases
1977
chemistry Prigogine, Ilya Belgium widening the scope of thermodynamics
economics Meade, James Edward U.K. contributions to theory of international trade
economics Ohlin, Bertil Sweden contributions to theory of international trade
literature Aleixandre, Vicente Spain poet
peace Amnesty International (founded 1961)
physics Anderson, Philip W. U.S. contributions to understanding the behaviour of electrons in magnetic, noncrystalline solids
physics Mott, Sir Nevill F. U.K. contributions to understanding the behaviour of electrons in magnetic, noncrystalline solids
physics Van Vleck, John H. U.S. contributions to understanding the behaviour of electrons in magnetic, noncrystalline solids
physiology/
medicine Guillemin, Roger Charles Louis U.S. research on pituitary hormones
physiology/
medicine Schally, Andrew Victor (Schally, Andrew V.) U.S. research on pituitary hormones
physiology/
medicine Yalow, Rosalyn S. U.S. development of radioimmunoassay
1978
chemistry Mitchell, Peter Dennis U.K. formulation of a theory of energy transfer processes in biological systems
economics Simon, Herbert Alexander (Simon, Herbert A.) U.S. decision-making processes in economic organizations
literature Singer, Isaac Bashevis U.S. novelist
peace Begin, Menachem Israel
peace Sadat, Anwar el- (Sādāt, Anwar el-) Egypt
physics Kapitsa, Pyotr Leonidovich U.S.S.R. invention and application of helium liquefier
physics Penzias, Arno U.S. discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation, providing support for the big-bang theory
physics Wilson, Robert Woodrow U.S. discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation, providing support for the big-bang theory
physiology/
medicine Arber, Werner Switzerland discovery and application of enzymes that fragment DNA
physiology/
medicine Nathans, Daniel U.S. discovery and application of enzymes that fragment DNA
physiology/
medicine Smith, Hamilton Othanel U.S. discovery and application of enzymes that fragment DNA
1979
chemistry Brown, Herbert Charles U.S. introduction of compounds of boron and phosphorus in the synthesis of organic substances
chemistry Wittig, Georg West Germany introduction of compounds of boron and phosphorus in the synthesis of organic substances
economics Lewis, Sir Arthur U.K. analyses of economic processes in developing nations
economics Schultz, Theodore William U.S. analyses of economic processes in developing nations
literature Elytis, Odysseus Greece poet
peace Teresa, Mother (Teresa, Blessed Mother) India
physics Glashow, Sheldon Lee U.S. unification of electromagnetism and the weak interactions of subatomic particles
physics Salam, Abdus Pakistan unification of electromagnetism and the weak interactions of subatomic particles
physics Weinberg, Steven U.S. unification of electromagnetism and the weak interactions of subatomic particles
physiology/
medicine Cormack, Allan MacLeod U.S. development of the CAT scan
physiology/
medicine Hounsfield, Sir Godfrey Newbold U.K. development of the CAT scan
1980
chemistry Berg, Paul U.S. first preparation of a hybrid DNA
chemistry Gilbert, Walter U.S. development of chemical and biological analyses of DNA structure
chemistry Sanger, Frederick U.K. development of chemical and biological analyses of DNA structure
economics Klein, Lawrence Robert U.S. development and analysis of empirical models of business fluctuations
literature Milosz, Czeslaw (Miłosz, Czesław) U.S. poet
peace Pérez Esquivel, Adolfo Argentina
physics Cronin, James Watson U.S. demonstration of simultaneous violation of both charge-conjugation and parity-inversion symmetries
physics Fitch, Val Logsdon U.S. demonstration of simultaneous violation of both charge-conjugation and parity-inversion symmetries
physiology/
medicine Benacerraf, Baruj U.S. investigations of genetic control of the response of the immune system to foreign substances
physiology/
medicine
Gabriel-Joachim (Dausset, Jean) France investigations of genetic control of the response of the immune system to foreign substances
physiology/
medicine Snell, George Davis U.S. investigations of genetic control of the response of the immune system to foreign substances
