- Mill, James
born April 6, 1773, Northwater Bridge, Forfarshire, Scot.died June 23, 1836, London, Eng.Scottish philosopher, historian, and economist.After studying at the University of Edinburgh and teaching, he went to London in 1802, where he met Jeremy Bentham and became a major promulgator of Bentham's utilitarianism. He wrote for several journals, including the Edinburgh Review (1808–13), and contributed articles on government and education to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. He helped found London University in 1825. After completing his History of British India (3 vol., 1817), he was appointed an official in India House (1819) and later became head of the examiner's office (1830). His criticism of British rule led to changes in the government of India. His Elements of Political Economy (1821) summarized the views of David Ricardo, and his Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1829) associated psychology with utilitarianism, a doctrine continued by his son, John Stuart Mill. Mill is considered the founder of philosophical radicalism.
* * *born April 6, 1773, Northwater Bridge, Forfarshire, Scot.died June 23, 1836, London, Eng.Scottish philosopher, historian, and economist. He was prominent as a representative of philosophical radicalism, a school of thought also known as Utilitarianism, which emphasized the need for a scientific basis for philosophy as well as a humanist approach to politics and economics. His eldest son was the celebrated Utilitarian thinker John Stuart Mill (Mill, John Stuart).After distinguishing himself as a Greek scholar at the University of Edinburgh, James Mill was licensed a Presbyterian preacher in 1798. He soon turned to teaching, however, and embarked on historical and philosophical studies. In 1802 he went to London to devote himself to a career in journalism. In 1804 he wrote a pamphlet on the corn trade, arguing against a bounty on the exportation of grain, and in 1806 he began his History of British India, 3 vol. (1817).Mill became acquainted with Jeremy Bentham (Bentham, Jeremy), who founded Utilitarianism, in 1808. As Bentham's chief companion and ally for many years, he adopted Bentham's principles in their entirety and did more to propagate them and to oppose the beginnings of Romanticism than anyone else. He was a regular contributor (1806–18) to the Anti-Jacobin Review, the British Review, the Eclectic Review, and the Edinburgh Review (1808–13). In 1811 he helped edit the periodical Philanthropist with the English writer William Allen, contributing his opinions on education, freedom of the press, and prison discipline. He also participated in the discussions that led to the founding of London University in 1825. In 1814 Mill undertook to write various articles on politics, law, and education for the six-volume Supplement to the 4th, 5th, and 6th editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica. As reprints they enjoyed a wide circulation in his time. One of the articles, “government,” had considerable influence on public opinion in the 1820s. (See the Britannica Classic: .) In it, Mill concluded that a representative democracy based on wide suffrage is a necessary element of good government. “Government,” which was possibly the most succinct statement of the political theory of the philosophical radicals, helped prepare the ground for passage of the first Reform Bill by Parliament in 1832.In 1819, two years after Mill's History of British India appeared, he was appointed an official in India House, despite his drastic criticisms in the History of British rule in India. He rose gradually through the ranks until he was appointed head of the examiner's office in 1830. The History, his major literary achievement, was the first full historical treatment of the British conquest of India. Mill harshly criticized the British administration of India, and during his 17 years with the India House he helped completely reform the system of government in the colony. However, the History's severe Utilitarian analysis of Indian civilization also popularized among European readers an image of the subcontinent as perpetually backward and undeveloped. Mill never actually visited India.Mill was also influential in English politics. His writings and his personal connections with radical politicians helped determine the change of view from theories of the rights of man and the absolute equality of men, as promulgated by the French Revolution, to the claiming of securities for good government through wide extension of the franchise. His Elements of Political Economy (1821), an especially precise and lucid work, summarizes the views of the philosophical radicals, based primarily on the work of the economist David Ricardo. In this work Mill maintained: (1) that the chief problem of political reformers is to limit the increase of population, on the assumption that capital does not naturally increase at the same rate as population; (2) that the value of a thing depends entirely on the quantity of labour put into it; and (3) that what is now known as the “unearned increment” of land is a proper object for taxation. The enunciation of the second of these propositions is important in view of the use made of it by Karl Marx. Mill developed Bentham's doctrines by his explanation of the association of ideas. This theory, presented in Mill's Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind, 2 vol. (1829), centres on the interrelatedness of mental concepts.Additional ReadingLeslie Stephen, The English Utilitarians, vol. 2, James Mill (1900, reissued 1991), is an influential early biographical essay. Bruce Mazlish, James and John Stuart Mill (1975, reprinted 1988), is a dual biography of Mill and his son. Studies of aspects of Mill's writing include Joseph Hamburger, James Mill and the Art of Revolution (1963, reprinted 1977); W.H. Burston, James Mill on Philosophy and Education (1973); and Javed Majeed, Ungoverned Imaginings: James Mill's The History of British India and Orientalism (1992), a critical study of Mill's views of India.
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Mill,James — Mill (mĭl), James. 1773 1836. Scottish philosopher, economist, and a founder of utilitarianism. His works include An Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1829). * * * … Universalium
Mill, James — (1773–1836) Scottish philosopher, economist, and man of letters. Born in Forfar, Mill was educated at Edinburgh university. Working in London first as a freelance journalist, and subsequently for the East India Company, Mill became friendly with… … Philosophy dictionary
Mill, James — ► (1773 1836) Economista británico. Autor de Elementos de economía política, es uno de los principales exponentes del utilitarismo. * * * (6 abr. 1773, Northwater Bridge, Forfarshire, Escocia–23 jun. 1836, Londres, Inglaterra). Economista,… … Enciclopedia Universal
Mill, James — (1773 1836) Philosopher and historian, s. of a shoemaker, was b. at Montrose, and showing signs of superior ability, was sent to the Univ. of Edin. with a view to the ministry. He was licensed as a preacher in 1798, but gave up the idea of the … Short biographical dictionary of English literature
Mill, James — See Utilitarians ( … History of philosophy
MILL, JAMES — economist, born in Logie Pert, near Montrose, the son of a shoemaker, bred for the Church; was a disciple of Locke and Jeremy Bentham; wrote a History of British India, Elements of Political Economy, and an Analysis of the Human Mind ; held an … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
James Mill — James Mill. James Mill (6 de abril de 1773 – 23 de junio de 1836), fue un historiador, economista, politólogo y filósofo escocés. Nació en Northwater Bridge, en la parroquia de Logie Pert, Angus. Hijo de un zapatero, su madre, Isabel Fenton,… … Wikipedia Español
James W. Marshall — le 24 janvier 1848, venant de découvrir de l or à Sutter s Mill … Wikipédia en Français
James Wilson Marshall — James W. Marshall James W. Marshall James W. Marshall le 24 janvier 1848, venant de découvrir de l or à … Wikipédia en Français
James Spencer Miller — Nacimiento 30 de julio 1953 Washington, D.C. Residencia EE.UU. Nacionalidad estadounidense Campo entomólogo, botánico … Wikipedia Español