printing


printing
/prin"ting/, n.
1. the art, process, or business of producing books, newspapers, etc., by impression from movable types, plates, etc.
2. the act of a person or thing that prints.
3. words, symbols, etc., in printed form.
4. printed material.
5. the total number of copies of a book or other publication printed at one time: The book had a first printing of 10,000.
6. writing in which the letters resemble printed ones.
[1350-1400; ME; see PRINT, -ING1]

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I
Process for reproducing text and illustrations, traditionally by applying ink to paper under pressure, but today including various other methods.

In modern commercial printing, three basic techniques are used. Letterpress printing relies on mechanical pressure to transfer a raised inked image to the surface to be printed. Gravure printing transfers ink from recessed cells of varying depths. In offset printing the printing and nonprinting areas of the plate differ not in height but in wettability.
II
(as used in expressions)
typographic printing

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Introduction

      traditionally, a technique for applying under pressure a certain quantity of colouring agent onto a specified surface to form a body of text or an illustration. Certain modern processes for reproducing texts and illustrations, however, are no longer dependent on the mechanical concept of pressure or even on the material concept of colouring agent. Because these processes represent an important development that may ultimately replace the other processes, printing should probably now be defined as any of several techniques for reproducing texts and illustrations, in black and in colour, on a durable surface and in a desired number of identical copies. There is no reason why this broad definition should not be retained, for the whole history of printing is a progression away from those things that originally characterized it: lead, ink, and the press.

      It is also true that, after five centuries during which printing has maintained a quasi-monopoly of the transmission or storage of information, this role is being seriously challenged by new audiovisual and information media. Printing, by the very magnitude of its contribution to the multiplication of knowledge, has helped engender radio, television, film, microfilm, tape recording, and other rival techniques. Nevertheless, its own field remains immense. Printing is used not merely for books and newspapers but also for textiles, plates, wallpaper, packaging, and billboards. It has even been used to manufacture miniature electronic circuits.

      The invention of printing at the dawn of the age of the great discoveries was in part a response and in part a stimulus to the movement that, by transforming the economic, social, and ideological relations of civilization, would usher in the modern world. The economic world was marked by the high level of production and exchange attained by the Italian republics, as well as by the commercial upsurge of the Hanseatic League and the Flemish cities; social relations were marked by the decline of the landed aristocracy and the rise of the urban mercantile bourgeoisie; and the world of ideas reflected the aspirations of this bourgeoisie for a political role that would allow it to fulfill its economic ambitions. Ideas were affected by the religious crisis that would lead to the Protestant Reformation.

      The first major role of the printed (publishing, history of) book was to spread literacy and then general knowledge among the new economic powers of society. In the beginning it was scorned by the princes. It is significant that the contents of the first books were often devoted to literary and scientific works as well as to religious texts, though printing was used to ensure the broad dissemination of religious material, first Catholic and, shortly, Protestant.

      There is a material explanation for the fact that printing developed in Europe in the 15th century rather than in the Far East, even though the principle on which it is based had been known in the Orient long before. European writing was based on an alphabet composed of a limited number of abstract symbols. This simplifies the problems involved in developing techniques for the use of movable type manufactured in series. Chinese (Chinese writing) handwriting, with its vast number of ideograms requiring some 80,000 symbols, lends itself only poorly to the requirements of a typography. Partly for this reason, the unquestionably advanced Oriental (China) civilization, of which the richness of their writing was evidence, underwent a slowing down of its evolution in comparison with the formerly more backward Western civilizations.

      Printing participated in and gave impetus to the growth and accumulation of knowledge. In each succeeding era there were more people who were able to assimilate the knowledge handed to them and to augment it with their own contribution. From Diderot's encyclopaedia to the present profusion of publications printed throughout the world, there has been a constant acceleration of change, a process highlighted by the Industrial Revolution at the beginning of the 19th century and the scientific and technical revolution of the 20th.

      At the same time, printing has facilitated the spread of ideas that have helped to shape alterations in social relations made possible by industrial development and economic transformations. By means of books, pamphlets, and the press, information of all kinds has reached all levels of society in most countries.

      In view of the contemporary competition over some of its traditional functions, it has been suggested by some observers that printing is destined to disappear. On the other hand, this point of view has been condemned as unrealistic by those who argue that information in printed form offers particular advantages different from those of other audio or visual media. Radio scripts and television pictures report facts immediately but only fleetingly, while printed texts and documents, though they require a longer time to be produced, are permanently available and so permit reflection. Though films, microfilms, punch cards, punch tapes, tape recordings, holograms, and other devices preserve a large volume of information in small space, the information on them is available to human senses only through apparatus such as enlargers, readers, and amplifiers. Print, on the other hand, is directly accessible, a fact that may explain why the most common accessory to electronic calculators is a mechanism to print out the results of their operations in plain language. Far from being fated to disappear, printing seems more likely to experience an evolution marked by its increasingly close association with these various other means by which information is placed at the disposal of humankind.

History of printing

Origins in China
      By the end of the 2nd century AD, the Chinese apparently had discovered printing; certainly they then had at their disposal the three elements necessary for printing: (1) paper, the techniques for the manufacture of which they had known for several decades; (2) ink, whose basic formula they had known for 25 centuries; and (3) surfaces bearing texts carved in relief. Some of the texts were classics of Buddhist thought inscribed on marble pillars, to which pilgrims applied sheets of damp paper, daubing the surface with ink so that the parts that stood out in relief showed up; some were religious seals used to transfer pictures and texts of prayers to paper. It was probably this use of seals that led in the 4th or 5th century to the development of ink of a good consistency for printing.

      A substitute for these two kinds of surfaces, the marble pillars and the seals, that was more practical with regard both to manageability and to size, appeared perhaps by the 6th century in the wood block. First, the text was written in ink on a sheet of fine paper; then the written side of the sheet was applied to the smooth surface of a block of wood, coated with a rice paste that retained the ink of the text; third, an engraver cut away the uninked areas so that the text stood out in relief and in reverse.

      To make a print, the wood block was inked with a paintbrush, a sheet of paper spread on it, and the back of the sheet rubbed with a brush. Only one side of the sheet could be printed.

      The oldest known printed works were made by this technique: in Japan about 764–770, Buddhist incantations ordered by Empress Shōtoku; in China in 868, the first known book, the Diamond Sūtra; and, beginning in 932, a collection of Chinese classics in 130 volumes, at the initiative of Fong Tao, a Chinese minister.

Invention of movable type (11th century)
      About 1041–48 a Chinese alchemist named Pi Sheng appears to have conceived of movable type made of an amalgam of clay and glue hardened by baking. He composed texts by placing the types side by side on an iron plate coated with a mixture of resin, wax, and paper ash. Gently heating this plate and then letting the plate cool solidified the type. Once the impression had been made, the type could be detached by reheating the plate. It would thus appear that Pi Sheng had found an overall solution to the many problems of typography: the manufacture, the assembling, and the recovery of indefinitely reusable type.

      In about 1313 a magistrate named Wang Chen (Wang Zhen) seems to have had a craftsman carve more than 60,000 characters on movable wooden blocks so that a treatise on the history of technology could be published. To him is also attributed the invention of horizontal compartmented cases that revolved about a vertical axis to permit easier handling of the type. But Wang Chen's innovation, like that of Pi Sheng, was not followed up in China.

      In Korea, on the contrary, typography, which had appeared by the first half of the 13th century, was extensively developed under the stimulus of King Htai Tjong, who, in 1403, ordered the first set of 100,000 pieces of type to be cast in bronze. Nine other fonts followed from then to 1516; two of them were made in 1420 and 1434, before Europe in its turn discovered typography.

Transmission of paper to Europe (12th century)
      Paper, the production of which was known only to the Chinese, followed the caravan routes of Central Asia to the markets at Samarkand, whence it was distributed as a commodity across the entire Arab world.

      The transmission of the techniques of papermaking appears to have followed the same route; Chinese taken prisoner at the Battle of Talas, near Samarkand, in 751 gave the secret to the Arabs. Paper mills proliferated from the end of the 8th century to the 13th century, from Baghdad and then on to Spain, then under Arab domination. Paper first penetrated Europe as a commodity from the 12th century onward through Italian ports that had active commercial relations with the Arab world and also, doubtless, by the overland route from Spain to France. Papermaking techniques apparently were rediscovered by Europeans through an examination of the material from which the imported commodity was made; possibly the secret was brought back in the mid-13th century by returning crusaders or merchants in the Eastern trade. Papermaking centres grew up in Italy after 1275 and in France and Germany in the course of the 14th century.

      But knowledge of the typographic process does not seem to have succeeded, as papermaking techniques had, in reaching Europe from China. It would seem that typography was assimilated by the Uighurs (Uighur) who lived on the borders of Mongolia and Turkistan, since a set of Uighur typefaces, carved on wooden cubes, has been found that date from the early 14th century. It would be surprising if the Uighurs, a nomadic people usually considered to have been the educators of other Turco-Mongolian peoples, had not spread the knowledge of typography as far as Egypt. There it may have encountered an obstacle to its progress toward Europe, namely, that, even though the Islāmic religion had accepted paper in order to record the word of Allah, it may have refused to permit the word of Allah to be reproduced by artificial means.

The invention of printing
      Thus, the essential elements of the printing process collected slowly in western Europe, where a favourable cultural and economic climate had formed.

      Xylography, the art of printing from wood carving, the existence and importance of which in China was never suspected by Marco Polo, appeared in Europe no earlier than the last quarter of the 14th century, spontaneously and presumably as a result of the use of paper. It had been observed that paper was better suited than rough-surfaced parchment for making the impressions from wood reliefs that manuscript copyists used to reproduce the outline of ornamental initial capital letters.

      The process was extended to the making of religious pictures. These at first appeared alone and later were accompanied by a brief text. As engravers (engraving) became more skillful, the text finally became more important than the illustration, and in the first half of the 15th century small, genuine books of several pages, religious works or compendiums of Latin grammar by Aelius Donatus and called donats, were published by a method identical to that of the Chinese. Given the Western alphabet, it would seem reasonable that the next step taken might have been to carve blocks of writing that, instead of texts, would simply contain a large number of letters of the alphabet; such blocks could then be cut up into type, usable and reusable.

      It is possible that experiments were in fact made along these lines, perhaps in 1423 or 1437 by a Dutchman (Low Countries) from Haarlem, Laurens Janszoon, known as Coster (Coster, Laurens Janszoon). The encouraging results obtained with large type demonstrated the validity of the idea of typographic composition.

      But the results were disappointing with regard to type destined for use for text of the usual size. The letters of the roman alphabet were smaller than Chinese ideograms, and cutting them from wood was a delicate operation. Moreover, type made in this way was fragile, and it wore out at least as quickly as blocks carved with a whole text. Further, since the letters were individually carved, no two copies of the same letter were identical any more than when the text was engraved directly on a wood block. The process, thus, represented no advance in ease of production, durability, or quality.

Metallographic printing (1430?)
      Metallographic impression is more likely to turn out to be the direct ancestor of typography, although the record is far from clear. Several medieval craft guilds, notably the metal founders, the die-cutters, and goldsmiths and silversmiths, were familiar with the technique of using dies. Masters of this technique apparently realized that it could be applied to a process that would enable texts to be set in relief more quickly than by carving wood blocks, probably in three steps: (1) a set of dies (die), each bearing a letter of the alphabet, was engraved in brass or bronze; (2) using these dies, the text was struck letter by letter to form a mold on the surface of a matrix of clay or of a soft metal such as lead; (lead) (3) lead was then poured over the surface to form a small plate that, once hardened, would bear the text in relief.

      The theoretical advantages of this process were that only one engraving per letter, that of the die, was required to make the letter as often as desired, and any two examples of the same letter would be identical, since they came from a single die; sinking the matrix and casting the lead were rapid operations; the lead had better durability than wood; and by casting several plates from the same matrix the number of copies printed could be rapidly increased.

      Metallographic printing appears to have been practiced in Holland around 1430 and next in the Rhineland. Gutenberg used it in Strassburg (now Strasbourg, France) between 1434 and 1439.

      But the experiments were not followed up because of problems created by the cast plates. It was difficult to strike each letter die with the same force and to keep a regular alignment, and, worse, each strike tended to deform the adjacent letter. It may well be that the major value of metallographic printing was that it associated the idea of the die, the matrix, and cast lead.

The invention of typography—Gutenberg (1450?)
      This association of die, matrix, and lead in the production of durable typefaces in large numbers and with each letter strictly identical, was one of the two necessary elements in the invention of typographic printing in Europe. The second necessary element was the concept of the printing press itself, an idea that had never been conceived in the Far East.

      Johannes Gutenberg (Gutenberg, Johannes) is generally credited with the simultaneous discovery of both these elements, though there is some uncertainty about it, and disputes arose early to cloud the honour.

      It is true that his signature does not appear on any printed work. If masterpieces such as the Forty-two-Line Bible of 1455 rather than the imperfect products of a nascent typography such as the donats of 1445 or the “Astronomic Calendar” of 1447–48 are attributed to him, this is because of deduction and historical and technical cross-checking. The basic assumption is that, since Gutenberg was by profession a silversmith, he would have retained the role of designer in an association set up at Mainz, Germany, with the businessman Johann Fust (Fust, Johann) and Fust's future son-in-law the calligrapher Peter Schöffer (Schöffer, Peter). The assumption is based solely on the interpretation of obscure aspects of a lawsuit that Gutenberg lost against his associates in 1455.

      Apart from chronicles, all published after his death, that attributed the invention of printing to him, probably the most convincing argument in favour of Gutenberg comes from his chief detractor, Johann Schöffer, the son of Peter Schöffer and grandson of Johann Fust. Though Schöffer claimed from 1509 on that the invention was solely his father's and grandfather's, the fact is that in 1505 he had written in a preface to an edition of Livy that “the admirable art of typography was invented by the ingenious Johan Gutenberg at Mainz in 1450.” It is assumed that he had inherited this certainty from his father, and it is hard to see how a new element could have persuaded him to the contrary after 1505, since Johann Fust died in 1466 and Peter Schöffer in 1502.

      The first pieces of type appear to have been made in the following steps: a letter die was carved in a soft metal such as brass or bronze; lead was poured around the die to form a matrix and a mold into which an alloy, which was to form the type itself, was poured.

      Spectroscopic analyses of early type pieces reveal that the alloy used was a mix of lead, tin, and antimony—the same components used today: tin, because lead alone would have oxidized rapidly and in casting would have deteriorated the lead mold matrices; antimony, because lead and tin alone would have lacked durability.

      It was probably Peter Schöffer who, around 1475, thought of replacing the soft-metal dies with steel dies, in order to produce copper letter matrices that would be reliably identical. Until the middle of the 19th century, type generally continued to be made by craftsmen in this way.

      The typographer's work was from the beginning characterized by four operations: (1) taking the type pieces letter by letter from a typecase; (2) arranging them side by side in a composing “stick,” a strip of wood with corners, held in the hand; (3) justifying the line; that is to say, spacing the letters in each line out to a uniform length by using little blank pieces of lead between words; and (4), after printing, distributing the type, letter by letter, back in the compartments of the typecase.

The Gutenberg press
      Documents of the period, including those relating to a 1439 lawsuit in connection with Gutenberg's activities at Strassburg, leave scarcely any doubt that the press has been used since the beginning of printing.

      Perhaps the printing press was first just a simple adaptation of the binding press, with a fixed, level lower surface (the bed) and a movable, level upper surface (the platen), moved vertically by means of a small bar on a worm screw. The composed type, after being locked by ligatures or screwed tight into a right metal frame (the form), was inked, covered with a sheet of paper to be printed, and then the whole pressed in the vise formed by the two surfaces.

      This process was superior to the brushing technique used in wood-block printing in Europe and China because it was possible to obtain a sharp impression and to print both sides of a sheet. Nevertheless, there were deficiencies: it was difficult to pass the leather pad used for inking between the platen and the form; and, since several turns of the screw were necessary to exert the required pressure, the bar had to be removed and replaced several times to raise the platen sufficiently to insert the sheet of paper.

      It is generally thought that the printing press acquired its principal functional characteristics very early, probably before 1470. The first of these may have been the mobile bed, either on runners or on a sliding mechanism, that permitted the form to be withdrawn and inked after each sheet was printed.