1981–90
year category name country* achievement literary area
1981
chemistry Fukui Kenichi Japan orbital symmetry interpretation of chemical reactions
chemistry Hoffmann, Roald U.S. orbital symmetry interpretation of chemical reactions
economics Tobin, James U.S. portfolio selection theory of investment
literature Canetti, Elias Bulgaria novelist, essayist
physics Bloembergen, Nicolaas U.S. applications of lasers in spectroscopy
physics Schawlow, Arthur Leonard (Schawlow, Arthur L.) U.S. applications of lasers in spectroscopy
physics Siegbahn, Kai Manne Börje Sweden electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
physiology/
medicine Hubel, David Hunter U.S. processing of visual information by the brain
physiology/
medicine Sperry, Roger Wolcott U.S. functions of the cerebral hemispheres
physiology/
medicine Wiesel, Torsten Nils Sweden processing of visual information by the brain
1982
chemistry Klug, Aaron U.K. determination of structure of biological substances
economics Stigler, George J. U.S. economic effects of governmental regulation
literature García Márquez, Gabriel Colombia novelist, journalist, social critic
peace Myrdal, Alva (Myrdal, Alva Reimer) Sweden
physics Wilson, Kenneth Geddes U.S. analysis of continuous phase transitions
physiology/
medicine Bergström, Sune K. Sweden biochemistry and physiology of prostaglandins
physiology/
medicine Samuelsson, Bengt Ingemar Sweden biochemistry and physiology of prostaglandins
physiology/
medicine Vane, John Robert (Vane, Sir John Robert) U.K. biochemistry and physiology of prostaglandins
1983
chemistry Taube, Henry U.S. study of electron transfer reactions
economics Debreu, Gerard U.S. mathematical proof of supply and demand theory
literature Golding, Sir William U.K. novelist
peace Walesa, Lech (Wałęsa, Lech) Poland
physics Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan U.S. contributions to understanding the evolution and devolution of stars
physics Fowler, William A. U.S. contributions to understanding the evolution and devolution of stars
physiology/
medicine McClintock, Barbara U.S. discovery of mobile plant genes that affect heredity
1984
chemistry Merrifield, Bruce U.S. development of a method of polypeptide synthesis
economics Stone, Sir Richard U.K. development of national income accounting system
literature Seifert, Jaroslav Czech. poet
peace Tutu, Desmond South Africa
physics Meer, Simon van der The Netherlands discovery of subatomic particles W and Z, which supports the electroweak theory
physics Rubbia, Carlo Italy discovery of subatomic particles W and Z, which supports the electroweak theory
physiology/
medicine Jerne, Niels K. U.K.-Denmark theory and development of a technique for producing monoclonal antibodies
physiology/
medicine Köhler, Georges J.F. West Germany theory and development of a technique for producing monoclonal antibodies
physiology/
medicine Milstein, César Argentina theory and development of a technique for producing monoclonal antibodies
1985
chemistry Hauptman, Herbert A. U.S. development of a way to map the chemical structures of small molecules
chemistry Karle, Jerome U.S. development of a way to map the chemical structures of small molecules
economics Modigliani, Franco U.S. analyses of household savings and financial markets
literature Simon, Claude France novelist
physics Klitzing, Klaus von West Germany discovery of the quantized Hall effect, permitting exact measurements of electrical resistance
physiology/
medicine Brown, Michael S. U.S. discovery of cell receptors relating to cholesterol metabolism
physiology/
medicine Goldstein, Joseph L. U.S. discovery of cell receptors relating to cholesterol metabolism
1986
chemistry Herschbach, Dudley R. U.S. development of methods for analyzing basic chemical reactions
chemistry Lee, Yuan T. U.S. development of methods for analyzing basic chemical reactions
chemistry Polanyi, John C. Canada development of methods for analyzing basic chemical reactions
economics Buchanan, James M. U.S. public-choice theory bridging economics and political science
literature Soyinka, Wole Nigeria playwright, poet
peace Wiesel, Elie U.S.
