—Albertan, adj., n./al berr"teuh/, n.1. a province in W Canada. 1,799,771; 255,285 sq. mi. (661,190 sq. km). Cap.: Edmonton. Abbr.: Alba., Alta.2. a female given name, form of Albertine.
* * *With an area of 255,287 sq mi (661,190 sq km), Alberta is bordered by Saskatchewan, British Columbia, the Northwest Territories, and the U.S. Its capital is Edmonton. Long inhabited by various Indian peoples, the area was explored by Europeans in the 1750s. It eventually came under the rule of the Hudson's Bay Co., which transferred it to the Dominion of Canada in 1870. It was made part of the Northwest Territories in 1882. Its population grew with the coming of the railroads and the expansion of wheat farming. Alberta was made a province in 1905. Once dependent on agriculture, it underwent economic growth with the discovery of oil in 1947 and the ensuing discovery of other major oil and gas deposits.
* * *IntroductionAlberta, flag of most westerly of Canada's three Prairie Provinces, occupying the continental interior of the western part of the country. To the north the 60th parallel (latitude 60° N) forms its boundary with the Northwest Territories, to the east the 110th meridian (longitude 110° W) forms the boundary with its prairie neighbour, Saskatchewan, to the south the 49th parallel forms the international boundary with the U.S. state of Montana, and to the west the boundary with British Columbia is formed by the 120th meridian and the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The province is about 750 miles (1,200 km) in extent from north to south and about 400 miles (640 km) across at the greatest width. Alberta was established as a district of the North-West Territories in 1882 and was enlarged to its present boundaries on becoming a province in 1905. The provincial government has its seat in Edmonton.Following the earliest explorations by fur traders, the settlement of Alberta's prairie and parkland zones (which stretch from the boreal forest transition zone south to the border with the United States) led to the development of agriculture. Subsequent exploitation of rich oil, gas, coal, and timber resources led to further population growth, with an increase in urbanization and industrialization. The province remains sparsely populated, however, and relative isolation from the more populous eastern regions of the country has inhibited the development of industries needing mass markets. With natural routes to the north, Alberta has become a major jumping-off point for the development of Canada's arctic and subarctic regions. The scenery of the mountain parks in the west is internationally renowned. Area 255,541 square miles (661,848 square km). Pop. (2001) 2,974,807; (2006) 3,375,800.LandRelief, drainage, and soilsMount Columbia (12,294 feet [3,747 metres]) in the Rocky Mountains is Alberta's highest point, and numerous other peaks exceed 11,000 feet (3,350 metres). A narrow foothill zone flanks the mountains to the east. Beyond that, the interior plains fall from over 3,000 feet (900 metres) in the southwest to below 1,000 feet (300 metres) in the northeast, where ancient Precambrian (Precambrian time) rocks outcrop in the Canadian Shield. Outliers of higher ground include the Cypress (Cypress Hills) and Swan hills and the Caribou Mountains.The Columbia Icefield is the source of two of Alberta's major rivers, the Athabasca (Athabasca River) and the North Saskatchewan. The first flows northeast to Lake Athabasca (Athabasca, Lake), where it becomes the Slave River. It is then joined by the Peace River and drains north toward the Arctic Ocean. Alberta's lowest point (573 feet [175 metres]) occurs in the Slave River valley. Apart from a small area drained by the Milk River into the Missouri, the southern portion of the province is dominated by the Saskatchewan River system. The Oldman (Oldman River) and Bow (Bow River) rivers combine to form the South Saskatchewan, which is joined by the Red Deer River before flowing east with the North Saskatchewan toward Hudson Bay. Most of Alberta's rivers flow in deeply incised valleys, along which the eroded, barren landscapes known as badlands (badland) may develop. Those of the Red Deer are famous for their rich deposits of dinosaur remains. The province has about 6,500 square miles (16,800 square km) of fresh water.Chernozems (Chernozem)—rich brown and black soils with a deep humus layer—underlie the prairies and parklands. The less fertile gray-wooded soils known as luvisols (Luvisol) underlie the extensive mixed and coniferous forests of the foothills and the north.ClimateAlberta has a continental climate, with more sunshine than any other Canadian province. Winters are dry, sunny, and cold, though in the south the chinook winds, which occur when warm, dry air of Pacific origin descends the eastern slopes of the Rockies, can raise temperatures by 40 °F (22 °C) in an hour or less. Summers are warm and wetter (except in drought years), with occasional destructive hailstorms and tornadoes. Edmonton's mean and extreme temperatures are 6 °F and -59 °F (-14 °C and -51 °C) in January and 60 °F and 95 °F (16 °C and 35 °C) in