      Next, the single thread of the worm screw was replaced with three or four parallel threads with a sharply inclined pitch so that the platen could be raised by a slight movement of the bar. This resulted in a decrease in the pressure exerted by the platen, which was corrected by breaking up the printing operation so that the form was pushed under the press by the movable bed so that first one half and then the other half of the form was utilized. This was the principle of printing “in two turns,” which would remain in use for three centuries.

Improvements after Gutenberg
      Several of the many improvements in the screw printing press over the next 350 years were of significance. About 1550 the wooden screw was replaced by iron. Twenty years later, innovators added a double-hinged chase consisting of a frisket, a piece of parchment cut out to expose only the actual text itself and so to prevent ink spotting the nonprinted areas of the paper, and a tympan, a layer of a soft, thick fabric to improve the regularity of the pressure despite irregularities in the height of the type.

      About 1620 Willem Janszoon Blaeu in Amsterdam added a counterweight to the pressure bar in order to make the platen rise automatically; this was the so-called Dutch press, a copy of which was to be the first press introduced into North America, by Stephen Daye at Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1639.

      About 1790 an English scientist and inventor, William Nicholson (Nicholson, William), devised a method of inking using a cylinder covered with leather (later with a composition of gelatin, glue, and molasses), the first introduction of rotary movement into the printing process.

The metal press (1795)
      The first all-metal press was constructed in England in about 1795. Some years later a mechanic in the United States built a metal press in which the action of the screw was replaced by that of a series of metal joints. This was the “Columbian,” which was followed by the “Washington” of Samuel Rust, the apogee of the screw press inherited from Gutenberg; its printing capacity was about 250 copies an hour.

Stereotypy (stereotype) and stereography (late 18th century)
      An increasing demand for printed matter stimulated the search for greater speed and volume. The concepts of stereotypy and stereography were explored. Stereotypy, used with notable success around 1790 in Paris, consisted in making an impression on text blocks of type in clay or soft metal in order to make lead molds of the whole. The stereotyped plates thus obtained made it economically possible to print the same text on several presses at the same time. The plates left the pieces of type in the form immediately available for further use and thus increased the rate at which they could be recycled.

      A variation of stereotypy was the application, after 1848, of galvanoplastic metallization, in which process plates of thin metal lined with a base of lead alloy were made by electrolytic deposition of a coat of copper on a wax mold of the typeform.

      Stereography aimed at bypassing the composition of the type in making the mold. Attempts to perfect the old metallographic method of preparing a clay matrix by stamping with dies brought no better results. In 1797 a variation was tried in which sets of copper matrices of each letter were made in large numbers. The matrices were then assembled according to the wording of the text, so that they covered the whole surface of the bottom of a mold in which the lead plate was then cast. Once the cast had been made, the matrices were available for further use.

Koenig's mechanical press (early 19th century)
      The prospect of using steam power in printing prompted research into means by which the different operations of the printing process could be joined together in a single cycle.

 In 1803, in Germany, Friedrich Koenig envisaged a press in which the raising and lowering of the platen, the to-and-fro movement of the bed, and the inking of the form by a series of rollers were controlled by a system of gear wheels. Early trials in London in 1811 were unsuccessful.

      Presses with a mechanized platen produced satisfactory results after the perfection, in the United States, of the “Liberty” (1857), in which the action of a pedal caused the platen to be held against the bed by the arms of a clamp.

      Though Nicholson very early took out patents for a printing process using a cylinder (rotary press) to which the composed type pieces were attached, he was never able to develop the necessary technology involved.

      The cylinder was in fact the most logical geometric form to use in a cyclical process. It was also the one capable of providing the greatest output. Given an equal amount of energy, the pressure exerted by a platen had to be spread over the whole of the surface to be printed, whereas the pressure exerted by a cylinder could be concentrated on the strip of surface actually in contact with the cylinder at any one instant.

      A limited demonstration of the efficiency of the cylinder had been made as early as 1784 on a French press for books for the blind.

 In 1811 Koenig and an associate, Andreas Bauer, in another approach to the rotary principle, designed a cylinder as a platen bearing the sheet of paper and pressing it against the typeform placed on a flatbed that moved to and fro. The rotation of the cylinder was linked to the forward movement of the bed but was disengaged when the bed moved back to go under the inking rollers.

      In 1814 the first stop-cylinder press of this kind to be driven by a steam engine was put into service at the Times (Times, The) of London. It had two cylinders, which revolved one after the other according to the to-and-fro motion of the bed so as to double the number of copies printed; a speed of 1,100 sheets per hour was achieved.

      In 1818 Koenig and Bauer designed a double press in which a sheet of paper printed on one side under one of the cylinders passed to the other cylinder, to be printed on the other side. This was called a perfecting machine. In 1824 William Church added grippers to the cylinder to pick up, hold, and then automatically release the sheet of paper.

      The to-and-fro movement of the bed that was retained in these early cylinder presses constituted an element of discontinuity; to make the cycle completely continuous, not only would the platen have to be cylindrical but the typeform also. In 1844 Richard Hoe (Hoe, Richard March) in the United States patented his type revolving press, the first rotary to be based on this principle. It consisted of a cylinder of large diameter, bearing columns of type bracketed together on its outer surface; pressure was provided by several small cylinders, each of which was fed sheets of paper by hand. This system gave speeds of more than 8,000 copies per hour; its only drawback was its fragility; faulty locking up of the forms caused the type to fall out of the cylinder.

      This defect was remedied by applying stereotypy to the production; that is, forming curved plates by making an impression of the typeform on strong pasteboard, the flong, or mat, which was fixed against the inside surface of a rounded mold, which was injected with lead alloy. In France, from 1849 onward, experiments were conducted with this process; it was regularly used in London by the Times from 1856 onward and after 1858 was in general use.

      But feeding the press with paper still remained outside the mechanized cycle. Mechanization of this step was accomplished by the use of a continuous roll of paper supplied on reels instead of sheets. Techniques for producing paper in a continuous roll had been known since the beginning of the century. The first roll-fed rotary press was made by William Bullock of the United States in 1865. It included a device for cutting the paper after printing and produced 12,000 complete newspapers (newspaper) per hour. Automatic folding devices, the first of which were designed by Bullock and Hoe, were incorporated into rotaries after 1870.

      Later, numerous other types of curved stereotype plates were used on rotary presses. These included electrotype plates that are curved before being backed; rubber or plastic plates made by molding or by a photomechanical process; and metal wraparound plates made by photoengraving or electronic engraving.

Attempts to mechanize composition (mid-19th century)
      Unlike the mechanization of the printing process, mechanization of the composition process was difficult to achieve in the 19th century. The invention of a compression mold in 1806 opened prospects for the mechanization of the production of type. In 1822 William Church of Boston patented a typesetting machine consisting of a keyboard on which each key released a piece of type of the corresponding letter stored in channels in a magazine. The pieces of type thus obtained had to be assembled by hand and the line justified. Church had avoided the problem of distribution and shown an intuition as to its solution by annexing to the magazine a device for constantly casting new pieces of type (typesetting machine).

      Numerous machines based on the same principle and with the further addition of a mechanism that placed the type pieces selected the right way round appeared in the course of the next 50 years. On one of these the more than 10,000 pages of the ninth edition of Encyclopædia Britannica were composed. These machines produced type at the rate of 5,000 to 12,000 pieces per hour, as opposed to about 1,500 by hand composition. But in all of them the type was simply delivered in a continuous row, which had to be divided into lines and justified.

      These machines were completed by the introduction of a mechanical distributor, which was a sort of reverse compositor: pieces of type from lines that had been used passed before the operator, who pressed the corresponding key on his keyboard for the appropriate channel in the magazine to be opened up. The speed of mechanized distribution did not exceed 5,000 pieces of type per hour and was, thus, no faster than hand distribution.

      Mechanization of letterpress composition faced two difficulties: first, justification, which required intelligent estimation of the size of spaces to be provided between words; and, second, the time taken during which the pieces of type were used for printing, which delay kept composition and distribution from being integrated into one cycle.

Typecasting compositors (1880s)
      Finally, in the 1880s in the United States, German-born Ottmar Mergenthaler (Mergenthaler, Ottmar) invented the Linotype, a typecasting compositor that cast a solid one-piece line, or slug, from movable matrices of each letter. Each of the matrices was individually notched so that it could return only to its proper slot in the magazine after use. Justification was carried out by inserting wedged spacebands between groups of matrices immediately after making up the words of a given line. Here the matrices rather than type pieces went through the four basic operations of letterpress composition; cast lead was used for printing. The Linotype can produce the equivalent of 5,000 to 7,000 pieces of type per hour.

      In 1885, also in the United States, Tolbert Lanston invented the Monotype, which casts individual pieces of type for a line and justifies each line by a system of counting in units the width of the spaces taken up by the pieces of type. The matrices are indefinitely reusable, and the pieces of type, which are used only for the impressions, are returned to the caster. The contemporary Monotype typecaster is controlled by a ribbon of paper perforated on a separate keyboard. It can produce 10,000 to 12,000 pieces of type per hour.

      In 1911 the American Washington I. Ludlow perfected a typecasting machine for the large display type that bears his name. The matrices are assembled by hand in a composing stick, which is then inserted above the opening of a mold; the matrices are also distributed by hand.

19th-century innovations
      In the course of the 19th century several important innovations laid the foundation for a number of printing techniques that were not directly related to Gutenberg's invention.

Reproduction of illustrations
      The first process for reproducing illustrations was xylography, using woodcuts that printed in relief and that therefore could be combined with letterpress, the picture blocks and the pieces of type for texts being locked into the same form. As early as the second half of the 15th century, xylography faced competition from engraving on metal that printed by intaglio; (intaglio) the metal plate (copper, sometimes brass, zinc, and even steel after 1806), engraved with a tool (burin) or etched with acid, was inked and carefully wiped so that ink remained only in the incisions and was transferred to paper under pressure in a cylinder press derived from the rolling mill. Since the intaglio method of printing was not compatible with woodcut printing, sheets of text and of illustrations for the same book had to be printed separately.

      Presses for printing curved intaglio-engraved plates were perfected during the 19th century with mechanized inking with the use of rollers and wiping with the use of revolving cloth bands or rotating disks covered with calico. Their printing capacity was limited.

      As early as the end of the 18th century, however, intaglio printing had inspired a method for continuous printing of textiles by passing them under an engraved and inked cylinder from which excess ink had been removed by a scraper. In France in 1860 this technique was applied to printing paper for school-book covers. A solid copper cylinder was engraved not with continuous lines but with a multiplicity of tiny cavities in such a way that they retained the ink uniformly despite gravity, centrifugal force, and the action of the scraper. The process was suitable only for simple graphics.

Lithography: (lithography) Senefelder (1796)
      A third printing process that had undergone significant development was lithography, neither relief nor intaglio printing but based on the principle that water and grease will not mix. In 1796 Aloys Senefelder (Senefelder, Alois) of Prague investigated the properties of a stone with a calcium carbonate base and a fine, homogeneous, porous surface. A design drawn on its surface with greasy ink, wetted with water and then brushed with ordinary ink, retained the ink only on the design. This could consequently be reproduced on a sheet of paper pressed against the stone. Senefelder also established that a design drawn on such a stone and printed on paper could be transferred to another stone in as many identical copies as desired, side by side, which made it possible to obtain several copies at a time by printing a single large sheet. He further established that a metal such as zinc had the same properties.

      Senefelder envisaged a press in which the stone, secured to an undercarriage, was inked, covered with the sheet of paper with a sheet of pasteboard above it, and submitted to pressure. By 1850 the first mechanized lithographic press with a cylinder, flannel-covered rollers for wetting, and rollers for inking was perfected.

      The fact that it was possible to replace the stone by a zinc plate that could be curved made it possible to build rotary presses (the first in 1868) in which the paper passed between the plate-bearing cylinder and the impression cylinder.

      While searching for a means of automatically inscribing an image on a lithographic stone, then on a tin plate, in order to engrave (photoengraving) it in intaglio, Joseph-Nicephore Niepce (Niépce, Nicéphore) in the 1820s established that certain chemical compounds are sensitive to light. This marked the origins of photogravure and led to both the invention of photography (between 1829 and 1838) and the use of photographic processes for the printed reproduction of photographs.

      In 1852 William Henry Fox Talbot (Talbot, William Henry Fox), a British scientist and inventor, placed a piece of black cloth (tulle) between the object he wanted to reproduce (the leaf of a tree) and the photosensitive coating spread on a steel plate and obtained a picture that retained the fine mesh of the tulle. Consequently, etching with acid resulted not in an extensive and uniform erosion of an area but in tiny juxtaposed pits all over the photosensitive coating and varying in depth according to the degree of exposure. Talbot simultaneously had invented the screen and also had opened the way for a new development in intaglio printing: rotogravure.

      The screen was perfected in the 1880s by substituting for the cloth two sheets of glass with uniform parallel lines that crossed perpendicularly. The screen made possible letterpress and lithographic reproduction of the full range of tones of a photographic document by using the effect of the diffusion of light through the mesh of its grid and converting the different intensity of tones into the different thicknesses of the printing surface.

Gravure (gravure printing) and rotogravure (rotogravure printing) (1890s)
      The circular mechanization of intaglio engraving, meanwhile, came up against two associated difficulties: the need to engrave an infinite number of tiny cells and the need to engrave them directly onto a cylinder. There were problems, because the rubbing of the squeegee to remove excess ink excluded the use of a curved plate that would not have provided a uniform surface in the area in which it was attached, and it was not possible to get photosensitive solutions to adhere to a cylinder.

      In 1862–64 J.W. Swan (Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson) of Britain invented carbon tissue, paper coated with gelatin that can be rendered photosensitive and exposed to light before being applied to a metal surface of any shape.

      In 1878 a Czech, Karl Klič (Klič, Karl) (also spelled Klietsch), thought of copying a grid screen directly onto carbon tissue, which could be used to transfer the cells necessary for intaglio printing to a cylinder at the same time as the image to be reproduced. In 1895 Klič, with English colleagues, founded the Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn) Intaglio Printing Company, which published reproductions of pictures, on paper, by rotogravure. They kept their process a secret.

      In a parallel way, patents for a slightly different process, in which the image to be reproduced was screened before making the impression on the carbon tissue, were taken out in Germany and the United States. But a workman from the Rembrandt Intaglio Printing Company emigrated to the United States in 1903 and there revealed Klič's secret, and rotogravure, using his method, became widespread.

The 20th century
      Beginning with the invention of the offset technique, the 20th century saw the steady development of innovations in the direction of mass production, speed, and economy.

Discovery of offset (offset printing) (early 20th century)
      At the same time, lithography was undergoing a new evolution. After the first mechanical presses had been perfected, this process had developed along two lines: (1) printing on thin sheets of metal (for example, tinplate for packaging canned foods) using a transfer process (1878) in which the impression cylinder carrying the metal sheet to be printed did not come in contact with the stone but did with an intermediary cylinder covered with rubber, the blanket, which transferred the image from the stone to the metal; and (2) printing on paper, which was done only comparatively infrequently in the last years of the 19th century, on cylinder or rotary presses.

      In 1904 at Nutley, New Jersey, an American printer, Ira W. Rubel, discovered that an image accidentally transferred from the plate cylinder of his rotary to the rubber blanket of the impression cylinder during a paper-feed stoppage could itself be used for printing and in fact produced a superior impression. Rubel and an associate constructed a three-cylinder press, the first offset press, the term since used to describe this increasingly popular printing device.

dry offset (1920)
      A few years later a problem arose in connection with printing the background of checks with a water-soluble ink to prevent forgeries. It was proposed that the lithographic plate of the plate cylinder be replaced with a stereotype plate or with a letterpress wraparound plate. This process, which combines the relief of letterpress, which does not require wetting, with the transfer of offset, is known as dry offset, or letterset. Its area of application is not limited to check backgrounds but is used in all areas of conventional printing.

      Since 1950 another process has been developed, particularly in the United States. It combines rotogravure with the transfer of offset for printing wallpapers, plastic floor coverings, paper plates, and other products.