physics Binnig, Gerd West Germany development of special electron microscopes
physics Rohrer, Heinrich Switzerland development of special electron microscopes
physics Ruska, Ernst West Germany development of special electron microscopes
physiology/
medicine Cohen, Stanley U.S. discovery of chemical agents that help regulate the growth of cells
physiology/
medicine Levi-Montalcini, Rita Italy discovery of chemical agents that help regulate the growth of cells
1987
chemistry Cram, Donald J. U.S. development of molecules that can link with other molecules
chemistry Lehn, Jean-Marie France development of molecules that can link with other molecules
chemistry Pedersen, Charles J. U.S. development of molecules that can link with other molecules
economics Solow, Robert Merton (Solow, Robert M.) U.S. contributions to the theory of economic growth
literature Brodsky, Joseph U.S. poet, essayist
peace Arias Sánchez, Oscar Costa Rica
physics Bednorz, J. Georg West Germany discovery of new superconducting materials
physics Müller, Karl Alex Switzerland discovery of new superconducting materials
physiology/
medicine Tonegawa Susumu Japan study of genetic aspects of antibodies
1988
chemistry Deisenhofer, Johann West Germany discovery of structure of proteins needed in photosynthesis
chemistry Huber, Robert West Germany discovery of structure of proteins needed in photosynthesis
chemistry Michel, Hartmut West Germany discovery of structure of proteins needed in photosynthesis
economics Allais, Maurice France contributions to the theory of markets and efficient use of resources
literature Mahfouz, Naguib Egypt novelist
physics Lederman, Leon Max U.S. research in subatomic particles
physics Schwartz, Melvin U.S. research in subatomic particles
physics Steinberger, Jack U.S. research in subatomic particles
physiology/
medicine Black, Sir James U.K. development of new classes of drugs for combating disease
physiology/
medicine Elion, Gertrude Belle (Elion, Gertrude B.) U.S. development of new classes of drugs for combating disease
physiology/
medicine Hitchings, George Herbert U.S. development of new classes of drugs for combating disease
1989
chemistry Altman, Sidney U.S. discovery of certain basic properties of RNA
chemistry Cech, Thomas Robert U.S. discovery of certain basic properties of RNA
economics Haavelmo, Trygve Norway development of statistical techniques for economic forecasting
literature Cela, Camilo José Spain novelist
peace Dalai Lama Tibet
physics Dehmelt, Hans Georg U.S. development of methods to isolate atoms and subatomic particles for study
physics Paul, Wolfgang West Germany development of methods to isolate atoms and subatomic particles for study
physics Ramsey, Norman Foster U.S. development of the atomic clock
physiology/
medicine Bishop, J. Michael U.S. study of cancer-causing genes called oncogenes
physiology/
medicine Varmus, Harold U.S. study of cancer-causing genes called oncogenes
1990
chemistry Corey, Elias James U.S. development of retrosynthetic analysis for synthesis of complex molecules
economics Markowitz, Harry M. U.S. study of financial markets and investment decision making
economics Miller, Merton H. U.S. study of financial markets and investment decision making
economics Sharpe, William F. U.S. study of financial markets and investment decision making
literature Paz, Octavio Mexico poet, essayist
peace Gorbachev, Mikhail U.S.S.R.
