Norwich


Norwich
/nawr"ich, -ij, nor"-/ for 1; /nawr"wich/ for 2, n.
1. a city in E Norfolk, in E England: cathedral. 121,800.
2. a city in SE Connecticut, on the Thames River. 38,074.

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I
City (pop., 2001: 121,553), administrative and historic county, Norfolk, England.

Located on the River Wensum northeast of London, it had become an important market centre when it was sacked and occupied by the Danes in the 11th century. It was among the most prosperous English provincial towns for centuries; its economy was fostered by Edward III, who induced Flemish weavers to settle there, and by the influx of immigrants during the reign of Elizabeth I. One of England's largest centres of footwear manufacturing, it features a Norman castle and cathedral. It is the traditional regional capital of East Anglia and the site of a cathedral founded shortly after the Norman Conquest.
II
(as used in expressions)
Cooper Alfred Duff 1st Viscount Norwich of Aldwick
Juliana of Norwich

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      city, coextensive with the town (township) of Norwich, New London county, east-central Connecticut, U.S. It lies at the confluence of the Yantic and Shetucket rivers, which at that point form the Thames.

      The settlement, which was begun in 1659 and named for Norwich, England, by a company from Saybrook (Old Saybrook) led by Captain John Mason and James Fitch, became a legal township in 1662. Shipbuilding and shipping and the production of spun cotton, paper, clocks, and nails were important to its economy in the 18th century, and from the American Revolution to the American Civil War firearms were made there. Textiles then dominated the economy until after 1912, when there was a trend toward diversification that continues today. Norwich is the birthplace of the Revolutionary War traitor Benedict Arnold (Arnold, Benedict). It is also the site of Leffingwell Inn, a gathering place for patriots during the Revolutionary War, and the Indian Burial Grounds for members of the Mohegan Indian tribe, including the subchief Uncas. The homes of the Huntington family, many members of which were leaders in early American civil and military affairs, also are preserved there. Norwich is the seat of Three Rivers Community-Technical College (1963). The city was incorporated in 1784 and consolidated with the town in 1952. Pop. (1990) city, 37,391; New London–Norwich MSA, 290,734; (2000) city, 36,117; New London–Norwich MSA, 293,566.

      city (district), administrative and historic county of Norfolk, England. It is located along the River Wensum above its confluence with the River Yare, about 100 miles (160 km) northeast of London.

      The site does not seem to have been occupied until Saxon times, when the village of Northwic was founded on a gravel terrace above the Wensum. By 1004, when Norwich was sacked by the Danes, it had become an important market centre. Shortly after the Norman Conquest (1066), the cathedral church and a Benedictine monastery were founded near the river. The distinctive cathedral has a Norman apse and nave; among its Perpendicular Gothic additions is a 15th-century stone spire rising to 315 feet (96 metres), one of the tallest in England. The cathedral also has well-preserved cloisters that are the largest in England. A Norman castle (12th century) east of the town's principal market has been since 1894 the city's main museum and art gallery, with an archaeological collection and paintings of the Norwich school, which flourished in the 19th century.

      Until the late 18th century Norwich was one of the most prosperous of English provincial towns, challenged only by Bristol and York. The first charter dates from 1158. The prosperity of the medieval town is reflected in the number of churches dating from this period, 30 of which still exist. The town's prosperity was based upon the woolen industry, which was aided by Edward III, who induced Flemish weavers to settle in Norwich in 1336, and also by the influx of immigrants (mainly from the Low Countries) during the reign of Elizabeth I. In 1579 nearly a third of the town's population of 16,000 were immigrants. During the 15th century the flint Guildhall was built overlooking the market square. At the time of the English Civil Wars (1642–51) the population was predominantly behind the Parliamentary cause, and the town saw little strife. From the 18th century Norwich declined in relation to the new industrial centres of the north. Today Norwich is one of England's largest centres of footwear manufacturing. Engineering, printing, and the processing of mustard are also important.

      The University of East Anglia, founded in 1964, includes the Centre of East Anglian Studies and is situated at Earlham Hall, long associated with the Gurney family. The city also has a central library and the little Maddermarket Theatre.

      Norwich is one of England's major agricultural and livestock markets and serves as a shopping and entertainment centre for an extensive area. It is the traditional regional capital of East Anglia and an important centre of modern administration; located there are headquarters of the Norfolk county authority, as well as those of the county districts of Broadland, Norwich City, and South Norfolk. Area 15 square miles (39 square km). Pop. (2004 est.) 125,000.

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Universalium. 2010.

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