      As early as 1457 a psalter, which Peter Schöffer signed but which some researchers now attribute to Gutenberg, included, in imitation of the contemporary illuminated manuscripts, paragraphs beginning with ornamental capital letters printed in two colours. This was accomplished by the use of two wood blocks that fitted one inside the other and could be separately inked.

      Experiments to reproduce pictures in several colours on wood blocks were made in Germany in the 16th century. In the 17th century, different inks were applied to the different parts of the same engraved metal plate in such a way that all the inks were transferred to the paper in a single pressing. In 1719 a painter, Jacques-Christophe Le Blond (Le Blon, Jakob Christof), took out a patent in England for a process that used the three primary colours, blue, yellow, and red, and black for outlining shapes. Using a dense grid, he engraved four metal plates, bringing out on each plate the relative importance of the colour involved. The same sheet of paper then went through four successive impressions, each in a different colour.

      In the 19th century the scientific definition of the principles of trichromatism, the enunciation of the fundamental theories of three-colour analysis and synthesis of colours by photography, the perfecting of coatings selectively sensitive to colours, and finally the use of the screen, instead of Le Blond's hand-drawn grid, established the modern trichromatic technique (which becomes quadrichromatic when black is also used).

Automation of composition (after 1929)
      The search for maximum efficiency had from the very beginning posed the problem of both the mechanization and the automation of composition. The Monotype system, with its separation of keyboard and caster, had constituted one approach to the solution, since the same caster could work at full speed when fed with perforated tapes produced on several keyboards.

      The perfection of teletypesetter remote-control composing equipment in the United States by about 1929 permitted widespread application of the principle of separation of human function on the one hand and mechanized function on the other. The operator produces a tape on which each letter, symbol, and space is represented by a combination of perforations. A translator device reads the tape and, according to each combination of holes, orders the release of the necessary matrices for letters, signs, and justifying spaces. Machines casting one-piece fully spaced lines or slugs are able to produce more than 20,000 characters per hour.

Programmed composition (1950s)
      The production of the perforated tape remained relatively slow, however, because of the time taken by the operator to decide where to make the division in a word at the end of a line. Eventually, in the second half of the 20th century, electronics provided the means of automatically making this decision.

      In the 1950s the BBR system, named by the initials of three inventors in France, introduced programmed composition. Starting with a perforated tape continuously produced by the operator, a computer (computerized typesetting) takes over the task of determining the length of lines, the places where words are to be divided according to grammatical rules and typographic usage, the integration of corrections, and even the presentation of the text according to the layout. The speed at which a final tape bearing this information can be produced is limited only by the performance of the perforator, which is the outlet device of the computer. Operating speeds have exceeded 300,000 characters per hour, or 10 times the capacity of the most modern slugcasting machines.

      During the 1960s, perforated tape began to be replaced by magnetic tape, which is even more rapidly made, at a rate of about 1,000 characters per second, or 3,600,000 per hour. Although magnetic tape is useless for mechanical composers casting pieces of type or lines in lead, such speed is practical for other kinds of machines not burdened with the weight of lead and the inertia of their mechanical components.

      In preparing cylinders for rotogravure, offset plates, or letterpress wraparound plates, it is illogical to use the vast weight of lead in letterpress composition to produce a reproduction proof that will then be photographed. Before the end of the 19th century this circumstance led to consideration of machines for composing headings by photographing the images of the letters in succession. In 1915 the Photoline, a photographic equivalent of the Ludlow, assembled matrices of transparent letters in a composing stick in order to film each line of the heading.

First generation of phototypesetters: mechanical
      The next idea to be tried involved the adaptation of existing typesetters by replacing the metal matrices with matrices carrying the image of the letters and replacing the caster with a photographic unit. The industrial application of this idea resulted in the Fotosetter (1947), a phototypesetter, and its variant the Fotomatic (1963), controlled by a perforated tape, both derived from the Intertype slugcasting machine; the Linofilm (1950), derived from the Linotype; and the Monophoto (1957), derived from the Monotype. Retaining the mechanical limitations of machines intended to shape lead, they could not achieve appreciably higher rates of performance. Photocomposition had to be rethought in functional terms. This approach was explored in Germany as early as the 1920s with the Uher typesetter, which had photographic matrices attached to a rotating disk.

Second generation of phototypesetters: functional
      The second generation of phototypesetters is characterized by the maximum elimination of factors of inertia, the number of moving parts having generally been reduced to only two: a steadily revolving disk or drum carrying the photographic matrices and an optical device of prisms or mirrors allowing directional action on the beam of light provided by an electronic flashtube.

      The first revolutionary application of this notion was the Lumitype, invented as the Lithomat in 1949 by two Frenchmen, René Higonnet and Louis Moyroud. Executed by phototypesetting, The Marvelous World of Insects was done on their machine in 1953. The first model had an attached keyboard. Later models with a separate keyboard printed more than 28,000 characters per hour.

      A new Linofilm (1954), functional and electronic, was fitted with a device for selecting matrices by the action of the blades on the photographic shutter, producing 12 characters per second, or 43,200 per hour. The model that succeeded it (1965) is equipped with a drum and is capable of double the output. The Photon-Lumitype 713 (1957) also performs at the rate of 70,000 to 80,000 characters per hour. But at this speed the technique of using a rotary matrix case reaches its limit because of the problems posed by centrifugal force. The Lumizip 900 (1959) introduced a further revolutionary change by retaining as moving parts only the lens, which scans in a single movement the fixed series of light matrices so as to photograph at one time the whole line of 20 to 60 letters. Output reaches 200 to 600 characters per second, or more than 2,000,000 per hour; this machine required magnetic tape.

      The first book composed with a Lumizip, the Index Medicus (1964), was as much of a landmark in the history of phototypesetting as the Forty-two-Line Bible had been in printing. Its more than 600 pages were completed in 12 hours. To produce the same work on a typecasting machine would have taken almost a year.

Third generation of phototypesetters: electronic (electronics)
      Magnetic tape was still faster than the fastest phototypesetters. To narrow this gap, a third generation of phototypesetters appeared in the 1960s, in which all mechanical moving parts were eliminated by omitting the use of light and therefore omitting the moving optical device responsible for operating in its field.

      Cathode-ray-tube (cathode-ray tube) phototypesetters (RCA, Linotron, etc.) operate on a principle analogous to that of television: a narrow pencil of electrons analyzes an image matrix of each letter and commands the modulation of another pencil of electrons on a luminescent screen, which leaves an impression on photographic film. Performance exceeds 500 characters per second and even approaches 1,000, or more than 3,000,000 per hour.

      Digiset, a German development that appeared in 1965, pushed the use of the electron to its logical conclusion by suppressing even the image matrix of the character, simply keeping the binary analysis of its design available in its magnetic memory; this is, in fact, all that is needed to modulate the pencil of electrons on the final screen. Phototypesetters of this kind (called alphanumerical) have theoretical performance rates exceeding 3,000 characters per second, or more than 10,000,000 per hour, and should be able to approach 30,000,000. Speeds such as these exceed the production rate even of magnetic tape. Consequently, to work at its most efficient output, such a typesetter must be directly connected to a computer with a similarly high rate of output.

Toward direct impression
      The number of characters thus composed now approaches the number of characters printed on a press in the same time. The narrower this gap becomes, the more a still further revolutionary possibility looms—that of eliminating the press itself, since the typesetter can be made to deliver each page as quickly as the press would have. To accomplish this it would be necessary only to replace the photographic film that the photographer imprints when it is conventionally used with an inexpensive carrier capable of receiving an image in the same way without pressure.

      Several pressureless printing processes have already been perfected. In 1923 an electrostatic onset system drew the ink of a cylindrical typeform to the paper by means of an electrical charge. In 1948 two Americans conceived another type of electrostatic printing in which the colouring agent is not ink carried on a typeform but a powder or a solution sensitive to the pull of an electric charge inscribed in a plate. This technique gave birth to xerocopy in office duplicating (see below Office printing (printing)) and, at the industrial level, to xerography for producing posters and maps.

      Printing without pressure can also be accomplished on papers impregnated with photosensitive preparations and passed in front of a cathode-ray screen of a phototypesetter. The first experiment using this facsimile (fax) printing process was carried out in Japan in 1964 by the Mainichi shimbun, a Tokyo daily newspaper. The image of the newspaper page formed on the cathode-ray screen was transmitted by radio waves, as in television. It was reproduced using the electrostatic system, which does not require chemical treatment of the paper after its exposure.

Serigraphy and collotype: a renaissance
      Parallel to the evolution of the three major printing processes, letterpress, offset, and lithography, various other techniques have experienced a similar evolution, which has allowed them to survive or to establish themselves in the course of the 20th century and to preserve or win a place in printing.

      The art of reproducing a design by forcing ink through the mesh of a silk screen partly blanked out with a stencil (stenciling) plate (serigraphy) had been practiced by the Chinese and Japanese long before the invention of letterpress. In the 19th century the textile manufacturers of Lyon adopted it for printing textiles. In the 1930s in Great Britain and the United States the most varied materials (glass, wood, plastic) and even the most varied shapes (round objects, for example) were printed by serigraphy, which from a handcraft progressed to an industrial technique, with the screen prepared by photosensitization and printing carried out by semiautomatic or automatic machines.

      Another process, patented in France in 1855 under the name Photocollography, was modified in 1865 under the name Phototypy (still used in France) and in Germany in 1868 under the name Albertypy (still used in Germany). This process used photosensitive substances not as agents in making plates for printing but to serve directly as the effective surface of such plates. Known elsewhere as the collotype process, the technique was in great favour between 1880 and 1914, was then neglected, and has recently been revived and mechanized for printing posters and transparencies in black and in colour.

       flexography is a letterpress process using rubber plates on the plate cylinder; it occupies a special place in printing on account of the fluidity of its inks. It was first patented in England in 1890, and it was perfected in Strassburg a few years later. Flexographic printing is particularly suited to relatively coarse surfaces (pasteboard, wrapping paper, plastic or metal film) but has also been adapted to newspaper and magazine printing. It can be carried out by sheet-fed machines but is chiefly used on powerful rotaries.

Three-dimensional printing (1960s)
      In the 1960s a three-dimensional print was developed, essentially an illustration bearing two views, superimposed, of the same image taken from slightly different angles, on a transparent mount striped with a multitude of imperceptible parallel strips (Xograph process). On account of these strips, each eye, looking at the print from a different angle, sees only one image. The three-dimensional illusion is produced when this binocular vision is interpreted by the brain.

Office printing
      The development of industry and commerce, in the 19th and 20th centuries, accompanied by an increase in administrative activity, created a demand for an abundance of printed information at various levels. In the field of office printing the first tool was the typewriter, perfected in 1867. Thereafter, machines appeared that would reproduce large or small numbers of copies of typewritten texts and, later, texts or illustrations of every kind. Some of these machines rely on techniques very close to those of conventional printing; others turned to original techniques that were in turn extended into modern printing. In 1881 in England appeared the stencil duplicator (mimeograph), basically employing the serigraphic technique. In 1900 a photocopying machine invented in France opened the way to facsimile printing. The offset printing process spread into the area of business printing with small offset duplicating machines; the simplified methods used for preparing plates for these machines eventually were adopted by industrial offset printers.

      The application of the electrostatic printing process to xerocopy, perfected in 1938, has since been taken over by industry.

      All the various processes of duplication and reproduction of documents make up reprography, a name bestowed during the first congress devoted to these techniques, which was organized at Cologne in 1963. Though its boundaries with conventional printing are poorly delimited, to the extent that reprography can compete with conventional printing when a medium number of copies are concerned, reprography nevertheless represents an original field. In response to the increased need for quality reprography, the typewriter has been improved since the 1950s and given the capability of providing justified composition suitable for conventional printing.

Modern printing techniques

Composition and typesetting
Mechanical composition and typesetting
      In the first decades of the 20th century all type was set and composed into columns and pages by hand or by mechanical means. These methods are still widely used.

Letterpress composition by hand
      The font, which constitutes a complete set of characters of a given typeface, with duplicate numbers of each letter in proportion to the frequency with which each is used, is stored in the compartments of a case; capital letters, proportionately less frequently called for, are in the upper compartments, whence their name, uppercase, and the small letters in the lower compartments, which are more easily accessible and whence their name, lowercase.

      The typographer works standing in front of the case. His principal tools are the composing stick, a metal angle iron with one fixed end and a “knee” with a screw or lever for locking; the line gauge, a ruler graduated in units of typographic measurement; and tweezers.

      He locks the knee of the composing stick at the justification; that is, at the length of the line to be composed. Against the inside edge of the stick he places a lead, a strip of nonprinting lead alloy that later enables him, using a second lead, to grip the finished line in order to remove it from the composing stick. Holding the composing stick in one hand, he uses the other to select the individual type characters from the case. He can tell by touching which way up they should go, thanks to a nick indicating the top or bottom of the body (the bottom in English-speaking countries and Germany; elsewhere, the top), and he places them side by side in the composing stick. Having completed the proper number of characters to fill the length of the line with a whole word or at the correct division in a word, he adds as necessary to the nonprinting pieces already in place to mark the spaces between the words until the exact justification is obtained.

      Having composed and justified the line, the typographer takes it, gripped by its two leads between the thumb and forefinger of both hands, to place it in a galley, a wooden or metal tray with a raised edge on two or three of its sides.

Semimechanized composition
      The Ludlow is considered a combination machine; though it automatically casts slugs, it is related to hand composition by the way the matrices are assembled. The matrices are bronze blocks bearing the letter or sign engraved in intaglio on their lower side and with two shoulders on their upper side.

      The composer gathers them individually from the case, which is one of the drawers of a desk, and arranges them side by side in a special composing stick. This steel composing stick is hollowed out in the middle to receive the matrices supported on their shoulders with an adjustable stopscrew for fixing the length of the line. Justification is ensured by blank unengraved matrices in various sizes equally distributed between the words.

      The caster resembles a steel workbench with a hollowed-out slot on its surface in which the composing stick is inserted with the matrices face down. A lever starts the casting process by turning on an electric motor. A mold with an opening rises and positions itself under the aligned matrices; a plunger in the melting pot containing the molten alloy forces enough alloy into the mold to cast one line; casting is completed in less than 10 seconds, the mold withdraws and releases the solidified line, and the lever, which releases the composing stick, rises automatically.

      Since the body size of the font is a uniform size, the upper part of characters whose body size exceeds its measurement projects beyond each side and has to be supported, when it is being used, with leads.

      Since the width of the slugs is also uniform, when shorter lines are being cast the composing stick is furnished with thick, blank matrices; once cast, the line is clipped off to the proper length. For longer lines, composing sticks are used with justifications in multiples of that of the mold. Fractions of the line are cast one after another and fit together exactly. The Ludlow is used especially for casting lines of large type for use as titles and subtitles, using typefaces varying from 12 to 144 points (one point equals 172, or 0.0138, inch).

      The Ludlow caster is complemented by an Elrod caster. This automatically casts nonprinting leads and rules, narrow pieces of nonprinting alloy; both items come in various thicknesses.

      Another type of mixed typecaster with manual assembly of the matrices is represented by the All-Purpose Linotype, a sort of Linotype from which only the casting part has been retained. It is used primarily in United States printing establishments. An Italian equivalent, the Nebitype, is used, though less widely, in Europe.

Mechanical composition: slugcasting typesetters
      The Linotype and Intertype slugcasting typesetters produce lines of letterpress composition in a single operation, starting with the assembling of the movable matrices. The letter matrices are thin, brass 19 × 32-millimetre (0.7 × 1.3-inch) plates, with two ears and a system of 14 notches arranged in a V on the upper surface and two heels in their lower part. The letter is engraved in intaglio on the face surface; usually two copies of the same letter are superimposed (duplex matrices)—one normal, or roman, the other a variant, either italic (sloping design) or boldface (stronger design). Thus, their thickness varies according to the letter and the body of the character.

      The set of matrices is stored in a magazine, a flat, trapezoidal metal box consisting of 90 channels in which the matrices are aligned one behind the other, duplicates of 20 or 24 for each letter or sign, lying face down, resting on an ear and a heel.

      Blanks are introduced into the line in two ways: either by using unengraved blank matrices, included in the magazine in three standard sizes, or by using spacebands designed to ensure justification.