physics Friedman, Jerome Isaac U.S. discovery of atomic quarks
physics Kendall, Henry Way (Kendall, Henry) U.S. discovery of atomic quarks
physics Taylor, Richard E. Canada discovery of atomic quarks
physiology/
medicine Murray, Joseph E. U.S. development of kidney and bone-marrow transplants
physiology/
medicine Thomas, E. Donnall U.S. development of kidney and bone-marrow transplants
1991–2000
year category name country* achievement literary area
1991
chemistry Ernst, Richard R. Switzerland improvements in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
economics Coase, Ronald U.S. application of economic principles to the study of law
literature Gordimer, Nadine South Africa novelist
peace Aung San Suu Kyi Myanmar
physics Gennes, Pierre-Gilles de France discovery of general rules for behaviour of molecules
physiology/
medicine Neher, Erwin Germany discovery of how cells communicate, as related to diseases
physiology/
medicine Sakmann, Bert Germany discovery of how cells communicate, as related to diseases
1992
chemistry Marcus, Rudolph A. U.S. explanation of how electrons transfer between molecules
economics Becker, Gary S. U.S. application of economic theory to social sciences
literature Walcott, Derek St. Lucia poet
peace Menchú, Rigoberta Guatemala
physics Charpak, Georges France inventor of detector that traces subatomic particles
physiology/
medicine Fischer, Edmond H. U.S. discovery of class of enzymes called protein kinases
physiology/
medicine Krebs, Edwin Gerhard U.S. discovery of class of enzymes called protein kinases
1993
chemistry Mullis, Kary B. U.S. inventors of techniques for gene study and manipulation
chemistry Smith, Michael Canada inventors of techniques for gene study and manipulation
economics Fogel, Robert William U.S. contributions to economic history
economics North, Douglass C. U.S. contributions to economic history
literature Morrison, Toni U.S. novelist
peace de Klerk, F.W. South Africa
peace Mandela, Nelson South Africa
physics Hulse, Russell Alan U.S. identifying binary pulsars
physics Taylor, Joseph H., Jr. U.S. identifying binary pulsars
physiology/
medicine Roberts, Richard J. U.K. discovery of "split," or interrupted, genetic structure
physiology/
medicine Sharp, Phillip A. U.S. discovery of "split," or interrupted, genetic structure
1994
chemistry Olah, George A. U.S. development of techniques to study hydrocarbon molecules
economics Harsanyi, John C. U.S. development of game theory
economics Nash, John F. (Nash, John F., Jr.) U.S. development of game theory
economics Selten, Reinhard Germany development of game theory
literature Oe Kenzaburo (Ōe Kenzaburō) Japan novelist
peace Arafat, Yasir (Arafāt, Yāsirʿ) Palestinian
peace Peres, Shimon Israel
peace Rabin, Yitzhak Israel
physics Brockhouse, Bertram N. Canada development of neutron-scattering techniques
physics Shull, Clifford G. U.S. development of neutron-scattering techniques
physiology/
medicine Gilman, Alfred G. U.S. discovery of cell signalers called G-proteins
physiology/
medicine Rodbell, Martin U.S. discovery of cell signalers called G-proteins
1995
chemistry Crutzen, Paul The Netherlands explanation of processes that deplete Earth's ozone layer
chemistry Molina, Mario U.S. explanation of processes that deplete Earth's ozone layer
chemistry Rowland, F. Sherwood U.S. explanation of processes that deplete Earth's ozone layer
economics Lucas, Robert E., Jr. U.S. incorporation of rational expectations in macroeconomic theory
literature Heaney, Seamus Ireland poet
peace Pugwash Conferences (founded 1957)
peace Rotblat, Joseph (Rotblat, Sir Joseph) U.K.