July. Annual precipitation in Edmonton averages 18 inches (460 mm), compared with 12 inches (300 mm) in the dry southeast and more than 50 inches (1,270 mm) in the mountains. About half the precipitation falls from June to August.Plant and animal lifeBlue grama (grama grass) and other grasses dominate the prairie area in the south, although cacti, tumbleweeds, and sagebrush are more conspicuous; few trees grow naturally outside river valleys. The transitional parklands have aspen-covered bluffs. The mixed (mixed forest) and coniferous (coniferous forest) forests of the foothills and the north are home to various combinations of aspen, white spruce, jack and lodgepole pines, and balsam fir. Black spruce and tamarack grow over accumulations of organic peat in extensive bogs. Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir are important trees in the mountain forests. The wild rose, Alberta's provincial flower, is widespread.Meadowlarks and pronghorn are conspicuous on the prairies, and badlands support rattlesnakes, horned lizards, and scorpions. White-tailed deer, beavers, and coyotes are familiar in parkland areas, while the great horned owl, the provincial bird, rears its young in vacated crows' nests. The northern forests house a wealth of fur bearers and big game, including the moose, wapiti, caribou (reindeer), and black bear. Gray jays visit campsites, and loons are heard on the many lakes. Wapiti, mule deer, mountain goats, bighorn sheep, and black and grizzly bears, together with Clark's nutcrackers and golden eagles, are characteristic of the mountains. Rivers and lakes throughout the province support trout, whitefish, and pike. Ducks nest by every slough. Examples of most habitats and some threatened species receive partial protection in national and provincial parks, wilderness areas, and ecological reserves. The endangered peregrine falcon, however, flies among the high-rise buildings of Edmonton and Calgary.PeoplePopulation compositionIn terms of national and cultural origins, Alberta is one of the most varied of the Canadian provinces. Its early settlement about the turn of the 20th century, as well as immigration following World War II, contributed to this diversity. Most of these migrants came from the British Isles or from northern and eastern Europe, whereas today there are increasingly more from outside of Europe, especially East Asia and South Asia. Ethnic minorities now constitute a small but significant portion of the population. There is also a small population of aboriginal peoples; that is, Indians (First Nations) and . A wide variety of religious denominations are represented, the largest being Roman Catholicism, though the United Church of Canada, the Anglican Church of Canada (Canada, Anglican Church of), and the Lutheran Church also have significant representation. Moreover, Eastern Orthodox churches and non-Christian religions have many followers.Settlement patternsThe landscape of the agricultural southeast is fairly uniform, though with considerable variations in farming practices and density of settlement, while the isolated Peace River block forms a basically agricultural area to the northwest. The foothills are much visited for hunting and other recreational purposes, but their forest cover has been greatly altered by oil and gas exploration, coal mining, clear-cutting for lumber and pulp, and cattle grazing. The vast northern forests, though sparsely populated, also show extensive marks of resource exploitation. The mountain national parks each have small permanent populations and many visitors.The square pattern of the Dominion land survey dominates much of the rural landscape. The survey established townships with 36 sections, each one mile square (2.6 sq km). From the air, the resulting great square fields can be seen spreading from horizon to horizon, while on the ground the straight roads seem to stretch endlessly.Homesteading introduced some individuality into this pattern: log huts, elegant frame buildings, and modern houses were often successively occupied on the same farm and may still survive, although rural depopulation has caused many dwellings to be abandoned. Also, Indian reserves (reservations), Métis colonies, presurvey settlements, and religion-based communal farms make their own distinctive contributions to the landscape.Groups of highly visible grain elevators, set at intervals along the railways, used to be characteristic sights but are now less common. Most villages grew up around such configurations, usually on one side of the railway tracks. A grid street plan and frame houses are typical, along with small shops, a hotel, and several churches.Larger urban centres often gain character from their settings rather than from their buildings. Towns such as Peace River, nestled in a spectacular river valley, and Drumheller, set among extensive badlands, are notable but not untypical. Street patterns generally follow a rectangular grid, perhaps elongated along a river frontage or railway.With the exception of the mining centre of Fort McMurray, each of the major cities serves a large rural area: Lethbridge and