- spice and herb
Dried parts of various plants cultivated for their aromatic, savory, medicinal, or otherwise desirable properties.Spices are the fragrant or pungent products of such tropical or subtropical species as cardamom, cinnamon, clove, ginger, and pepper; spice seeds include anise, caraway, cumin, fennel, poppy, and sesame. Herbs are the fragrant leaves of such plants as basil, marjoram, mint, rosemary, and thyme. The most notable uses of spices and herbs in very early times were in medicine, in the making of holy oils and unguents, and as aphrodisiacs; they were also used to flavour food and beverages and to inhibit or hide food spoilage. Trade in spices has played a major role in human history. Important early trade routes, including those between Asia and the Middle East and between Europe and Asia, were initially forged to obtain exotic spices and herbs. The 15th-century voyages of discovery were launched largely as a result of the spice trade, and in the 17th century Portugal and the British, Dutch, and French East India companies battled furiously for dominance (see British East India Co.; Dutch East India Co.; French East India Co.).
* * *▪ foodIntroductionparts of various plants cultivated for their aromatic, pungent, or otherwise desirable substances. Spices and herbs consist of rhizomes (rhizome), bulbs (bulb), barks, flower buds, stigmas, fruits (fruit), seed (seed and fruit)s, and leaves (leaf). They are commonly divided into the categories of spices, spice seeds, and herbs.Distinctive qualitiesSpice seeds are the tiny aromatic fruits and oil-bearing seeds of herbaceous plants such as anise, caraway, cumin, fennel, poppy, and sesame. Herbs are the fresh or dried aromatic leaves of such plants as marjoram, mint, rosemary, and thyme. Spices, spice seeds, and herbs are employed as adjuncts to impart flavour and aroma or piquancy to foods. In the small quantities used to prepare culinary dishes, they have little nutritional value, but they stimulate the appetite, add zest to food, and enhance flavours.Spices are usually used dried, though some, such as chile peppers (chili pepper) and ginger, are used in both their fresh and dried forms. Some typically dried spices are used in their fresh form in the countries that produce them. Many of the world's highly prized spices—such as cardamom, cinnamon, cloves (clove), ginger, and pepper (black pepper)—are fragrant or pungent plant products cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions.Early usesThe most notable uses of spices and herbs in very early times were in medicine, in the making of holy oils and unguents, and as aphrodisiacs. Priests employed them in worship, incantations, and rituals, and shamans used them as charms to ward off evil spirits. Aromatic herbs were used to clean and add fragrance to the home. Ancient herbals (herbal) (manuals for identifying plants and preparing medicinal remedies) from Cathay (northern China), Sumer, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and Rome testify to the use of spices and herbs in the treatment of disease. Hippocrates, Galen, and Pedanius Dioscorides, among others, employed them. In the 1st century of the Christian era, Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, extolled at length the efficacy and healing powers of spices and herbs in the treatment of nearly every ailment known in his day. Those virtues, tempered and moderated, were accepted through the Middle Ages and into early modern times.It is not known when humans first began adding spices and herbs to their food. Sesame seeds and sesame oil seem to have been used as food from time immemorial. Garlic was also a part of the human diet in very early times. Certainly by the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans, many spices and herbs had come into use to flavour food and beverages.Herbs and spices were greatly prized during the ʿAbbāsid Caliphate (AD 750–1258), and, in the capital city of Baghdad, sumptuous banquets hosted by the caliph were prepared with herbs and spices to achieve flavours such as sweet, sour, fragrant, and pungent. In AD 812 Charlemagne issued a decree listing all the herbs and other plants that were to be grown on all the imperial estates. Elsewhere in medieval Europe, the gardens of monasteries were used to cultivate medicinal as well as culinary herbs. Because imported aromatic spices were scarce, only the wealthy could afford to indulge in them. Meanwhile, in 13th-century Cathay, as Marco Polo observed, the upper classes ate meat preserved in several spices, whereas the poor had to be content with meat steeped in garlic juice.In Europe the use of spices and herbs as