physics Perl, Martin Lewis U.S. discovery of tau subatomic particle
physics Reines, Frederick U.S. discovery of neutrino subatomic particle
physiology/
medicine Lewis, Edward B. U.S. identification of genes that control the body's early structural development
physiology/
medicine Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane Germany identification of genes that control the body's early structural development
physiology/
medicine Wieschaus, Eric F. U.S. identification of genes that control the body's early structural development
1996
chemistry Curl, Robert F., Jr. U.S. discovery of new carbon compounds called fullerenes
chemistry Kroto, Sir Harold W. U.K. discovery of new carbon compounds called fullerenes
chemistry Smalley, Richard E. U.S. discovery of new carbon compounds called fullerenes
economics Mirrlees, James A. U.K. contributions to theory of incentives under conditions of asymmetric information
economics Vickrey, William U.S. contributions to theory of incentives under conditions of asymmetric information
literature Szymborska, Wislawa (Szymborska, Wisława) Poland poet
peace Belo, Carlos Felipe Ximenes (Belo, Carlos Filipe Ximenes) Timorese
peace Ramos-Horta, José Timorese
physics Lee, David M. U.S. discovery of superfluidity in isotope helium-3
physics Osheroff, Douglas D. U.S. discovery of superfluidity in isotope helium-3
physics Richardson, Robert C. U.S. discovery of superfluidity in isotope helium-3
physiology/
medicine Doherty, Peter C. Australia discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells
physiology/
medicine Zinkernagel, Rolf M. Switzerland discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells
1997
chemistry Boyer, Paul D. U.S. explanation of the enzymatic conversion of adenosine triphosphate
chemistry Skou, Jens C. Denmark discovery of sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase
chemistry Walker, John E. U.K. explanation of the enzymatic conversion of adenosine triphosphate
economics Merton, Robert C. U.S. methods for determining the value of stock options and other derivatives
economics Scholes, Myron S. U.S. methods for determining the value of stock options and other derivatives
literature Fo, Dario Italy playwright, actor
peace Williams, Jody U.S.
physics Chu, Steven U.S. process of trapping atoms with laser cooling
physics Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude France process of trapping atoms with laser cooling
physics Phillips, William D. U.S. process of trapping atoms with laser cooling
physiology/
medicine Prusiner, Stanley B. U.S. discovery of the prion, a type of disease-causing protein
1998
chemistry Kohn, Walter U.S. development of the density-functional theory
chemistry Pople, John A. (Pople, Sir John A.) U.K. development of computational methods in quantum chemistry
economics Sen, Amartya India contribution to welfare economics
literature Saramago, José Portugal novelist
peace Hume, John Northern Ireland
peace Trimble, David Northern Ireland
physics Laughlin, Robert B. U.S. discovery of fractional quantum Hall effect
physics Störmer, Horst L. U.S. discovery of fractional quantum Hall effect
physics Tsui, Daniel C. U.S. discovery of fractional quantum Hall effect
physiology/
medicine Furchgott, Robert F. U.S. discovery that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system
physiology/
medicine Ignarro, Louis J. U.S. discovery that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system
physiology/
medicine Murad, Ferid U.S. discovery that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system
1999
chemistry Zewail, Ahmed H. Egypt/U.S. study of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy
economics Mundell, Robert A. Canada analysis of optimum currency areas and of policy under different exchange rate regimes
literature Grass, Günter Germany novelist
peace Doctors Without Borders (founded 1971)
physics Hooft, Gerardus 't The Netherlands study of quantum structure of electroweak interactions
physics Veltman, Martinus J.G. The Netherlands study of quantum structure of electroweak interactions
physiology/
medicine Blobel, Günter U.S. discovery that proteins have signals governing cellular organization
2000
chemistry Heeger, Alan J. U.S. discovery of plastics that conduct electricity
chemistry MacDiarmid, Alan G. U.S. discovery of plastics that conduct electricity
chemistry Shirakawa Hideki Japan discovery of plastics that conduct electricity
economics Heckman, James J. U.S. development of methods of statistical analysis of individual and household behaviour
economics McFadden, Daniel L. U.S. development of methods of statistical analysis of individual and household behaviour
literature Gao Xingjian France novelist, playwright
peace Kim Dae Jung South Korea