Medicine Hat, the southwest and southeast, respectively; Grande Prairie, the Peace River country; and Red Deer, the central region. Calgary and Edmonton have a much wider influence. Among the largest cities in Canada, they have developed typical big-city features, such as high-rise buildings and expressways, while retaining enough parkland to keep them attractive.Demographic trendsThe most-densely populated area of Alberta is the corridor that runs from Edmonton to Lethbridge, through Calgary and Red Deer. The lowest densities, averaging about one person per square mile, are in the north, foothills, and mountain regions, which together occupy about three-fourths of the province. Alberta has experienced a generally high rate of population increase since the end of World War II. Although an economic downturn in the 1980s and early 1990s brought slower growth for a time, by the turn of the 21st century the province was again experiencing rapid population increases.EconomyAgriculture, forestry, and fishingAbout one-third of Alberta's land area is in agricultural use, with roughly half that agricultural land used to grow crops and the remainder to raise livestock. A network of dugouts and irrigation canals provides water in dry areas. The main crops are wheat, barley, and other grains, as well as hay and rapeseed (canola). Specialty crops such as sugar beet, potatoes, peas, and mustard seed are locally important. Beef cattle dominate livestock production, but pigs, poultry, and sheep are raised as well.Forests cover more than one-half of the province's surface. Aspen, white spruce, and pines are the principal commercial species and are used for lumber, wafer board, newsprint, pulp, and paper. Commercial fishing, mostly of whitefish, is done in Alberta's northern lakes.Resources and powerAlberta contains the bulk of Canada's known fossil fuels. Oil and natural gas occur widely, and major deposits of heavy crude oil and oil sands are exploited in the Lloydminster, Cold Lake, and Fort McMurray regions along the eastern border with Saskatchewan. Alberta produces the vast majority of Canada's natural gas and crude oil and roughly half of its coal. Not surprisingly, fluctuations in world oil prices seriously affect the province's economy. Other mineral resources include sand and gravel, limestone, and salt, but the most valuable is sulphur, most of which is extracted from natural gas.Most of Alberta has an abundance of lakes and rivers, some of which are exploited for irrigation and hydroelectric power; however, the ecological damage caused by these projects has brought about widespread controversy. Natural resources are largely developed by private industry (much of which is foreign-managed and financed), under provincial and federal regulation. Extensive government research and assistance benefit resource development and agriculture.ManufacturingThe manufacturing sector in Alberta is heavily oriented toward the processing of primary goods. The leading industries are food-processing (especially meat products), chemicals, petroleum, and wood-related products. Metal fabrication and the manufacture of machinery and equipment have also become important, and there have been significant developments in the telecommunication, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical industries. Construction is extremely important, too, though it is much affected by economic developments in the local petroleum industry.Services, labour, and taxationAlberta's rich wildlife and spectacular scenery, in combination with historic cultural attractions and the huge shopping and entertainment complex known as West Edmonton Mall, form the basis of an expanding tourism industry. Indeed, notwithstanding the petroleum industry's importance in the province, about half of Alberta's workforce is employed in the service sector. Calgary in particular has grown as a financial centre, with a swelling number of corporation headquarters located there. Because of the province's vibrant economy, unemployment rates in Alberta were among the lowest in Canada and consistently below the national average at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century.The major sources of municipal revenue are property and business taxes, user fees, sales of goods and services, and provincial government grants and loans. Some municipalities derive additional revenue from the operation of utilities, many of which are now privatized. Created in 1976 and restructured in 1997, the Heritage Fund saves and invests revenues from Alberta's oil and gas reserves for the benefit of future generations.Transportation and telecommunicationsIn southern Alberta transportation is dominated by east–west routes that thread the few mountain passes and spread over the plains. There is also good access south into the United States. Air and surface routes fan out from Edmonton to serve Alaska and the Canadian northwest. Indeed, air transport has been used in development of northern resources since 1921, and the province is well served by local, regional, and charter service. Moreover, both Edmonton and Calgary have international