      The operator sits in front of a keyboard with 90 keys, corresponding to the channels in the magazine, on the left the lowercase letters, on the right the uppercase letters, in the middle the small capitals, numbers, and various symbols. A special bar operates the release of spacebands.

      Slugcasting typesetters function as follows: (1) Touching a key releases the matrices, which are brought in proper order on a conveyor belt to a composing stick made of slide-bars and held by their ears. The spacebands, which are stored directly above the composing stick, fall into place between the words. (2) When the matrices and spacebands in the composing stick visibly take up the amount of space planned for the length of the line, the operator completes the line, either with a whole word or by dividing the last word, and pushes a lever to move the line. Since the remaining operations are done automatically he can go on to set the next line. (3) The assembled matrices and spacebands are moved three times in succession: vertically upward on the composing stick; sideways to the left on a transfer slide rest; vertically downward on an elevator that puts them in front of the opening of a mold mounted on a cogwheel called a mold wheel, connected to an electric melting pot containing the molten lead alloy. (4) A justifying hammer forces the long pieces of the spacebands upward, forcing them to separate by equal spaces until all the matrices and spacebands are locked between two steel jaws fixed at the precise justification of the line. A piston plunges into the melting pot and forces the alloy into the mold to cast the line. (5) While the mold wheel rotates three-quarters of a revolution and the solidified line is finished to its exact letterpress height before it is ejected into a galley, the matrices and spacebands are again moved upward by the elevator. (6) They are pushed to the right toward a triangular bar bearing 14 grooves corresponding to the 14 notches in the matrices. (7) Raised by a catcher arm, this bar removes the matrices, which are caught by their notches; the unnotched spacebands are released and immediately return to the place where they are stored. (8) When the catcher arm is at its highest position, the matrices are pushed to the right toward another triangular bar with 14 grooves along its length and flush with the top part of the magazine; this is the distributor bar. (9) The matrices move along the distributor bar until at a certain point the arrangement of grooves ceases to provide support for the notches, which of course are different for each letter or sign. Each letter's matrix is then released at the opening of its own channel in the magazine.

      The automatic cycle of the typesetter is controlled by several large cams mounted on a single shaft driven by an electric motor.

      Modern typesetting machines are equipped with several magazines of varying type sizes that can be used alternately. Some so-called double-distribution machines permit two magazines to be used at once by pressing a supplementary key.

      The performance of recent models has been improved by accelerating the revolution of the matrices, intensifying the cooling system of the mold, and increasing the number of molds on the mold wheel to six.

      The slugcasting typesetter, which furnishes solid, easy to handle, composed type, is particularly suited to printing newspapers. It has the disadvantage that to correct any error, however trivial, the whole line must be recomposed.

      The All-Purpose Linotype is a combination manual and automatic machine that retains only the casting part of the Linotype. Special matrices, solidly rectangular or with notches, ears, and heels, are assembled by hand in a composing stick. Justification is done with blank matrices of various sizes. The line of matrices, held by the composing stick, is placed against two set squares fastened to the bedplate of the machine and manually pushed on a slide rest, which takes it to the elevator. The elevator places the matrices in front of the opening to the mold for the casting operation, which delivers the slug. The matrices are then distributed by hand.

Typesetter casting aligned characters
      The operation of the Monotype typesetter, which casts individual aligned characters, is based on a system of measuring the width of characters, called the set. In each font, letters and symbols have sizes determined in units of set, from five units for the narrowest, such as the “i” or the “l,” to 18 units for the largest, such as the “W” or the “M.”

      The Monotype keyboard, separate from the caster, consists, on the standard model, of 274 keys, 30 of which, in two rows numbered from 1 to 15, are called justifying keys. Typing out the text results in the perforation, by an automatic punch, of one or two holes, each letter or symbol having its own pattern, in the width of a paper tape that allows 31 possible arrangements. An automatic calculator adds the widths of the letters and symbols typed out. Moving his forefinger across a scale that he has before him, the operator knows when the end of a line is near. Once he has finished a line, he places his other forefinger on the justifying drum, which indicates which two justifying keys he must now press. This move results in the perforation of one or two holes whose position indicates the quotient of the number of units lacking for the line to be completed by the number of spaces between the words of this line, plus a third hole in a position specifically fixed for the justification process.

      The typesetter is composed of an electric melting pot containing molten alloy situated under a mold in the shape of a vertical chimney, the internal dimensions of which can vary according to the measurement in units of set of the characters or spaces to be cast.

      The matrices are in the form of small bronze cubic blocks measuring five millimetres (0.2 inch) square, arranged in a steel frame nine centimetres (3.5 inches) square containing 15 rows of 15, enough for five complete alphabets, typically uppercase and lowercase in roman, italic, and boldface, and small capitals, as well as double or triple letters, numbers, and punctuation marks. Each row includes only matrices of letters and symbols of the same unit of set, from the smallest (five units) in the first row to the largest (18 units) in the back row.

      The frame can slide horizontally in either direction to place any matrix from any row above the opening to the mold.

      The process of setting and casting type on the Monotype is as follows: the roll of perforated paper tape is placed in the pneumatic tower of the typesetter—a row of 31 pipes distributing compressed air. As it unrolls, the tape prevents the compressed air from entering all pipes except those corresponding to the perforations.

      The tape unrolls in the direction opposite to that in which it was rolled up—that is, in the opposite order to the way it was typed, the last line appearing first and the justifying perforations being inserted into the pneumatic tower before those for the letters and symbols. The compressed air that the perforations allow to pass into three (or two) of the pipes causes pieces of metal (justifying quoins) to fall into position in such a way as to control the internal measurement of the mold each time that the spaces between the words of the next line are to be cast.

      The perforations for each letter or symbol allow the compressed air to pass into two (or only one) of the pipes connected to two blocks, each of which also contains a series of graded pins. Compressed air raises a pin in each block and halts the movement of the matrix frame in either of its sideways movements. In this way the matrix's row and the matrix's place in its row are selected. Selecting the row is the same as selecting a measurement given in units of set. Positioning the row is automatically linked to setting a piece of metal (the set quoin) whose position regulates the dimensions of the mold for casting the letter or symbol.

      For the casting, a centring device places the selected matrix precisely against the opening of the mold, and a plunger in the melting pot forces the alloy up to cast the character or the space (that is, the unengraved matrix).

      The composed line emerges from the machine completely assembled and justified and is placed in a galley.

      The Monotype can cast type ranging in body size from five to 24 points (with a special mold for each). The addition of a speed-reducing device enables it to cast in 48 points. The maximum width of lines assembled is 60 picas.

      In the early 1970s Monotype models could be equipped with a frame carrying 15 rows of 17 matrices (255) or 16 rows of 17 (272), with six or seven complete alphabets. The keyboard then has 310 keys.

      A special model of the keyboard permits simultaneous perforation of two tapes for composing the same text in identical or different kinds of type and lengths of line.

      The advantages of the Monotype system are the quality of its composition and the ease with which corrections can be made without having to reset the whole line. It is not well suited to newspaper printing because of the difficulty of handling lines of movable type and because, since typecasting begins with the end of the tape, composition must wait until all the type has been cast.

Automatic composition (perforated tape)
      The Teletypesetter (TTS) system extends to slugcasting machines the principle of separation of function originally characteristic of the Monotype: it enables Linotype or Intertype machines to be controlled by a perforated tape produced on a separate keyboard, even situated in a different city, since the combination of the perforations on the tape can be sent telegraphically.

      The Teletypesetter tape is six-channelled; that is, it contains six possible positions for perforations across its width. This allows 64 different combinations of from one to six perforations.

      This limited capacity, less than the number of keys on the keyboard of the typesetter, is corrected by an arrangement whereby each combination of perforations may have two different uses (for example, the uppercase and the lowercase of the same letter) according to whether it follows one or other of two special signals (themselves represented by combinations of perforations) that control passage of one or other of these uses.

      The keyboard for preparing the Teletypesetter tape looks like a typewriter with, in addition to the usual 44 keys and the space bar, 20 special keys. Striking each key establishes contact with the electric circuit or circuits that operate the perforators and at the same time acts on a calculating mechanism: a needle moving across a screen warns the operator of the end of each line.

      Usually, as the tape is perforated the text is also typed out on a sheet of paper, which allows the work to be checked, reread, and corrected. For use with a Teletypesetter, the typesetting machine is equipped with a mechanism that translates the tape. In this mechanism the tape passes under six sensors that register electric contacts as the perforations pass. In accordance with the combination of electric contacts thus established, relays control the action of the keys or of the bar that causes the spacebands to drop and, at the end of each line, the starting of the casting cycle.

      The most recent typesetters specially designed for use with the Teletypesetter offer such technical refinements as the elimination of the composing stick and immediate dispatch of the line to the elevator, simplifying the path taken by the matrices; and electromagnetic, rather than mechanical coupling, which speeds the starting up of the casting cycle.

Programmed composition (prepared by computer)
      The use of a computer eliminates manual intervention in preparing the perforated tape, in assessing the length of the lines, and even in deciding how to end them; i.e., whether by completing or dividing a word.

      Normally, the operator types out a continuous tape called idiot tape in the United States (kilometre tape in France) without concern for the length or division of lines. This band is inserted into the computer's input device, a tape scanner, which operates by means of either electric sensors or photoelectric cells and converts letters, signs, and orders into combinations of electric impulses. The computer semi-automatically or automatically processes this raw information in accordance with its programmed instructions and immediately communicates the result to an electromagnetic perforator, the output device, that produces a second tape, like the first but that also bears, in the proper places, perforations ordering the ends of lines.

      A general program establishes the operation of the computer in its application to the work of composition. Individual programs adapt it to the machinery of the company concerned (models of typesetters, available magazines of matrices) and to the kind of work carried out (usual length of line, method of indenting paragraphs, etc). Finally, special instructions punched on the tape by the operator at the same time as the text can interrupt the execution of the programs registered in the computer with directions valid for this text alone, in its entirety or in certain parts: choice of typeface among those available, transition from one kind of typeface to another available for the same typesetter, length of line and changes in the length, alignment to right or left, squaring of lines, indentations for ornamental capitals, spaces for borders or illustrations, and other details.

      Having identified the combinations of the perforations on the tape and separately retained the service signals addressed directly to it, the computer proceeds to estimate the amount of the space occupied in a line by its letters and symbols, referring to instructions registered in its memory regarding each. In the same way, it determines a justification zone in which a division in the line is necessary and possible, the minimum and maximum limits of this zone being fixed by the limits of expansion of the spacebands on the typesetter.

      If the end of a whole word comes within the justification zone, the computer itself signals the end of a line after this word and suppresses the space that would normally follow it. Otherwise, the last word must be divided. The process is said to be semiautomatic if a special operator, seated at a keyboard linked to the computer, must intervene to decide where to place the division in the word submitted to him on, for example, a cathode-ray viewing screen. The process is automatic if the computer is designed and programmed to make the decision itself; the operation then is carried out by starting a subprogram in which all the divisions possible in the word considered are listed (after a prefix, between syllables). This list is tested against prohibited divisions (according to the rules of etymology, phonetics, typography) stored in the rapid-access memory of the computer. From among the positions that are not eliminated during this test, the computer chooses the one situated nearest the end of the word. It automatically inserts the signal for the hyphen and orders the end of the line.

      The computer can also carry out the correction of mistakes before composition. Various methods are possible, of which two will be described briefly. In one, the perforation of the justified tape delivered from the computer includes the introduction at the beginning of each line of a numbered signal and is accompanied by a proofing copy of the text with a corresponding reference number for each line. When the mistakes have been corrected on the proofing copy, an operator prepares another, much shorter correction tape, which consists of the corrections preceded by the reference to the line on which they occur. The justified tape and the correction tape are jointly introduced into a double reader, the mixer, which determines anew the length of the line and where the division should occur, as well as for such succeeding lines as need to be modified, before producing a final tape.

      In the second method, the proofing copy can be typed out or shown on a cathode-ray viewing screen with the lines numbered but without the tape. At a keyboard connected to the computer, an operator types out the corrections, preceded by their line reference. If a viewing screen is used, the text reappears immediately in its corrected form, and the output perforator immediately delivers a justified and corrected tape.

      The computer is usually programmed to sort out and correct even mistakes or anomalies in typing, such as the presence of two consecutive spaces, in which case it cancels one. It can, if its capacity allows, receive a makeup program independent of the tape of the text; following the specifications of the layout (positioning and size of headings, text, and illustrations) coded in binary language, the computer itself introduces onto the perforated tape the special instructions concerning kinds of typeface, length of lines, changes in lines, etc.

      Because of the quantity of information needed for composition, the six-channel Teletypesetter tape is being increasingly replaced by seven- and eight-channel tape.

      Computer processing using a continuously typed tape can be applied equally well to the Monotype system. The programmed operation for dividing lines is in this case carried out by the automatic calculation of the width of the spaces between words and by the perforation, before the end-of-line signal, of a signal signifying the appropriate position of the justifying quoins. To enable the text to be read by the pneumatic tower of the typesetter, a converter transcribes the perforations from a narrow six-, seven-, or eight-channel conventionally perforated tape to the wide tape of the Monotype system.

      The use of computers is now widespread in preparing photocomposition jobs, with programs adapted to the specifications. The computer's output device can produce magnetic tape instead of perforated paper tape.

      One intake device no longer reads perforated tape but is an optical mechanism for scanning a typewritten text. The Retina reader, for example, is a sort of artificial retina made up of a group of photosensitive units able to identify each letter typed by a special typewriter, using only three data: height, width, and gray value; that is, the surface area occupied by the outline of its design.

      Cold type is the expression used, particularly in the United States, to describe a simple and economic method of preparing text by machines resembling ordinary typewriters but capable of producing justified lines in type that varies in width according to the letter involved. Justification is achieved in several ways by different versions of the machine. In the IBM Multipoint, a first typing calculates the total measurement of the type pieces up to the beginning of the justification zone and causes a coded sign to appear. A button is set in position over the coded sign thus assigned to each line before a second, final typing is done. The position of this button determines the automatic adjustment of the spaces between the words to the amount needed to obtain justification.

      In the Justowriter, the keyboard on which the uncoded, unjustified proofing copy is typed simultaneously perforates a paper tape with the code for the letters, as well as, for each line, the code for the amount of space between the words as indicated by a calculator. The tape then controls, on a second unit of the machine, the electric typing of the final justified copy.

      In the IBM Multipoint with magnetic tapes, a magnetic tape produced at the keyboard is processed by a computer for justification and, if necessary, for corrections. The final tape delivered by the computer controls the action of an output unit, which carries out the final typing.

      If the copy thus produced on paper is to be photographed to prepare printing plates by photogravure, cold type cannot be directly incorporated into photocomposition because of the intermediate operation.

      Optype is a hybrid process that simultaneously carries out the operation of justifying a text typed directly in cold type and transmits it to photographic film. By means of optical distortion, each line is stretched to the exact length of line projected on the film. The same mechanism also enables the line to be magnified or reduced or set in italics.

      Using phototypesetting, a direct image of the text is obtained, positive or negative, according to need, on a photosensitive, usually transparent surface by exposing the surface to light through transparent matrices, negative or positive, of the letters and symbols.

Manual phototypesetters
      Several small machines permit phototypesetting of short texts and titles in conditions to a greater or lesser degree short of automation. Among them are the following:

      Dantype uses separate transparent plastic matrices, which are assembled in a composing stick and placed in direct contact with the photosensitive film inside the machine.

      Typro makes use of letters and symbols on a negative film that moves to and fro to place the desired type piece in contact with the photosensitive film.

      Headliner incorporates letters and symbols that appear in negative on an interchangeable plastic disk whose position is controlled from outside. The film is exposed by contact.

      Hadego uses plastic matrices assembled in a composing stick, exposure taking place through an adjustable photographic lens that permits enlarging or reducing. With just two series of 350 matrices, one with a 20-point body, the other with a 48-point body, all sizes of type from eight to 110 points can be obtained.

      The Starlettograph, comparable to an ordinary photographic enlarger, can be used only in a darkroom. The type, inscribed on a semirigid plastic tape, is set in position one piece at a time, using red light that does not affect the photosensitive film.