physics Alferov, Zhores I. (Alferov, Zhores) Russia development of fast semiconductors for use in microelectronics
physics Kilby, Jack S. (Kilby, Jack) U.S. development of the integrated circuit (microchip)
physics Kroemer, Herbert Germany development of fast semiconductors for use in microelectronics
physiology/
medicine Carlsson, Arvid Sweden discovery of how signals are transmitted between nerve cells in the brain
physiology/
medicine Greengard, Paul U.S. discovery of how signals are transmitted between nerve cells in the brain
physiology/
medicine Kandel, Eric R. (Kandel, Eric) U.S. discovery of how signals are transmitted between nerve cells in the brain
2001–07
year category name country* achievement literary area
2001
chemistry Knowles, William S. U.S. work on chirally catalyzed hydrogenation reactions
chemistry Noyori Ryoji (Noyori Ryōji) Japan work on chirally catalyzed hydrogenation reactions
chemistry Sharpless, K. Barry U.S. work on chirally catalyzed oxidation reactions
economics Akerlof, George A. U.S. analysis of markets with asymmetric information
economics Spence, A. Michael U.S. analysis of markets with asymmetric information
economics Stiglitz, Joseph E. U.S. analysis of markets with asymmetric information
literature Naipaul, Sir V.S. Trinidad novelist
peace United Nations (founded 1945)
peace Annan, Kofi Ghana
physics Cornell, Eric A. U.S. achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms; early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates
physics Ketterle, Wolfgang Germany achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms; early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates
physics Wieman, Carl E. U.S. achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms; early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates
● physiology/
● medicine
Hartwell, Leland H. U.S. discovery of key regulators of the cell cycle
● physiology/
● medicine
Hunt, R. Timothy U.K. discovery of key regulators of the cell cycle
● physiology/
● medicine
Nurse, Sir Paul M. U.K. discovery of key regulators of the cell cycle
2002
chemistry Fenn, John B. U.S. development of techniques to identify and analyze proteins and other large molecules
chemistry Tanaka Koichi Japan development of techniques to identify and analyze proteins and other large molecules
chemistry Wüthrich, Kurt Switzerland development of techniques to identify and analyze proteins and other large molecules
economics Kahneman, Daniel U.S./Israel integration of psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision making under uncertainty
economics Smith, Vernon L. U.S. establishment of laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis
literature Kertész, Imre Hungary novelist
peace Carter, Jimmy U.S.
physics Davis, Raymond, Jr. U.S. detection of neutrinos
physics Giacconi, Riccardo U.S. seminal discoveries of cosmic sources of X-rays
physics Koshiba Masatoshi Japan detection of neutrinos
● physiology/
● medicine
Brenner, Sydney U.K. discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death (apoptosis)
● physiology/
● medicine
Horvitz, H. Robert U.S. discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death (apoptosis)
● physiology/
● medicine
Sulston, John E. U.K. discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death (apoptosis)
2003
chemistry Agre, Peter U.S. discoveries regarding water channels and ion channels in cells
chemistry MacKinnon, Roderick U.S. discoveries regarding water channels and ion channels in cells
economics Engle, Robert F. U.S. development of techniques for the analysis of time series data
economics Granger, Clive W.J. U.K. development of techniques for the analysis of time series data
literature Coetzee, J.M. South Africa novelist
peace Ebadi, Shirin (Maathai, Wangari) Iran
physics Abrikosov, Alexei A. (Abrikosov, Alexey A.) U.S. discoveries regarding superconductivity and superfluidity at very low temperatures
physics Ginzburg, Vitaly L. (Ginzburg, Vitaly Lazarevich) Russia discoveries regarding superconductivity and superfluidity at very low temperatures
physics Leggett, Anthony J. U.S. discoveries regarding superconductivity and superfluidity at very low temperatures
● physiology/
● medicine
Lauterbur, Paul U.S. development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
● physiology/
● medicine
Mansfield, Sir Peter U.K. development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
2004
chemistry Ciechanover, Aaron (Ciechanover, Aaron J.) Israel discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
chemistry Hershko, Avram Israel discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
chemistry Rose, Irwin U.S. discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
economics Kydland, Finn E. Norway contributions to dynamic macroeconomics