airports. Freight is also shipped on the Athabasca and Slave rivers. The east–west Canadian Pacific and Canadian National railways have a network of branch lines serving agricultural and northern areas, though a number were closed at the turn of the 21st century. Oil and gas pipelines link Alberta to markets as far away as Quebec and California. Alberta's major highways include the Trans-Canada and Yellowhead east–west routes and the Mackenzie highway to the north. The province has also benefitted from the access to the northwest provided by the nearby Alaska highway.Alberta is at the forefront of telecommunications developments in Canada. Largely as a result of the far-flung oil and gas industry, wireless technology has been widely implemented, and the province has also become an important exporter of wireless products and services. As a result, Albertans are among the highest per capita users of wireless technology in the country.Government and societyConstitutional frameworkThe Canadian Constitution and the Alberta Act (1905) provide the constitutional framework for the province. In line with other Canadian provinces, Alberta has a lieutenant governor (functioning as representative of the British monarch), an elected legislative assembly, and an executive council. The lieutenant governor is appointed by the federal government for a five-year term. The premier heads the executive council, which is responsible for administering laws and appropriations approved by the legislature. Although the national Progressive Conservative Party of Canada declined precipitously in the 1990s, ultimately becoming part of the Conservative Party of Canada, its provincial affiliate, the Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta, has ruled the province since 1971. The Liberals (Liberal Party of Canada) and New Democrats (New Democratic Party) constitute the main opposition.The Royal Canadian Mounted Police provide police services for most of Alberta. Only the largest cities and some Indian reserves have their own police forces. Judicial, correctional, and rehabilitation services are provided partly by the federal government and partly by the province.Municipal administration takes a variety of forms, the chief of which are cities, towns, villages, counties, and municipal districts. Mayors, councils, and school boards are elected.Health and welfareThe provincial health insurance plan and the provincial hospitalization benefit plan provide health services in return for payment of an annual premium (with subsidies for low-income families). Private insurance plans provide for certain supplementary hospital, drug, and other services, while mental health services are provided under a special provincial act. The costs of social assistance programs are borne jointly by federal, provincial, and municipal authorities.EducationEducation is on a 12-grade system and includes public schools, a large but separate Roman Catholic school system, a francophone school system, and charter schools, all tax-supported. The province outlines the school curriculum and maintains general supervision of the elementary and secondary school systems, but administration is through elected school boards.Public universities are located in Edmonton (University of Alberta), Calgary, Lethbridge, and Athabasca, the last specializing in distance education. There are a number of private colleges and community colleges throughout the province. Technical education is available at institutes of technology in Edmonton and Calgary, and at several vocational colleges.Cultural lifeAlthough the province is young, interest in preserving its heritage and fine arts is strong. Alberta Community Development, a ministry within the provincial government, gives practical aid and encouragement in all fields through such programs as performing-arts tours and exhibitions, leadership training programs and workshops in all phases of performing and expressive arts, consultative services, and financial assistance.Alberta's mosaic of diverse peoples has provided a valuable cultural legacy. This has found expression in festive occasions, traditional costumes, the performing and fine arts, and in handicrafts. This heritage is evident in the domestic and religious architecture found in areas of ethnic concentration, such as the French and Ukrainian settlements near Edmonton, the Nikka Yuko Japanese garden in Lethbridge, the Mormon communities around Cardston, and the numerous areas of Métis and Hutterite colonies.The artsThe early artistic history of the province is largely one of rich oral folklore, although a major Icelandic poet, Stephan G. Stephansson (Stephansson, Stephan G.), lived near Markerville and did most of his writing in Canada. His house is now a historic site. Since the 1940s a limited number of noteworthy artists (all immigrants to the province) have emerged, including the painter Illingworth Kerr and such writers as W.O. Mitchell (Mitchell, W.O.) and Rudy Wiebe. Interest in cultural heritage and the arts has increased rapidly since the 1960s, and Calgary, Edmonton, and Banff exhibit a rich and diverse artistic life with thriving communities of artists in all fields, many of national (and some of international) renown.Cultural institutionsA network of museums and historic parks now interpret the natural, historical, and artistic heritage of the province. The Provincial Museum of Alberta was opened in Edmonton in 1967. The Glenbow-Alberta Institute in Calgary has important collections of history and art, and the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller is one of the world's largest fossil museums, with particularly fine displays of dinosaurs. The latter institution operates in association with Dinosaur Provincial Park near Brooks, the first place to be designated a World Heritage site for its fossil resources. Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, another World Heritage site, near Fort Macleod, features a buffalo jump (a cliff over which hunters chased buffalo) that was used for 6,000 years. Other notable institutions include the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village (located east of Edmonton), the Crowsnest Pass Ecomuseum (on the border with British Columbia), the Calgary Zoo, the Edmonton Space and Science Centre, and the Art Gallery of Edmonton.The performing arts are served by the Jubilee auditoriums in Edmonton and Calgary, the Calgary Centre for the Performing Arts, and Edmonton's Citadel Theatre complex and Francis Winspear Centre for Music. These facilities are used by local symphony orchestras and opera and ballet companies. A lively performance scene exists in less-formal settings, with a host of theatre and other groups performing outdoors and in a variety of small venues. Alberta hosts major folk and jazz festivals as well as Edmonton's Fringe Theatre Festival. Ethnic and Indian arts and crafts are featured at such annual events as the Banff Indian Days, the Calgary Exhibition and Stampede, the Edmonton Heritage Festival, and many local fairs and rodeos. Support for many of the arts is provided by the internationally renowned Banff Centre for Continuing Education, the Canada Council for the Arts, the Alberta Foundation for the Arts, and a number of independent funding agencies.Sports and recreationAlberta is home to five national parks: Wood Buffalo National Park (a World Heritage site) in the northeastern part of the province; Banff (Banff National Park) and Jasper (Jasper National Park) national parks, which are located in the Rocky Mountains near the border with British Columbia and together with two of that province's parks (Kootenay (Kootenay National Park) and Yoho (Yoho National Park) national parks) have been designated a World Heritage site; Waterton Lakes National Park, which joined with Glacier National Park in Montana in 1932 to form the first international peace park (designated a World Heritage site in 1995); and Elk Island National Park, near Edmonton. The national parks and several provincial parks are heavily utilized for recreational activities such as downhill and cross-country skiing, mountaineering, camping, hiking, and bird-watching.Rodeo remains a popular sport and an important tie to the province's agricultural tradition. The Calgary Stampede is one of the world's most famous rodeos. Ice skating and curling are important sports during the long winters. Professional ice hockey and Canadian gridiron football also are extremely popular. Calgary is home to the Flames of the National Hockey League (NHL) and the Stampeders of the Canadian Football League (CFL). Edmonton is home to the CFL's Eskimos and the NHL's Oilers. In the 1980s the Oilers, led by all-time hockey great Wayne Gretzky (Gretzky, Wayne), won four Stanley Cup titles. The 1988 Winter Olympics, held in Calgary, centred world attention on the city and the province.Media and publishingProminent among Alberta's scores of daily, weekly, and community newspapers are the Edmonton Journal, Edmonton Sun, Calgary Herald, Calgary Sun, and Lethbridge Herald. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has a number of television and radio outlets throughout the province, most notably in Calgary and Edmonton, and Alberta is also well served by private broadcasters.HistoryThe area now known as Alberta has been inhabited by various Indian (First Nations) groups for at least 10,000 years. European explorers first appeared in the 1750s as the fur trade expanded across western North America. Two rivals, the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company, began building trading posts in the last quarter of the 18th century along the major northern rivers—the Athabasca (Athabasca River), North Saskatchewan, and Peace (Peace River). From 1821, when the companies merged, until 1870, when this region was transferred to the Dominion of Canada, the Hudson's Bay Company controlled and governed the area, which was populated by Indians, Métis, and a few European fur traders, missionaries, and settlers.After 1870, settlement in southern Alberta began, based on a ranching economy. The Indian tribes had been decimated by European diseases and the disappearance of the buffalo, their main source of livelihood. The signing of treaties relegated the remaining