      Letterphot works on the same principle as the photographic enlarger but on a luminous table. A first projection is made of all the characters of a line without the sensitive surface. Then the sensitive surface is placed on the luminous image of the line, which appears transparently and cannot therefore make an impression. Letters are successively printed in a two-part operation. First the letter is projected in normal light to cause it to coincide with its luminous image; the normal light does not make an impression on the sensitive surface, because the latter has a special composition. After this adjustment has been made, the letter is projected in actinic (photographically active) light, which exposes the sensitive surface.

      Diatyp and the Monotype photoheadliner (as well as the Varityper, which is similar in composition) are more elaborate phototypesetters, easier to operate and permitting production speeds of nearly one character per second. The image of each character on the matrix disk is controlled by a symbol that is read by photoelectric cells and which automatically moves the film forward the same amount as the space taken up in the line by the character. A totalizing calculator informs the operator of the rate at which the line is being completed, and justification can be achieved by a first typing without having the source of light in operation; in a second typing, the spaces between the words are adjusted the necessary amount. Adjusting the lens of the Diatyp produces characters ranging in size from four to 36 points and, using the Monotype, from five to 84 points.

Automatic phototypesetting
      The first Linofilm was a direct adaptation of the Linotype. Its photographic matrices were the normal Linotype matrices, the only difference being that, instead of bearing an intaglio engraving of the character on their face, they bore its outline in black on a white background. Lines were composed in exactly the same way as on the typesetter, justification being carried out by expanding the spacebands. The justified line is then passed a single time in front of a lens to be photographed.

      The Fotosetter is an adaptation of the Intertype machine but with functional differences. The matrices resemble matrices used for casting; they have the same notching and different thicknesses, depending on the character. But the outline of the character, instead of being inscribed on the face, is a transparency (i.e., a photographic negative), in a capsule set into the level surface of the matrix. These special matrices are called fotomats. In place of spacebands there are space fotomats of different thicknesses.

      The Fotosetter is equipped with magazines of 117 channels, 27 more than the typesetters, with an enlarged keyboard of 114 keys.

      Once the line has been assembled and justified, using space fotomats of the necessary sizes, the fotomats move inside an optical apparatus that sends a brief flash of light toward the sensitive film. After each exposure, the support of this film is moved slightly sideways by a rack-and-pinion system commanded by the withdrawal of the next fotomat from its alignment; the matrix moves in proportion to the thickness of this fotomat. When all the type pieces in a line have been photographed, the film unwinds the correct amount to present a clean surface ready for the phototypesetting of a new line, while the fotomats are carried off to the distribution bar.

      Equipped with a turret of 14 different lenses, the optical apparatus produces 14 sizes of type from three to 72 points, from the same set of fotomats of uniform 12-point size.

      The Monophoto is a direct adaptation of the Monotype system with, on the one hand, an independent keyboard that produces a wide perforated tape in the Monotype code and, on the other, a phototypesetter operated by inserting this tape. The type pieces are chosen by positioning a frame, which carries 17 rows of 20 cubelike matrices in which the letter or symbol appears as a transparency, in negative, in the path of a beam of light. This beam, after proper processing, is directed toward the sensitive film, on which it makes an impression. It first travels through a combination of magnifying glasses and prisms whose position in relation to each other is adjusted to obtain the desired ratio of enlargement or reduction. The sensitive film remains stationary on the drum carrying it as a composed line, while the element that enables the beam of light to move from letter to letter is a set of two mirrors placed face to face at a 90° angle and mounted on a mobile carriage. Before each exposure, this set of mirrors shifts, parallel to the direction of the sensitive film, the same amount of space as the width of the character about to be composed. This amount of space depends also on the number of units of set of the letter or symbol and on the ratio of photographic enlargement or reduction. The movement of the mirrors is thus subjected to the command mechanisms of two factors: the position of the frame, since the matrices are arranged in rows of the same units of set, and the adjustment of the combination of magnifying glasses and prisms.

      Justification is accomplished, as on the typesetter, by predetermining the width of the spaces between the words. Since the justification perforations appear before those for the type pieces, they establish for the line to come the amount of space the set of mirrors has to shift at each space command punched in the perforated tape.

      After all of the type in a line has been photographed, the set of mirrors returns to its original position, and the drum bearing the sensitive film turns the amount necessary to continue on to the composition of the next line according to the degree of line spacing (leading) chosen.

      Using matrices of a single eight-point size, the Monophoto makes available the whole range or type size from six to 24 points. For perfect photographic reproduction it is usually found preferable to use two or three sizes of matrices to cover this range. Given the quality of its production, the Monophoto, sometimes linked to a unit programmed to prepare the tape, is popular for work that demands careful composition.

Functional phototypesetters
      A second generation of phototypesetters consists of functional machines that are analogous neither in structure nor in operation to typesetters using lead. Outwardly they resemble metal chests comparable to office furniture. Their design aims at reducing mechanical parts, inertia, and friction to the minimum. Their technical characteristics vary according to model, use, and cost.

      The keyboard, which is hardly more complex than that of an ordinary typewriter, can be attached or separated; in the latter case, information regarding the text to be composed is inserted by perforated tape. Computer units can be integrated, either merely to direct the machine's operations or to ensure completion of the justification process, division of words, and correction, whether from the adjoining keyboard or from a continuous perforated tape. Selection of the matrix image of each character can be done either by using a mobile support for the matrices (plastic tape, disk, drum) in front of a fixed source for the beam of light or by using a mobile beam of light in front of a fixed support for the matrices (glass or plastic plate); alignment of type pieces is carried out in either case by mobile prisms or mirrors.

      In addition to enlargement or reduction, the optical apparatus can be designed to carry out special effects, such as converting roman to italic type or stretching a line to make it longer or higher. The photographically composed text can be delivered either on paper or on film, in positive or negative, or in straight reading or reverse reading. The source of light is usually an electronic flash the intensity of which can, if necessary, be made proportionate relative to enlargement or reduction.

      Some of the characteristics of phototypesetters are outlined below.

      Linofilm (new method): The matrices of the 88 characters in a set are inscribed on a plate of glass that remains stationary during composition. The character is chosen by the shutter of the photographic lens. This shutter consists (as in a commercial camera) of very thin, overlapping metal blades, eight in number. Instead of always opening at the same point at the moment of exposure, it opens facing the desired character, each being set in position by an electromagnet so as to obtain this arrangement. After passing through the matrix of the character thus chosen, the beam of light is taken over by one of the 88 small lenses arranged behind the plate of glass and its trajectory directed towards a mirror mounted on an undercarriage, which carries out the alignment on the sensitive film.

      Using this very light electromagnetic mechanism, the Linofilm can produce up to 12 exposures per second, or 43,000 symbols per hour. Eighteen matrix plates arranged in a turret magazine are instantaneously usable, producing 1,584 characters. Three matrix plates are enough to photograph the same type face in 16 sizes, from six to 36 points.

      Diatronic, a phototypesetter made in Germany with an adjoining keyboard, uses matrix plates with 126 symbols. Selection is made after the beam of light has passed through all the symbols on the plate, through prisms which take up the position necessary to retain only the light coming from the matrix of the chosen character.

      Photon-Lumitype was the first phototypesetter to introduce the selection and photographing of the character in a rapid circular movement without interrupting continuity.

      The matrices are inscribed in concentric circles on a disk that revolves continuously at 10 revolutions per second in front of an electronic flashtube whose light lasts a few millionths of a second for each character. Selection is by means of a system of rotary contact makers, controlled by the telegraph system. A nylon drum is integrated with the matrix disk and turns with it in the same movement; the drum is encircled with as many tracks as there are channels in the binary code used to define the characters. These tracks are the transmitting and isolating elements that pass under a row of electric sensors. A special combination of transmitting and isolating elements corresponds to each character matrix positioned ready to be photographed.

      Whether by striking a keyboard or by perforating a tape, selecting a given character consists of the precise formulation of the combination that establishes the electrical contact and initiates the flash of light. This selection can be acted on only at the precise moment when, as the disk revolves, the matrix of the desired character moves into position to be photographed.

      Whether textual information is fed into the machine on an adjoining keyboard (as on the early Linotypes) or on a keyboard directly connected to the photographic unit or whether it is done on perforated tape, this information is in every instance preserved, line after line, in a memory, formerly mechanical but magnetic on the later models, which at the same time permits calculation of the size of the spaces between the words and ensures that the character's binary signal is presented during the 1/10-second period of time available.

      It is possible to attain a production speed of 10 symbols per second, or, theoretically, about 36,000 per hour; in practice the figure averages less.

      Each of the eight concentric circles on the matrix disk contains two complete sets of 90 characters, which can be filmed in 12 sizes, from five to 72 points. In other words, a total of 17,280 characters are immediately available.

      Another Photon-Lumitype model operates on the same principle, but the disk is replaced by a drum revolving 30 times per second around an axis that coincides with the source of light. The type matrices are inscribed in negative on two films carried on the surface of the drum, and the source of light consists of two electronic flashtubes, one for the upper, the other for the lower half of the drum.

      This model's total capacity in characters (four complete sets and eight ratios of enlargement or reduction) is three times smaller, but its speed of composition is three times faster: it can attain 80,000 symbols per hour.

      By putting the same films of type matrices in the upper and the lower part of the drum—that is, by cutting in half the number of characters stored—speed of production can be raised to 120,000 symbols per hour.

      Europa-Linofilm is similar in design to the Photon-Lumitype just described, with a permanently revolving drum but with an electric type-matrix selection system. These matrices are small individual plates bearing not only the negative image of the letter or symbol but also a series of transparent marks whose arrangement constitutes its binary identification code. In the revolving drum this coded part of the plates passes in front of a scanner made up of a series of photoelectric cells. As soon as the scanner picks up a coincidence between the code of the type matrix and the code of the character selected for composition, it activates the shutter release of the electronic flash.

      The Europa-Linofilm drum is composed of four superimposed levels, each containing 120 duplex type matrices—for example, with the same letter in both roman and italic—easily interchangeable in order, since their identification is not linked to their place.

      Photon-Lumizip is based on a different principle. The performance speed of drum phototypesetters can hardly be increased because of the technical problems posed by the rapid rotation of the drum. To increase speed, the Lumizip abandoned rotary movement. The type matrices are stationary and are aligned in negative on a large-sized plate. There is an individual electronic flash behind each type matrix. The sensitive film is stationary while a line is being composed. The only moving element is the component of the lens placed between the plate and the film, which carries out a rectilinear to-and-fro movement, parallel to them. The flashtube situated behind a given matrix emits its beam of light each time that the component of the lens finds itself, in the course of its to-and-fro movement, in the axis that joins this matrix to the position where the letter to which it corresponds is to appear in the line to be composed on the sensitive film. Thus, the order in which the characters are photographed is neither that in which they appear in the text nor that of the matrices on their plate but that determined by an angular relationship between them both.

      A computer is built into the Lumizip. As soon as the coded signals for a line to be composed reach the computer, it determines the order and the exact moment when each flashtube is to operate, synchronized with the movements of the component of the lens.

      In practice, the type matrices are aligned on the plate not in a single row but in 11 horizontal rows. The component of the lens always moves in the same horizontal plane, which is the same as that of the line to be composed and also that of the median row, the sixth, of the matrix plate. Alignment of characters from the other rows is achieved by means of two level, horizontal mirrors placed on either side of this horizontal plane, parallel to it and face to face at a small distance from one another. The beams of light coming from the flashtubes of the matrices of the median row pass between these two mirrors without touching them. But the beams of light coming from the flash tubes of the matrices of the other rows strike these mirrors at an angle that is sharper, depending on how far the row is from the median row, and between these mirrors they are repeatedly reflected, the number of reflections depending on the angle: one for rows five and seven, up to five for rows one and 11, the last reflection falling into alignment on the sensitive film.

      Mechanical movement in the Lumizip is reduced to the extreme minimum, because the component of the lens is the only moving part. Since it depends on an alternating, rectilinear movement and is therefore handicapped by factors of inertia, its speed, which cannot be as great as that of a continuous rotary movement, is only 10 to-and-fro movements per second. But during a single one of these to-and-fro movements all the several dozen characters for one line are photographed. Thus, the Lumizip attains a performance rate perhaps 20 times superior to that of the Lumitype. Theoretically, it can perform at a rate exceeding 2,000,000 symbols per hour and in practice has produced over 1,000,000.

Electronic phototypesetters
      In phototypesetters of the third generation, the beam of light is replaced by a flow of electrons, which offers the advantage that the electrons can be deflected by means of magnetic fields without the intervention of mechanical parts such as mirrors and lenses. Television systems are based on this characteristic, and an early type of electronic phototypesetter is structurally comparable to a closed-circuit television system. A reading device analyzes, by fine scanning, the outline of the matrix of the letter to be composed and converts the luminous information it obtains into electronic signals. The cathode-ray screen of an output device reconstitutes, in accordance with these signals and by a fine scanning device synchronized with the reading device, a luminous image of the letter, which makes an impression, through an optical reducing device, on a photosensitive surface. A computer, depending on the text to be composed, directs the position of the reading device's scanner towards that part of the matrix plate that bears the matrix of the letter selected, and simultaneously directs the position of the output device's scanner toward that part of the screen that corresponds to the position of this letter in the line being composed.

      On some models, the scanning device consists of the equivalent of a television camera whose electron beam is selectively deflected towards the chosen matrix and directly analyzes the luminous information coming from it. On others, a cathode-ray tube takes the place of the emitter of a regular beam of light by scanning behind a plate on which the matrices appear in transparency. On the other side of the plate, photoelectric cells collect this beam at the moment it passes through the matrices and react by emitting electronic signals directed to the output device.

      For matrix selection, the face of the emission tube is divided into 16 square sections (four by four), of which only one is illuminated at a time by selective scanning directed towards it. There are 16 photoelectric cells arranged in a square (four by four), only one of which is in operation at a time. Thus, there are 256 (16 by 16) possible arrangements of the chosen section and of the chosen cell. Each combination corresponds to an optical trajectory belonging to one or the other; that is to say, to the precise positioning of one of the matrices over the plate.

      On the screen of the output device, the letters have a definition of 650 lines per inch for ordinary work and 1,300 lines per inch for quality work. The line structure is invisible after the letters have been reduced for photographic reproduction.

      A more complex model of the Linotron scans, on the screen of the output device, the surface of a whole page, composing as it goes all examples of the same letter in all the places where it occurs on the page. Composition of the page is completed after all the matrices have been exposed once. The average speed of production is on the order of 1,100 symbols per second, or almost 4,000,000 per hour.

      Carrying the system of electronic composition to its logical conclusion, designers have replaced the matrices, whose outline had to be repeatedly electronically analyzed, by the results of analyses previously carried out and preserved in binary form in a magnetic rapid-access memory, setting up for each letter the output program for its luminous image on the cathode-ray screen when it is selected for composition. Electronic phototypesetters of this kind are called alphanumeric.

      Hell-Digiset carries out a preliminary analysis by inscribing the outline of each letter on a very dense grid of 3,000 to 6,000 small squares, according to the body size of letter envisaged. Those squares covered by the outline are assigned the symbol 1 of the binary code; the others are assigned the symbol 0. The result of the analysis is first inscribed in perforations on an eight-channel tape. Tape containing perforations for an entire set of type in a given style is inserted into a special Digiset reader to instruct the magnetic memory, in a few dozen seconds, concerning type production. All that is necessary to change the style of type is insertion of the tape belonging to another set.

      The Digiset 50 T 2 can reach a production speed of 3,000 characters per second, or more than 10,000,000 per hour. One Digiset is designed to permit a whole newspaper page to be composed photographically in a single scanning operation; not only the words but also the illustrations are analyzed in binary code.

      Fototronic-CRT and APS (Alphanumeric photocomposition system) reduce the amount of coded information by interpreting each letter as a series of closely packed adjacent vertical lines whose distinguishing parameters are their height and their position. Vertical scanning on the screen of the photographic output device reproduces these lines one after another according to these parameters.

      The number of lines varies from about 50 to 90, depending on the width of the letters, and the number of units calculating the measurement of parameters of height can go up to 80, which amounts to a definition perceptibly as fine as the Digiset grid, or 800 lines per inch in two dimensions on the screen of the output mechanism.