economics Prescott, Edward C. U.S. contributions to dynamic macroeconomics
literature Jelinek, Elfriede Austria novelist, playwright
peace Maathai, Wangari Kenya
● physiology/
● medicine
Axel, Richard U.S. discovery of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
● physiology/
● medicine
Buck, Linda B. U.S. discovery of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
physics Gross, David J. U.S. discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
physics Politzer, H. David U.S. discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
physics Wilczek, Frank U.S. discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
2005
chemistry Chauvin, Yves France development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis
chemistry Grubbs, Robert H. U.S. development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis
chemistry Schrock, Richard R. U.S. development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis
economics Aumann, Robert J. Israel contributions to game-theory analysis
economics Schelling, Thomas C. U.S. contributions to game-theory analysis
literature Pinter, Harold U.K. playwright
peace ElBaradei, Mohamed Egypt
peace International Atomic Energy Agency (founded 1957)
physics Glauber, Roy J. U.S. contributions to the field of optics
physics Hall, John L. U.S. contributions to the development of laser spectroscopy
physics Hänsch, Theodor W. Germany contributions to the development of laser spectroscopy
● physiology/
● medicine
Marshall, Barry J. Australia discovery of bacteria's role in peptic ulcer disease
● physiology/
● medicine
Warren, J. Robin Australia discovery of bacteria's role in peptic ulcer disease
2006
chemistry Kornberg, Roger D. U.S. work on the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription
economics Phelps, Edmund S. U.S. analysis of intertemporal trade-offs in macroeconomic policy
literature Pamuk, Orhan Turkey novelist
peace Grameen Bank (founded 1976)
peace Yunus, Muhammad Bangladesh
physics Mather, John C. U.S. discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation
physics Smoot, George F. U.S. discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation
physiology/
medicine Fire, Andrew Z. U.S. discovery of RNA interference—gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
physiology/
medicine Mello, Craig C. U.S. discovery of RNA interference—gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
2007
chemistry Ertl, Gerhard Germany studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces
economics Hurwicz, Leonid U.S. work that laid the foundations of mechanism design theory
economics Maskin, Eric S. U.S. work that laid the foundations of mechanism design theory
economics Myerson, Roger B. U.S. work that laid the foundations of mechanism design theory
literature Lessing, Doris U.S. novelist
peace Gore, Al U.S.
physics Fert, Albert France discovery of giant magnetoresistance
physics Grünberg, Peter Germany discovery of giant magnetoresistance
physiology/
medicine Capecchi, Mario R. U.S. discovery of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells
physiology/
medicine Evans, Sir Martin J. U.K. discovery of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells
physiology/
medicine Smithies, Oliver U.S. discovery of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells
2008
chemistry Chalfie, Martin U.S. discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
chemistry Shimomura, Osamu U.S. discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
chemistry Tsien, Roger Y. U.S. discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
economics Krugman, Paul U.S. analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity
literature Le Clézio, Jean-Marie Gustave France novelist,
essayist
peace Ahtisaari, Martti Finland
physics Kobayashi Makoto Japan discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature
physics Maskawa Toshihide Japan discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature
physics Nambu, Yoichiro U.S. discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics
physiology/
medicine Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise (Barré-Sinoussi, Franƈoise) France discovery of human immunodeficiency virus
physiology/
medicine Montagnier, Luc France discovery of human immunodeficiency virus
physiology/
medicine zur Hausen, Harald Germany discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer
*Nationality given is the citizenship of recipient at the time award was made. Prizes may be withheld or not awarded in years when no worthy recipient can be found or when the world situation (e.g., World Wars I and II) prevents the gathering of information needed to reach a decision.
See as table:

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

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