Indians to reserves (reservations), but not before the abuses of unscrupulous traders had hastened the creation of the North-West Mounted Police (Royal Canadian Mounted Police) (now the Royal Canadian Mounted Police). In 1874 the Mounties established Fort Macleod and laid the bases of Canadian law enforcement in Alberta.The Dominion Lands Act of 1872 (which provided low-cost homesteads), the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway (Canadian National Railway Company) (which reached Calgary in 1883), and vigorous promotional campaigns brought an influx of settlers from eastern Canada, the United States, and Europe. By 1901 the population had reached 73,000, and by 1911 it had ballooned to 374,000. The development of earlier-maturing and more disease-resistant varieties of wheat made crop farming less risky and, in northern areas, newly feasible. Subsequently a wheat-based economy expanded throughout most of the arable parts of the province.Responsible government (government in which the executive branch is drawn from and answerable to an elected legislative branch) developed gradually from 1875, when the North-West Territories Act went into effect, until 1897, when a fully responsible legislative assembly was elected. Made a district of the North-West Territories in 1882, Alberta was enlarged to its present boundaries in 1905, when it was made a province of Canada, although crown lands and natural resources remained under federal control until 1930. Edmonton, a distribution centre that became the capital, grew rapidly, as did other urban centres. Calgary boomed with the discovery of oil at Turner Valley in 1914. Medicine Hat and Lethbridge, the latter a coal-mining area since the 1870s, developed into important distribution centres. Railways spread over most of the province, increasing agricultural development and providing a ready market for Alberta's vast coal deposits.During World War I the growth of the population and the economy slowed. A postwar slump in wheat prices was a major factor leading to political discontent and the election success of the United Farmers Party of Alberta in 1921. During the 1920s the economy improved and population again increased, but years of depression and drought in the 1930s had a devastating effect. In 1935 the Social Credit Party, with a new monetary policy, was elected and retained power for 36 years, before it was replaced by the Progressive Conservative Party (Progressive Conservative Party of Canada) in 1971.The construction of the Alaska Highway helped to revive Alberta's economy during World War II, and greater growth came with postwar discoveries of oil and natural gas. The boom in the oil and gas industry rippled throughout the economy in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, fueling growth in the construction and manufacturing sectors and making Alberta one of the choice destinations for migrating Canadians. In the process, the formerly agrarian province has become an increasingly urban and industrial one, with nearly two-thirds of its population found in its two metropolitan centres, Edmonton and Calgary. With Alberta remaining one of the world's leading oil-producing regions, the future continues to look bright for the province.Robert Bruce Davidson Peter SmithAdditional ReadingDetailed historical maps and charts are provided in Atlas of Alberta (1969), an official centennial project of the government of Alberta and the University of Alberta; it is supplemented by Ted Byfield (ed.), The Atlas of Alberta (1984). W.G. Hardy (ed.), Alberta: A Natural History (1967, reprinted 1979); David A.E. Spalding (ed.), A Nature Guide to Alberta (1980); and Joy Finlay and Cam Finlay, Parks in Alberta (1987), are comprehensive surveys. Susan Berry and Jack Brink, Aboriginal Cultures in Alberta: Five Hundred Generations (2004); and Hugh A. Dempsey, Indian Tribes of Alberta, rev. ed. (1986), study the aboriginal inhabitants of the province; and Howard Palmer and Tamara Palmer (eds.), Peoples of Alberta: Portraits of Cultural Diversity (1985), examines the significance of various ethnic groups in Alberta's settlement. A historical survey of Alberta's agriculture is provided in Grant MacEwan, Power for Prairie Plows (1971). A look at the cultural life is offered in Sandra Shaul (ed.), Painting in Alberta: An Historical Survey (1980); and David Leighton and Peggy Leighton, Artists, Builders, and Dreamers: 50 Years at the Banff School (1982). The history of the province is chronicled in Michael Payne, Donald Wetherell, and Cathy Cavanaugh (eds.), Alberta Formed, Alberta Transformed 2 vol. (2005); Gail Helgason, The First Albertans: An Archaeological Search (1987); James G. MacGregor, A History of Alberta, rev. ed. (1981), a standard general history; Douglas R. Owram (ed.), The Formation of Alberta: A Documentary History (1979), which collects documents on development before 1905; and Alvin Finkel, The Social Credit Phenomenon in Alberta (1989), which focuses on the period from the 1930s to the '70s.David A.E. Spalding Robert Bruce Davidson Peter Smith
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