      The APS electronic phototypesetter has a production speed of 3,000 to 10,000 characters per second, the latter figure amounting to 36,000,000 per hour.

Makeup of letterpress copy
      Preparing a form suitable for use in printing from letterpress copy, whether in individual type pieces or in lines of lead alloy, is an operation called makeup. This is preceded, if the same form is to include several smaller pages to be printed together, such as a book, by an operation called imposition, which consists in laying out the pages in the form so that they are in their numerical order after the printed sheet has been folded into a signature of eight, 16, or 32 pages.

      In the case of a daily newspaper, one form is generally used for each page. When the manuscript or typescript copy containing information regarding the type and the justification required arrives at the printing plant, it is divided among several Linotype machines. The titles are composed, depending on their body size, in movable type on a Ludlow or Linotype machine. When corrected from galley proofs, the titles and columns of text arranged in galleys are brought to the compositor, together with, where relevant, plates of illustrations or advertising matter mounted on lead blocks the same height as the type. Standing at a level casting table, the stone, and following the instructions on a layout, the compositor arranges the elements inside a rectangular steel frame, the chase, usually equipped with a locking system using quoins that slide along the inside of two of its adjacent sides.

      The compositor inserts leading between paragraphs to bring each column on the page to its proper height. He separates columns and articles using leading or rules cut to the desired dimensions. Once the chase has been locked, proofs are taken to check the page for final corrections before it is pressed on to a metal frame to be brought to the press.

Mounting composition on film
      Composition on film consists of a mounting operation carried out on a luminous table. Films of the text and titles and positives or negatives of the screened or unscreened photographs, depending on the printing method to be used, are arranged on a sheet of transparent plastic of the dimensions indicated on the layout, placed under the plastic sheet and lighted from beneath. The film is glued or fixed using pieces of transparent adhesive.

Conversion systems
      One composition process can be converted to the other. A page composed on film, in negative, can be used for photogravure plates or for metal or engraved plates intended for letterpress printing. Contrariwise, a page composed in type can be converted to a positive or negative, direct or inverted transparency by any of a number of techniques.

      The whole page, including the screened plates or photographic illustrations, can be subjected to conversion, or the text can be taken alone, leaving the positioning of illustrations until the positives or negatives of the illustrations, screened or not, according to the printing process to be used, are included in the makeup at a later stage.

Printing (press operation)
      Printing in the second sense of the word—that is, press operation—is the technique by which ink or other colouring agent, transferred to paper or any other material, is localized on printing surfaces delimited by the composition of texts or the making of illustration material.

      Juxtaposition of colours is achieved by submitting each sheet to successive impressions by typeforms each of which prints only on areas designed to carry a single colour and inked only in that colour.

      There are sufficient wavelengths in the three primary colours, blue, red, and green, to reconstitute all the colours of the spectrum. The colour perceived from an inked impression results from the fact that the ink reflects some waves of the range of colours of the spectrum and absorbs the others—that is, prevents them from being seen. Thus, three colours of ink can reconstitute the visual effect of all the range of colours by combining them appropriately. Yellow totally absorbs all waves of colour that are basically blue and reflects waves of colour that are basically red and green; magenta (deep crimson) totally absorbs green and reflects red and blue; cyan (close to turquoise) absorbs red and reflects blue and green.

      When two of these inks combine, each annuls in the other the capacity to reflect that one of the two primary colours that it cannot itself reflect; the eye then perceives only the one primary colour that both inks reflect; for example, red, by combining yellow and magenta inks. All three inks combined no longer reflect any of the three primary colours but appear as black.

      In trichromatic printing the screened plates necessary for each of the three colours of ink are prepared by selecting the colours through filters. A fourth plate is usually used for making a print in black ink to accentuate the contours and modelling in the picture, making the process quadrichromatic.

      Printing colours by superposition requires the exact positioning on top of one another of the successively printed constituent parts of the picture (usually printed in this order: magenta, yellow, cyan, black). The finer the definition of the screen, the more precise this positioning must be.

      Letterpress printing consists of transferring a thin film of ink from the printing surface of the typeform to that of the paper by pressing the two together.

      Letterpress presses are thus made up of two principal elements, one bearing the type form, the other exerting the pressure. These elements may be either flat or cylindrical. There are three principal types of presses, according to the way these elements are combined: (1) plane to plane; (2) cylinder to plane; and (3) cylinder to cylinder. In all types of letterpress presses the printing surface must be coated with a uniform layer of ink before receiving the paper. This inking is carried out by a mechanism composed of up to 20 rollers: take-up rollers carry the paste ink from the ink supply to the distributing and sliding rollers, which operate with a longitudinal to-and-fro movement to crush and spread the ink in an even layer on a level or cylindrical metal surface and finally contact rollers that transfer the ink to the printing surface of the typeform.

      The first two kinds of presses are sheet fed. The third can be either sheet fed or roll fed (web fed), depending on the model and type of work. Sheets of paper must be fed into the press in a sequence synchronized with the movement of the press. Most modern presses are equipped with an automatic feeder that functions in conjunction with the movement of the press. The feeders operate by either friction or suction. In a friction-operated feeder, the sheets of a pile of stock on a slightly slanting surface are fanned out so that each sheet projects over the one beneath in such a way that the friction of a cylinder can dispatch them individually one after another toward the feedboard of the press, where three pegs guide each into position. In a suction operation the sheets remain piled up vertically; a wheel brushes a corner of the top sheet and separates it from the others, enabling a compressed-air blower to inject a cushion of air underneath the sheet. A system of vents connected to a suction pipe lifts the paper and carries it towards the press's feedboard. An automatic device lifts the pile of sheets continuously into place. On all letterpress presses, slight irregularities of the surface of the typeform are compensated for by packing the platen with a material soft enough to absorb the irregularities.

      As the sheets leave the press, a powder is sprayed onto their surface to form a separative coating that prevents the transfer of ink from one sheet to another. An alternative in modern high-speed presses is the incorporation in the ink of a special quick-drying agent.

Platen presses
      Presses that operate plane to plane are called platen presses. A vertical clamping contrivance clamps the bed, which carries the form into which the composed type is locked, and the platen, which carries the sheet of paper while it is being printed. When this clamping contrivance is open, the typeform is inked by a series of rollers that descend and then reascend, and the printed sheet is removed and a new sheet placed in position on the platen.

      The pressure exerted during impression is about 40 kilograms per square centimetre (570 pounds per square inch). A platen press can reach a production speed of 5,000 sheets per hour.

Cylinder presses
      In presses that operate cylinder to plane, called flatbed presses (flatbed press), a cylinder provides the pressure while the typeform retains its flat surface, generally in a horizontal position. Generally, too, the bed is mobile to allow the typeform, as it moves back and forth, both to pass under the rollers of the inking system and to pass under the impression cylinder around whose outer surface the sheet of paper is wrapped, attached by a set of clamps. Flatbed presses fall into various categories, depending on the cylinder's operation.

      In the stop-cylinder press, a toothed rack incorporated in the bed engages a cogwheel incorporated in the cylinder while the bed is moving forward. As it moves back again, the cogs disengage. A shallow cavity in the cylinder makes it possible for the typeform to be slid underneath. Printing speeds can reach 5,000 sheets per hour.

      In the two-revolution press, the cylinder never stops revolving but is raised on its bearings as the bed moves back again in order not to touch the form. In its lowered position the cylinder's cogwheel engages a low-toothed rack incorporated in the bed; in its raised position the cogwheel engages a parallel high-toothed rack, which enables the cylinder to continue revolving in the same direction. Printing takes place during the first revolution; during the second revolution the cylinder runs free. Printing speeds are about the same as for the stop-cylinder press. But, by avoiding the mechanical jerkiness due to the stopping of the cylinder, the two-revolution press has a much smoother, more regular, and quieter action.

      On a single revolution press, the cylinder does not stop revolving but must be raised while the bed moves back. Its diameter is twice that of the two-revolution cylinder press, but one half of its surface is hollowed out in order not to touch the form. Printing, then, takes place in the first half of the cylinder's revolution.

      A perfecting press is a combination of two two-revolution presses bracketed together. It has two cylinders and a single bed bearing two different type forms. Thus, as it moves back and forth the bed prints two impressions, one for each form. The same sheet of paper is passed from one cylinder to the other and is thus printed on both sides. The padding on the second cylinder is constantly cleaned by a kerosene-coated roller to prevent a transfer from the first side of the paper to be printed. In fact, the second impression is better than the first, and the part of the job requiring a better quality is reserved for the second cylinder.

      The two-colour press also combines two bracketed two-revolution presses, but a small auxiliary drum is interposed between the two cylinders to ensure that a single sheet of paper presents the same side to be printed twice. The typeforms, which are designed to complement one another, are each inked with a different colour.

      Contrary to the general design of cylinder presses, the vertical cylinder press is composed of a vertical bed, and both bed and cylinder move vertically with a reciprocating motion, each in an opposite direction. The cylinder revolves only while it is moving up and down, which makes this kind of press similar to the stop-cylinder press.

      Printing speeds exceed 5,000 sheets an hour for paper up to about 2,000 square centimetres (300 square inches).

Rotary presses (rotary press)
      Presses that operate cylinder to cylinder, usually described as rotary presses, consist of two cylinders turning in opposite directions. The typeform is attached to the surface of one cylinder, and the impression cylinder provides the pressure.

      Sheet-fed rotary presses produce the same kind of work as flatbed cylinders, but the size of paper can be slightly larger, and production speed is three times higher using the same size of paper. The inking system is much the same as in flatbed cylinder presses. In both models the sheet of paper is held to the impression cylinder by a set of clamps. On the largest models passage of the paper between the cylinders is controlled only by precise positioning and presentation of the paper.

      The two-colour rotary press combines two plate cylinders, each bearing a different typeform and each provided with its own inking system against a single impression system, in a so-called satellite arrangement. Thus, the same side of the same sheet of paper receives two successive impressions of two different colours in a single revolution of the impression cylinder.

      The rotary perfecting press uses the same arrangement as the previous machine, but a second impression cylinder of smaller dimensions is interposed between the first impression cylinder and one of the plate cylinders. Thus, the sheet changes sides between one impression and the other and so is printed on both sides.

      The two-colour cylinder and flatbed press combines a rotary and a single-revolution press by using the same impression cylinder. Clamped around this cylinder, the sheet of paper first moves against the curved form on a plate cylinder inked by the first inking system; then it moves against a flat form on a mobile bed inked in another colour by a second inking system.

      Polychrome rotaries permit three, four, or five colours to be printed on the same sheet without handling the pile of paper. Some of these are designed on the planetary principle, using as many plate cylinders as colours, each being fed by its own inking system and grouped around a single impression cylinder. This type of machine is much more popular in North America than in Europe. Others are designed as a row of identical units each printing one colour, the paper moving from one unit to another by means of a transmission drum or a conveyor contrivance.

      Roll-fed rotaries are exceptionally large, with high rates of production, and are used almost exclusively for printing daily newspapers. Their principle is extremely simple; the continuous roll of paper drawn from a reel moves between a plate cylinder and an impression cylinder. In practice, the cylinders of some have a circumference twice the height of a page of newsprint. Thus, each revolution of the cylinder prints two copies of the same page. On others the circumference of the cylinders corresponds to the width of four pages of newsprint side by side; each revolution prints eight copies of the same page.

      In another type, the basic unit of the rotary, called the group, is composed of a symmetrical arrangement of two plate cylinders with their impression cylinders. Within the same group the roll of paper moves from one of the plate cylinders, where it is printed on one side, to the other cylinder, where it is printed on the other side. Each revolution of the machine thus produces a group of two times eight pages of newspaper printed on both sides. Inking is effected by distributing, sliding, and contact rollers that receive ink from dozens of openings distributed across the width of the cylinder, each of which can be precisely adjusted. In each group paper is fed in by a barrel-like device with three axes for supporting the reels, which makes it possible to move over from a finished roll to a new one by a simple gluing operation and a 120° revolution. The reels weigh up to 600 kilograms (about 1,300 pounds). The rotary press is made up of a certain number of identical groups in alignment.

      After printing, the roll of paper is automatically folded down the middle so that on both sides only two pages remain face to face. Moving along a triangle with rounded sides and then passing between rollers, each half roll is folded in the middle to form a newspaper. A cutting mechanism, synchronized with the action of the rotary, separates each newspaper from its neighbour.

      Depending on the number of pages of the newspaper, various arrangements are possible: rolls coming from different groups can be added to by accumulation to produce two issues in a multiple of four pages. A roll half as wide as the others coming from one of the groups can be added to the middle of one or more of the usual rolls, producing two issues in multiples of four pages, plus two. Two parallel rollers, called turning bars, arranged at an angle of 45° in relation to the flow of the roll, enable the roll, after it has been printed and folded in the middle, to be folded in half again so that each of the two issues produced by the group is formed into a signature of eight pages.

      For colour printing, the same roll of paper moves through several groups in succession, in each of which the plate cylinders carry typeforms appropriate for each of the colours necessary.

      Modern rotaries can revolve at the rate of 35,000 revolutions per hour (500 metres [1,600 feet] of paper per minute), or at a theoretical production rate of 140,000 newspapers an hour in two issues from the final group. In practice, the average rate of production is about half this figure.

      At speeds such as this, inspection and safety precautions are more reliably carried out by electromagnetic devices based primarily on the use of photoelectric cells; (photoelectric cell) for example, a series of cells on the track, over which a roll of paper moves, react to tearing by stopping the machine.

      In colour printing, photoelectric cells ensure matching by selectively picking up the guide marks printed in each colour as they go by and by reacting to any irregularities in the distance between these guide marks. Any error is automatically corrected by modifying either the speed of one group or the pressure of the rollers that control the tension of the paper between one group and the next. Matching up across the width of the paper is controlled by cells that react to any lateral digressions as the paper moves along by controlling a lateral-shifting mechanism.

      Quality control of colour reproduction is also carried out by photoelectric cells that emit a current whose strength is proportional to the intensity of impression of the guide marks for each colour. By comparing this intensity with a colour scale, a computer determines the continual adjustments needed in the composition of the inks and controls the opening of valves to add pigment if the inks are too light or colourless varnish if they are too dark.

Preparing stereotypes and plates
      The curved shapes with which the printing cylinders of the rotaries are fitted are the stereotypes, or plates. These may be produced from ordinary flat typeforms by reproducing the relief surface of the type copy and of the plates for illustrations made from halftone photoengravings and line engravings. Alternatively, screened photographic illustrations are used to make plates from mounted positives of transparencies by means of photoengraving.

      In making stereotype plates, a flong, or mat, a thin sheet of pasteboard, pliant enough to register an impression and sufficiently heat-resistant to tolerate the molten type metal, is placed on the type form with paper and cotton packing. It is subjected to heavy pressures in a press at a moderately high temperature to ensure that it dries; it retains an intaglio impression of the relief surface of the type form and is placed against the inside wall of a curved casting box into which a lead alloy is injected. The cooled stereotype plate resembles a rigid shell, solid or ribbed according to its thickness.

      The plate is mechanically finished to ensure uniform thickness and to provide properly bevelled edges; metal from nonprinting areas is routed out to avoid ink smudges. Finally, the plate is electroplated with a thin layer of nickel to increase resistance to wear.

      Though it is rarely done, stereotype plates can equally well be cast flat, then curved while heated after being finished.

      The stereotype process is the fastest and most economical process for obtaining curved plates, but such plates are not suited to the precise matching up necessary in colour printing because of the irregular behaviour of the mat; its performance depends heavily on humidity and temperature conditions.

      In making electrotype plates, an impression is made of the typeform using a substance that is a conductor of electricity or can be made conductive by treating with black lead or dusting with a powdered metal such as silver. Any of the following may be used: a sheet of wax submitted to heavy pressures in the press; a sheet of lead submitted to extra heavy pressure; a sheet of Tenaplate, a kind of vulcanized plastic covered with a film of black-lead wax, submitted to pressure only slightly less than that for lead; a sheet of celluloid or a sheet of plastic (Vinylite, tenalite composed of a layer of aluminum between two layers of Vinylite, etc.).