food preservatives spread slowly. By medieval times large quantities of culinary herbs were in use. After the nation-states of western Europe entered the spice trade in the 16th century, spices became more widely available in Europe, eventually coming into general use by rich and poor alike.Modern usesModern uses of spices, spice seeds, and herbs are legion and ever-changing. There are few culinary recipes that do not include them, and their judicious use brings a delectable, distinctive aroma and taste to a host of dishes.In the food-processing industry they are employed in the preparation of numerous products including processed meats, sausages (sausage), sauces, vinegars, mustards, pickles, chutneys (chutney), preserves, salad dressings, biscuits, cookies, cakes, confections, and beverages. Spices and herbs—or their oils, where processing temperature permits—also go into the preparation of a number of liqueurs, including absinthe, anisette, benedictine, crème de menthe, curaçao, and kümmel.Both herbs and spices contain essential oils (essential oil), which are the flavouring components of extracts, and they are employed in the production of perfumes, cosmetics, toiletries, lotions, hair products, toothpastes, and soaps. These essential oils and oleoresins (natural plant products that contain essential oils and resins (resin)) are the basis of a number of spice flavourings and seasonings employed in food manufacturing. In many cases, oil extractives of spice are preferred to the whole or ground spices, largely because the extracts are easier to blend, the volatile oil content can be quantified, and the flavour intensity can be adjusted. A more common extract for home cooking is vanilla, which is cultivated in tropical climates.Spices and herbs still have their place in medicine, particularly in China and India, where their curative virtues enjoy respect. In Western countries their medicinal use is more limited, but, with the revival of interest in alternative therapies since the late 20th century, the properties of herbs and spices are being reexamined. See also homeopathy; holistic medicine.
* * *
См. также в других словарях:
Spice mix — Spice mixes are blended spices or herbs. When a certain combination of herbs or spices is called for in many different recipes (or in one recipe that is used frequently), it is convenient to blend these ingredients beforehand. Blends such as… … Wikipedia
Herb Lubalin — and its influence can be seen in logos created in the 1990s and 2000s. Education and Early CareerHerb Lubalin entered Cooper Union at the age of seventeen, and quickly became entranced by the possibilities presented by typography as a… … Wikipedia
Herb — This article is about culinary, medicinal, and spiritual herbs. For the technical botanical usage, see herbaceous plant. For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). Basil and green onions, common culinary herbs Except in botanical usage, an herb ( … Wikipedia
Spice — A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavoring, and sometimes as a preservative by killing or preventing the growth of harmful… … Wikipedia
Herb grinder — A herb grinder (also called a spice grinder , or just a grinder ) is a cylindrical contraption with two halves (top and bottom) that separate and have sharp teeth or pegs aligned in such a way that when both halves are turned, material placed… … Wikipedia
spice — Synonyms and related words: Tabasco, Worcestershire sauce, allspice, anchovies, angelica, applesauce, aroma, balm, balminess, basil, bell pepper, bite, black pepper, borage, bouquet, briskness, burnet, caper, capsicum, caraway seeds, cardamom,… … Moby Thesaurus
seed and fruit — ▪ plant reproductive part Introduction respectively, the characteristic reproductive (reproductive system, plant) body of both angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms (conifers, cycads, and ginkgos) and the ovary that encloses it.… … Universalium
Five-spice powder — This article is about Chinese five spice mixture. For Bengali five spice mixture, see Panch phoron. Five spice powder Chinese … Wikipedia
Jamaican jerk spice — Jerk is a style of cooking native to Jamaica in which meats, traditionally pork and goat but including chicken, fish, beef, sausage and tofu, are dry rubbed with a very hot spice mixture called Jamaican jerk spice. Jerk seasoning principally… … Wikipedia
List of culinary herbs and spices — This is a list of culinary herbs and spices. Specifically these are food or drink additives of mostly botanical origin used in nutritionally insignificant quantities for flavoring or coloring. As such, this list does not contain salt, which is a… … Wikipedia