      After metallizing to ensure conductivity, these molds are electroplated with a thin copper shell, delicately reproducing the relief surface of the type form. This shell is stripped from the mold and reinforced with a backing of lead alloy poured over its underside. Nickel plating can again be employed to increase its wear resistance.

      Electrotype plates can be curved while cold after they have been backed or while hot, during leading, when the lead has not yet solidified. There are also impressions that can be curved before electroplating to obtain curved copper shells. The plate is then reinforced by spraying molten metal against the shell while it is fixed against the inside wall of a rapidly spinning drum.

      Making electrotype plates, especially in a curved shape, is a costly process, but they produce the best quality print. An impression made with a sheet of lead is best suited to printing in colour because it is least sensitive to variations in humidity and temperature. Metal-shell plates are attached to the plate cylinder mechanically.

      Stereoplastic plates are made in two successive moldings. A hot mold is made in the press from the typeform in a thermosetting material; that is, one that can be melted only once and can thereafter tolerate high temperatures without damage, such as Bakelite. This first molding itself serves as the mold into which is pressed the hot material for the plate—usually cellulose acetate, vinyl resin in sheets or in powder to which a plasticizer has been added to make it more durable, or a sheet of rubber gum that will be vulcanized when pressed. New liquid plastics can also be employed using a method similar to casting.

      The plates are trued up by milling or filing to the desired thickness and glued either to the plate cylinder of the rotary or to a metal plate wrapped around it.

      Stereoplastic plates are light and easy to use, particularly on small rotaries. Their printing quality is good enough for texts and line illustrations, although they are ill suited for fine-screened halftone illustrations.

      Whether wraparound plates (wrapround plates in Great Britain) are made of metal or of plastic, they utilize photosensitive materials in their preparation.

      Metal wraparound plates may be of copper, magnesium, or zinc. Only one type of zinc, microzinc, whose molecular structure permits finer prints than ordinary zinc, is used. The plates are covered with a layer of photosensitive material and processed like photoengravings, using negatives of the pages on which the photographic illustrations have already been screened. Because the engraving is only half as deep as letterpress engraving, ink rollers of a larger diameter are used.

      The plate can be curved after engraving, but curving is usually done beforehand, both to avoid breaks in the metal and to obtain an absolutely uniform degree of bend in the various plates for colour printing.

      Plastic wraparound plates utilize the property of photosensitive polymers (polymer) to lose their solubility in certain solvents when exposed to light. Exposure to light through the negative of a page fixes the insolubility of the polymer and limits it to the areas that are to constitute the printing surfaces. A suitable solvent then eliminates all the nonprinting areas and sets off the type in relief.

      New polymers with this property and with new qualities are constantly being perfected. Among the better known examples are nylon, Dycril, and KRP. Nylon is sensitized in bulk by immersion in a solution of acetone containing the sensitizing agent. The plate is exposed to ultraviolet light, and the nonprinting areas are dissolved by a bath of methyl and ethyl alcohol. It takes 24 hours for the plate to attain its maximum hardness. Dycril is sensitized by immersing it for 24 hours in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. The nonprinting areas are removed by sprinkling with a solution of sodium hydroxide. Because it is preferable for the plate to be curved before being engraved, exposure takes place on a rotary drum turning in front of an arc lamp and the bath on a rotary drum turning in a trough. The total amount of time required to make a plate is about 45 minutes.

      KRP (Kodak Relief Plate) is a sheet of cellulose acetate that is superficially sensitized by the deposit of a thin coat of photographic emulsion. After exposure to light, this emulsion remains only on the printing areas, which it protects from the action of the solvent. Engraving the KRP plate can also take place on a rotary drum.

      The polymer of the plastic wraparound plates is usually mounted on a base consisting of a metal sheet. The depth of the engraving can equal the actual thickness of the polymer. The type therefore stands out in sharp relief. Whether metal or plastic, the wraparound plates are easily and rapidly attached by means of register hooks, which ensure perfect tension of the plate on the surface of the rotary's plate cylinder.

Scope of letterpress
      Letterpress printing is characterized by the sharpness and strength of bite of the type. It produces good reproduction of illustrations on sheet-fed machines, with these two reservations, that screening prevents the reproduction of pure white, and it is not possible to use more than four colours without risking a speckled moiré pattern. Roll-fed printing still preserves a good sharpness in the text but produces only an acceptable or average photographic illustration, depending on the quality of paper, and then only in black. Colour printing of illustrations on roll-fed rotaries can hardly rise above the mediocre level, even with the use of special rotaries in which the printing groups are drawn as close together as possible.

      Rotogravure is a system of intaglio printing. It consists of transferring to paper fluid ink contained in the cells of the printing cylinder, while the projecting nonprinting areas on the surface of this cylinder are kept free of ink by constant wiping.

      The density of the print at each point depends on the depth of the cell at that point and the quantity of ink it contains, rather than on the printing surface, as in the letterpress process. The screen no longer plays an optical role. It is used to establish the partitions that separate all the cells of the honeycomb from each other and that form a surface of uniform height, while the cells are all of different depths, so that the ink is taken up on the engraved surface in an exactly defined quantity. The screen also prevents the wiping mechanism from penetrating the cells of the cylinder and withdrawing the ink. For this reason, line drawings and even the text type must be screened, as well as the photographic illustrations.

      Rotogravure rotaries are thus composed of two principal elements: the cylinder bearing the printing form and the impression cylinder; the paper moves between these two cylinders either in sheets or from a roll.

      The nature of the ink used in rotogravure and the operation of the wiping mechanism make the use of plates technically more delicate because of the indentation that would be necessary in the places where they were affixed to the cylinder. Plates are used only on certain sheet-fed machines, because they are easier to prepare and stock. Generally speaking, the image is etched directly onto the printing cylinder, which must therefore be easily handled.

      Ink of sufficient fluidity is used to allow direct inking of the engraved cylinder without the use of a roller to spread and distribute it. While the paper tangential to its upper surface is being printed, the lower part of the cylinder is bathing in the pool of ink. In fast-working machines the ink can be poured on through a spout or sprayed onto the surface of the cylinder, to avoid flying ink. On the plate machines, inking must be done by roller to avoid filling the hollows of the clamping system with ink.

      Between inking and printing, the wiping mechanism comes into action. It consists of a thin blade of soft steel, the scraper, or doctor blade, which moves slowly to and fro lengthwise. By rubbing against the cylinder with a precisely regulated degree of pressure, it causes the excess ink to drop off before the cylinder moves over the paper.

      In sheet-fed machines the impression cylinder is like that of a letterpress press, with a diameter large enough to carry the sheet wrapped around its surface, gripped and released by a system of articulated clamps. Production speed can attain 6,000 sheets per hour.

      Roll-fed rotaries generally consist of several printing units in line (up to as many as 18), each composed of a printing cylinder, an inking system, and a hard-rubber impression cylinder of small diameter. Each unit can turn in either direction to allow the paper to move through in any combination.

      When printing both sides, the same roll of paper must pass through two successive printing units. In colour printing the same roll must move through as many printing units as there are colours used on each side of the paper. Several rolls coming from different printing units can be added together by accumulation.

      Rotogravure rotaries normally include the same folding and cutting systems as letterpress rotaries, along with the electronic devices necessary for controlling the operation. Because of the fluidity of the ink, all rotogravure machines, whether sheet-fed or roll-fed, require a drying process. The paper passes over a heated drum or over sources of infrared rays or through a compartment ventilated with hot or cold air.

Preparing rotogravure cylinders
      The printing cylinders or plates are prepared from positives of pages on which neither text nor illustrations are screened. The photosensitive substance necessary for carrying out the photoengraving operation, carbon tissue, is separately packaged to permit it to be treated before being affixed to the metal. Carbon tissue is paper, in sheets or on rolls, coated with a layer of gelatin. This layer is sensitized before use by being plunged into a solution of potassium bichromate. The carbon tissue is first exposed to intense light through a glass plate bearing a transparent screen on an opaque background and then exposed a second time through a positive of the pages. During these two exposures the gelatin is hardened by the light, completely in the white and screened areas, more or less deeply in the halftones of the photographic illustrations, and not at all in the areas covered by text and lines.

      The carbon tissue is then applied to the copper surface of the cylinder (or plate). The tissue is then peeled off, leaving the gelatin film fused with the metal. The cylinder (or plate) is plunged into a warm-water bath, which dissolves the gelatin in inverse proportion to the degree to which it was hardened: totally in areas where it received no light like the text and line drawings, more or less deeply in the halftone photographic illustrations, and not at all in the screened areas.

      The etching of the copper is begun by sprinkling it with a solution of ferric chloride, which attacks the metal in the areas where the gelatin is totally dissolved and bites into it more or less deeply depending on the thickness of the surviving gelatin that it must penetrate. After being etched, the printing surface can be reinforced by chromium plating.

      Improvements on this classic method of preparing the rotogravure plate are continually being made. The carbon tissue may be replaced with silver emulsions on a plastic base; a direct copy without carbon tissue may be made by dusting the cylinder with a photosensitive substance and projecting the image on the surface of the cylinder by optical means or by electronic engraving.

      Plates for rotogravure are made of solid copper. Rotogravure cylinders consist of a steel mandrel on which a layer of copper has been deposited by electroplating. After printing, the etching is removed by grinding and a thin film of copper deposited to restore the cylinder to its original diameter. Restoration is simplified if the film can be prevented from adhering to the cylinder so that it can be ripped off after printing. This can be done by coating the surface of the cylinder with a copper–mercury amalgam before electroplating. After plating, the new copper film is then polished. Some electroplating baths produce a shiny copper finish, dispensing with the polishing operation.

Scope of rotogravure
      Even in long runs, rotogravure produces quality illustrations with rich colours. It is less suited to printing small typefaces because they are cut up by the screen.

      The first characteristic of offset printing is that the printing and the nonprinting elements are parts of a single continuous surface. The difference is simply that the printing parts of the surface repel water when moistened but absorb the ink with which they are coated, whereas the nonprinting parts absorb the water and repel the ink. The form used in offset printing is a metal plate the surface of which has been prepared to divide it into the parts with these opposite properties.

      The second characteristic of offset printing is that the ink is not transferred directly from the printing form to the paper but is first transferred to a rubber blanket. It is the ink retained by the blanket that is transferred to the paper.

      Offset presses utilize three principal elements: the plate cylinder; the blanket cylinder; and the impression cylinder, which applies the paper, in sheets or a roll, against the blanket cylinder.

      The plate cylinder is like the cylinder for wraparound plates on a letterpress rotary, with a groove in which the attaching and tension mechanisms are housed. A moistening system and an inking system are connected to this cylinder. The inking system is similar to that on letterpress presses, with a series of alternating hard and soft rollers that grind, spread, and evenly distribute the ink in a uniform thickness.

      The wetting system, which dampens the plate before it is inked, consists of a series of rollers that transmit regularly controlled quantities of water taken up by puddling in a tank or sprayed from rotary brushes grazing its surface.

      The blanket cylinder also has a groove containing the mechanism for attaching and controlling the tension of the blanket, which consists of several layers of fabric and rubber. During printing the groove of the blanket cylinder and that of the plate cylinder coincide at each revolution.

      On sheet-fed machines the impression cylinder has a cavity in which a system of articulated grippers is recessed. The movement of the machine is synchronized so that at each revolution the slightly projecting grippers enter into the groove in the blanket cylinder in such a way as to cause no damage to the latter. This problem does not arise on the impression cylinders of roll-fed rotaries, and their movement does not therefore have to be synchronized with that of the other cylinders.

      In sheet-fed presses the three cylinders, usually placed side by side, are of the same diameter and turn at the same speed. The movement of the cylinders is synchronized by meshing sprocket wheels. Paper is fed in by a feeder similar to that of letterpress presses.

      Offset machines can be used to print very large sheets. The fastest can produce 10,000 sheets per hour.

      In printing two or more colours, during the offset process the dampness of the plate is partly transferred, via the blanket, to the paper. This slightly alters the paper's dimensions, causing difficulties in register. The separate colours are therefore printed as nearly simultaneously as possible.

      On some two-colour machines a single impression cylinder applies each sheet successively against two blanket cylinders, each of which receives a transfer from its own plate cylinder.

      More generally, sheet-fed offset machines printing in two or more colours are designed as a series of printing units each consisting of three cylinders with their wetting and inking systems, the sheet being transferred from one unit to the next on drums of large diameter with a system of articulated grippers. Size of paper and speed are the same as for the one-colour machines.

      In the offset process an unusual arrangement, without impression cylinders, is possible. Simultaneous printing is done of both sides of the sheet as it passes between two juxtaposed blanket cylinders. Each receives a transfer from its own plate cylinder and prints one side of the sheet while at the same time acting as an impression cylinder for printing the other side of the sheet. Thus, the blanket-to-blanket machine consists of a total of only four cylinders.

      The various kinds of machines can be used in combination: for example, three one-colour printing units and one blanket-to-blanket machine can print one side of the sheet in four colours, the other side in black.

      Roll-fed rotaries work on the same principle as sheet-fed presses, with two differences—the groove for the plate fasteners on the plate cylinder is very narrow, and the impression cylinder, lacking grippers, has an entirely level surface.

      In-line rotaries are designed as a succession of one-colour printing units or, more frequently, blanket-to-blanket units. On these, as on the others, printing in several colours is done by sending the paper directly and horizontally through several successive units.

      On blanket-to-blanket rotaries, the back is printed simultaneously with the front. On rotaries made up of one-colour units, a turning bar reverses the direction in which the roll of paper presents itself. Feeding the paper into and taking delivery of it from the machine can be combined so that the rolls are superimposed to form a signature.

      Satellite rotaries (drum presses) work on the principle of a single impression cylinder of very large diameter that has arranged around its outer surface four, five, or sometimes six blanket cylinders. Each receives a transfer from its own individually moistened and inked plate cylinder. Thus, colour printing one side of a roll of paper is accomplished in a single revolution of the impression cylinder.

      Drum cylinders are most often made up of two symmetrical groups printing one side after the other. For quality colour printing with a heavy thickness of ink, rapid drying is necessary to prevent smudging. The roll therefore moves horizontally into a drier heated by a ramp of gas burners or hot-air blowers and is cooled as it passes over metal drums refrigerated by circulating water.

      Offset rotaries work at a speed of 15,000 to 20,000 revolutions per hour and have the same cutting and folding systems as letterpress rotaries.

      Preparing the plates used in offset involves defining and fixing the joint presence of two mutually repellent materials, one water-receptive for the nonprinting areas, and the other ink-receptive for the printing areas. As in letterpress the screen is necessary to translate the halftones of photographic illustrations into surface densities.

      Even though there is no question of creating reliefs, the preparation process is very similar to that of photoengraving. But, because the blanket intervenes between plate and paper, text and illustrations appear on the same offset plate in straight rather than in reverse reading as on letterpress plates.

Offset plate making
      Depending on the work they are intended for, various kinds of plates and processes for preparing them exist.

      Monometal plates are made of a metal with hydrophilic (water-receptive) properties, such as zinc or aluminum, the surface of which is treated to make it more porous. The plate is coated with a thin layer of a photosensitive substance, covered with a negative of the texts and previously screened photographic illustrations, and exposed to intense light. This hardens the photosensitive substance in the areas of the negative where the light passes through; that is, in those corresponding to the printing areas. The photosensitive substance is then washed away from the nonprinting areas, where the metal, now stripped, is wetted; the hardened photosensitive substance is inked.

      Presensitized plates are monometal plates coated with a photosensitive layer that has a life-span, away from light, of up to six months. Certain presensitized plates for use in short runs can be made of paper or plastic.

      Deep-etch plates are monometal plates prepared by inversion. The plate is coated with a photosensitive substance and then exposed to light through a positive of the text and screened photographic illustrations. This exposure hardens the photosensitive substance on the nonprinting areas. Washing eliminates the photosensitive substance on the printing areas, exposing the metal. The plate is then given a mild acid bath, which etches the metal of the printing areas to a shallow depth. An ink-receptive lacquer is spread over the surface of the plate; that is, over the hardened photosensitive substance wherever it still survives, as well as over the etched-metal areas. The hardened photosensitive substance and the lacquer are both removed at the same time by dissolving and brushing, exposing the metal of the nonprinting surfaces to be wetted. Lacquer remains in the cavities of the etched areas, ready to be inked. Plates treated by this process are suitable for longer runs (up to 250,000 copies).

      Bimetal or trimetal plates are composed of two superimposed metals, one of which is hydrophilic (aluminum, stainless steel, chromium, nickel) and the other ink-receptive (copper, bronze). Whichever of the two covers the other in a microscopic film is partly eliminated by the photoengraving operation. In the case of a hydrophilic metal, photoengraving is carried out using positives of the text and illustrations. In the opposite case, negatives are used.

      Among the combinations used in various commercial plates are chromium on copper or nickel on bronze for use with positives and copper on stainless steel or copper on aluminum for use with negatives. The combination of two metals can, in certain plates, take the form of a double film deposited on a third metal (steel or zinc), which simply serves as a base. Bimetal or trimetal plates are very durable and can be used to produce as many as 500,000 copies.

      Alongside these various types of conventional offset plates, special processes are being developed that tend to further simplify the work of preparation. Electrostatic (or xerographic) transfer plates were developed from the principle that certain materials (such as selenium) that are insulators while in the dark become conductors of electricity when exposed to light. A selenium plate is given a positive electric charge in the dark and then exposed to light through the positive of the text and illustrations. In the areas touched by the light, the plate becomes a conductor, and the positive charge disperses. A fine, negatively charged powder is sprinkled over the plate and is attracted by the positive charge in those areas of the plate where it still remains. The image thus revealed is transferred to an aluminum plate, which is positioned on the selenium plate and then given a positive electrical charge. The powder transferred to the aluminum plate is fixed by heating to constitute the ink-receptive printing surface.

      This whole operation, which is carried out automatically in a compact apparatus, takes only three minutes. Xerographic plates are used only on small machines.

      “Immediate” offset plates consist of a polymer layer that is sensitive not to light but to heat, which makes it become hydrophilic. Those areas not touched by heat retain the opposite property. The plate is then ready for printing without further treatment.

Scope of offset
      In offset printing the letters print a little less sharply and strongly than in letterpress, except on special qualities of paper. The reproduction of photographic illustrations, in black and in colour, also depends on the quality of the paper and may rival rotogravure reproduction when printed on offset rotaries with driers.

Other printing processes

      This process, also called indirect letterpress, or dry offset, is a combination of letterpress and offset. Like offset, it has a blanket cylinder as the transfer element between typeform and paper, but, like letterpress, it uses a relief typeform. Thus, letterset presses use the same three cylinders as offset, but there is no dampening system.

      Because of the use of a blanket, the text and illustrations appear on the typeform straight and not reversed. Consequently, the use of plates is excluded, since these would be made by making a mold of a conventional typeform. On the other hand, all types of metal or plastic wraparound plates, prepared using positive or negative transparencies, can be used. These plates are thinner than those used for letterpress, and the height of their relief is less. Rollers of a quite large diameter must be used for inking, and contact between plate and blanket cylinder must be extremely light.

      All the combinations that the blanket allows on offset machines are equally possible on letterset machines: blanket-to-blanket and drum press. Machines are manufactured that can be used interchangeably, both for offset and for letterset; in the latter case, the action of the dampening system is suspended. The size of paper and performance rates are the same in letterset as in offset.

Serigraphy (screen printing)
      Serigraphic printing consists of forcing an ink, by pressing with a squeegee, through the mesh of a netting screen stretched on a frame, onto the object to be printed. The nonprinting areas of the screen are protected by a cutout stencil or by blocking up the mesh.

      The screen is usually made of fine but strong silk gauze (available in different mesh sizes) but can also be made of synthetic gauzes (nylon, tergal) or of wire gauze (phosphor bronze, stainless steel, nickel) or of combinations (nylon–copper, nylon–bronze).

      Preparation can be carried out by hand. The design to be reproduced is transferred to the screen by drawing with a benzene-soluble ink, spreading glue over the whole surface of the screen, then dissolving the ink so that the glue remains only on the nonprinting areas. The nonprinting areas can also be covered with glued paper or film, cut out in the shape of the desired image and attached either by heat or by a solvent.

      Direct or indirect photomechanical processes are being more and more widely used, however. In direct photomechanical processing the screen is covered with a photosensitive layer and then exposed under a positive, the photographic illustrations having been screened previously. In indirect photomechanical processing, the printing and the nonprinting areas are prepared by exposure under a positive (screened, if necessary) of a photosensitive film (carbon tissue, the same as that used in rotogravure, or presensitized film), which is then bonded to the screen.

      Screen printing is still done largely by hand, the frame being lifted up after each operation; however, semiautomatic and automatic machines that are driven mechanically or by compressed air can carry out the series of operations: positioning the object to be printed, moving the frame, inking, spreading the ink with the squeegee, delivering the printed sheet or object, and transferring it to a drying apparatus.

      Serigraphic printing can be applied to a wide variety of surfaces—paper, cardboard, glass, wood, plastic, posters, bottles, electronic circuits, etc.—and to varied shapes: for printing cylindrical objects, the squeegee is stationary, while the screen revolves under it at the same time as the object to be printed.

      Modern machines reach speeds of from 1,000 to 6,000 copies per hour.

      A photosensitive layer, spread on a plate of glass and exposed under a negative, hardens and loses its hydrophilic properties in the areas where it receives light and in proportion to the intensity of the light received through the halftones of the photographic documents. It is then able to retain both ink and water in all areas, the ink repelling the water in inverse proportion to the intensity of the exposure.

       collotype printing, which is based on this property of mutual repulsion, is thus related to lithography. But it is also related to rotogravure in the fact that the thickness of the film of ink is not uniform but in proportion to the shades of tone in the original image. Collotype, the only printing process that can reproduce photographic documents without a screen, is characterized by its fidelity of reproduction.

      Collotype presses consist essentially of a bed bearing the glass plate prepared for printing, an impression cylinder carrying the sheet to be printed on its outer surface, and a system of ink rollers. The photosensitive preparation retains its own moisture, so no dampening system is necessary. Printing speed is low, rarely more than 200 copies per hour, and the useful life of the printing surface is very limited, from 2,000 to a maximum of 5,000 copies. Increasingly, the glass plate is being replaced by a cellophane film as the surface to which to apply the photosensitive layer. The prints can be cut out and, when glued onto wooden or metal blocks of type height, can be placed alongside a typeform for a limited number of copies to be printed from a flat surface.

      Collotype is used for printing limited editions of works that require an excellent quality of photographic reproduction in one or more colours, such as reproductions of documents or pictures, posters, and transparent illustrations for advertising or various artistic uses.

      Based on letterpress-printing principles, flexographic presses are composed of the same basic elements as letterpress cylinder-to-cylinder presses; that is, the impression cylinder covered with a rubber packing and an inking system, which is simplified, owing to the fluidity of the ink used. Although several sheet-fed models exist, flexographic presses are usually roll-fed rotaries that can reach large dimensions and high printing speeds. They consist of a group of several identical units that print an equal number of colours (up to eight). Flexography provides economical printing, either of solid lines or with quite a coarse screen, on unfinished surfaces, wrapping paper, cardboard, plastic film, and it is also used for printing newspapers and magazines.

      Electrostatic printing is a process of printing without contact, without a typeform, and without ink. The paper is coated with a very thin layer of zinc oxide, which makes it an insulator while in the dark and a conductor of electricity when exposed to light. This paper is given a negative electrical charge in the dark. It is then exposed by light projected through a positive film of the document to be reproduced. The zinc oxide layer becomes conductive wherever it is illuminated, and the negative charge is dissipated in those areas that correspond to the blank surfaces of the document. Finally, the paper goes through a bath containing pigmented particles that are attracted by what remains of the negative charge and are fixed by drying.

      Electrostatic machines have been designed for printing geographic maps. These are composed of five successive units, each carrying out the same complete cycle of processing the paper to produce an edition in five colours at speeds of about 2,000 copies per hour. Improvements in the bath of pigmented particles are making possible the application of the electrostatic process to printing small books.

Printing inks (ink)
      Printing inks contain three components: the vehicle, the colouring ingredients, and the additives. The vehicle, responsible for transferring the colouring ingredients from the ink fountain to the typeform, can be either a vegetable base (linseed, rosin, or wood oils), which dries by penetration and oxidation and at the same time ensures fixation, or a solvent base derived from kerosene, in which case drying takes place by evaporation. The colouring ingredients come in several forms: pigments, which are fine, solid particles manufactured from chemicals, generally insoluble in water and only slightly soluble in solvents; agents made from chemicals but soluble both in water and in solvents; and lacquers, obtained by fixing a colouring agent on powdered aluminum. The additives stabilize the mixture and give the ink additional desirable characteristics. The nature and proportions of the ingredients vary according to the printing process to be used and to the material to be printed. The proportions must be checked and sometimes modified during printing.

      Letterpress and offset use greasy inks. For printing on sheet-fed presses, thick greasy inks are used in which the vehicle is generally made of vegetable oils with the addition of hard natural or synthetic resins dispersed in mineral oils. Roll-fed rotaries use fluid greasy inks in which the vehicle is made up of heavy mineral oils.

      The colour black is generally obtained from an organic pigment, carbon black, derived from the incomplete combustion of oils or of natural gas. Coloured pigments are inorganic compounds of chromium (yellow, green, and orange), molybdenum (orange), cadmium (red and yellow), and iron (blue).

      Inks for offset are more highly coloured than those used in letterpress, because they must be transferred to the blanket before they reach the paper. Furthermore, the pigments must resist being picked up by the water from the dampening system.

      Inks with various special qualities exist for both letterpress and offset. In high-gloss inks, the vehicle is not homogeneous, as with ordinary inks, but heterogeneous, based on synthetic resins dissolved in a solvent, with lead and cobalt additives. This ink glazes as it dries. When printing several colours (colour printing), the whole series of operations must be finished before the ink has time to dry so that the inks can attach themselves to the surface.

      Quick-setting inks utilize a vehicle that also has a base of resins dissolved in a quick-drying solvent.

      Heat-set inks require the application of heat to facilitate both the oxidation process and the evaporation of the solvent, as well as the penetration of certain elements that had rendered the ink more fluid. Cold-set inks are hardened by chilling after printing, having been kept fluid by heat until they were applied to the typeform.

      Moisture-set inks become fixed when they are applied directly to damp paper or upon exposure to a water-spray after they are applied to dry paper. In such inks, which are used more in the United States than they are in Europe, the vehicle is a solvent, soluble in water, that, on contact, penetrates the paper, leaving the pigment on its surface. Odourless moisture-set inks are used for printing food packaging.

      Among other special-characteristic inks are metallic inks containing powdered copper, bronze, aluminum, or gold mixed with the pigment; magnetic inks, containing a powdered magnetized iron mixed with the pigment for “recognizing” the shape of printed characters as they pass before electronic reading equipment; and fluorescent inks.

      Rotogravure uses fluid inks in which the colouring agent, fixed on a natural or synthetic resin, is integrated in a fluid solvent to which, just before printing, a second, extremely volatile solvent is added.

      Flexography also uses fluid inks whose pigments or colouring agents are dissolved in pure alcohol, in alcohol solutions, or in water.

      Serigraphy uses inks of extremely varied consistency, depending on the surface to which they are to be applied; some are little different from ordinary paint, except that their composition must not be such that rapid drying would clog the mesh of the screen.

Robert Lechêne

Additional Reading
The history of printing has been the subject of many volumes. See D.C. McMurtrie (ed.), The Invention of Printing: A Bibliography (1962). Books retracing the origins of typography include: L.P.V. Febvre and H.J. Martin (eds.), L'Apparition du livre (1958); P. Butler, The Origin of Printing in Europe (1966); E.G. Duff, Early Printed Books (1893, reprinted 1968); and T.L. De Vinne, The Invention of Printing (1876, reprinted 1969). Biographical works on contributors to the invention of printing are: S. Jennett, Pioneers in Printing (1958); J. Guignard, Gutenberg et son oeuvre (1963); G.P. Winship, Gutenberg to Plantin (1968); and A. van der Linde, De Haarlemsche Costerlegende (Eng. trans., The Haarlem Legend of the Invention of Printing, by Lourens Janszoon Coster, 1871, reprinted 1968). The subject of an entire family devoted to the typographic art is treated by A.J. George in The Didot Family and the Progress of Printing (1961). The various stages of evolution of the techniques of printing are developed in: S.H. Steinberg, Five Hundred Years of Printing, 2nd ed. rev. (1962); M. Audin in M. Daumas (ed.), Histoire générale des techniques, 3 vol. (1962–68; Eng. trans. of vol. 1-2, A History of Technology and Invention, 1965–69); I.B. Simon, The Story of Printing from Wood Blocks to Electronics (1965); J. Watson, The History of the Art of Printing (1713, reprinted 1965); C.A. Clair, Chronology of Printing (1969); and I. Thomas, The History of Printing in America, with a Biography of Printers (1874; 2nd ed., 2 vol., reprinted 1967). One particular aspect of the history of printing is treated in C.H. Bloy, A History of Printing Ink: Balls, and Rollers, 1440–1850 (1967). Both history and technology are covered in P. Luckombe, The History and Art of Printing (1771, reprinted 1965); G. Baudry and R. Marange, Comment on imprime, 3rd ed. (1966), and also in G.A. Stevenson, Graphic Arts Encyclopedia (1968). Later sources include Benjamin Franklin V (ed.), Boston Printers, Publishers, and Booksellers, 1640–1800 (1980); Stanley Morison, Selected Essays on the History of Letter-Forms in Manuscript and Print, 2 vol., ed. by David McKitterick (1981); and Miriam Usher Chrisman, Lay Culture, Learned Culture (1982), all three covering different aspects of printing history.The specialized language of the profession and the technical terms that are appropriate to it are collected in the following dictionaries: Pocket Encyclopedia of Paper and Graphic Arts Terms (1960); W.M. Pepper, Dictionary of Newspaper and Printing Terms: English–Spanish, Spanish–English (1959); E.M. Allen, Harper's Dictionary of the Graphic Arts (1963); W.A. Savage, Dictionary of the Art of Printing (1841, reprinted 1966); W.W. Pasko (ed.), American Dictionary of Printing and Bookmaking (1894; reprinted with new introduction, 1967); C.T. Jacobi, The Printer's Vocabulary (1888, reprinted 1969); and R. Hostettler, Technical Terms of the Printing Industry, 5th rev. ed. (1969), which gives the equivalents of the words in five languages. In addition to general technical works on printing, such as F. Pateman and L.C. Young, Printing Science (1963); and R.R. Coupe, Science of Printing Technology (1966); there are numerous treatises for professionals, such as: C.A. Hurst and F.R. Lawrence, Letterpress, Composition and Machine Work (1963); E.A.D. Hutchings, Printing by Letterpress (1964); V.S. Ganderton and H. Copeland, Cylinder Presses, 2nd ed. (1965); L. Heitner, Introduction to Offset (1964); R.R. Karch and E.J. Buber, Graphic Arts Procedures: The Offset Processes (1967); J.E. Cogoli, Photo-Offset Fundamentals, 2nd ed. (1967); A. Kinsey, Introducing Screen Printing (1967); A. Kosloff, Photographic Screen Process Printing, 3rd ed. (1968); A.H. Phillips, Computer Peripherals and Typesetting (1968); E.A. Apps, Printing Ink Technology (1958), and Ink Technology for Printers and Students (1963). On the economics of the printing industry, see Printing Industry in Britain, U.S.A. and Japan (1964), ed. by the National Productivity Council, New Delhi. Some philosophical and social elements are discussed in Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962); J. Carter, Printing and the Mind of Man (1967); and W.M. Ivins, Prints and Visual Communication (1969). See also Geoffrey A. Glaister, Glaister's Glossary of the Book, 2nd ed. (1979); Janet N. Field (ed.), Graphic Arts Manual (1980); Patricia B. Mintz, Dictionary of Graphic Arts Terms (1981); and Edward Booth-Clibborn and Daniele Baroni, The Language of Graphics, trans. from Italian (1980).

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Universalium. 2010.

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