Oregon


Oregon
Oregonian /awr'i goh"nee euhn, or'-/, adj., n.
/awr"i geuhn, -gon', or"-/, n.
1. a state in the NW United States, on the Pacific coast. 2,632,663; 96,981 sq. mi. (251,180 sq. km). Cap.: Salem. Abbr.: Oreg., Ore., OR (for use with zip code).
2. a city in NW Ohio. 18,675.
[1870-75]

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I
State (pop., 2000: 3,421,399), U.S., northwestern region.

Lying on the Pacific Ocean, it is bordered by Washington, Idaho, Nevada, and California. It covers 97,073 sq mi (251,419 sq km). Its capital is Salem. The Columbia River forms its northern boundary; the Snake River is its upper eastern boundary. The Cascades Range, with Mount Hood, is in western central Oregon. First sighted by Spanish explorers, it was visited by Francis Drake in 1579 and by James Cook in 1778. The area was inhabited by many American Indian peoples when in 1792 Capt. Robert Gray explored the Columbia River, giving the U.S. a claim to the region. The river's mouth was reached by the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805. The first white settlement was founded at Astoria in 1811 by the fur trader John J. Astor. Settlement of the area accelerated from с 1843 with mass migration over the Oregon Trail. It was part of the Oregon Territory and was admitted to the Union as the 33rd state in 1859. The state's economy is dependent on its forests, farms, and livestock. Salmon and shellfish are the bases of the fishing industry. Centres of population, arts, and education are Portland, Eugene, and Medford.
II
(as used in expressions)

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      city, seat (1836) of Ogle county, northern Illinois, U.S. It lies on the Rock River, about 95 miles (155 km) west of Chicago. Early inhabitants of the region included Potawatomi and Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) Indians. It was founded in 1833 by John Phelps, a sawmiller. Oregon's economy is based largely on agriculture (corn [maize], soybeans, and livestock), with some manufacturing (chiefly farm machinery and road-building equipment). Printing and tourism also contribute to the local economy. Lowden State Park (immediately north) is the site of Eagle's Nest Colony, a retreat used by Lorado Taft (Taft, Lorado) and other artists from 1898 to 1942; the 66-acre (27-hectare) tract was acquired in 1951 by Northern Illinois University for use as a field campus. Taft's Soldiers Monument is in the courthouse square, and on the river bluffs within Lowden State Park stands his 50-foot (15-metre) Black Hawk statue (1911), commemorating the Native American. White Pines Forest State Park is to the west, and Castle Rock State Park and Lowden-Miller State Forest are to the south. Inc. town, 1843; city, 1869. Pop. (1990) 3,891; (2000) 4,060.

Introduction
Oregon, flag of  constituent state of the United States of America. To the north of the state's 97,073 square miles (251,419 square kilometres) of land and inland water lies Washington, from which Oregon receives the waters of the Columbia River; to the east, Idaho, more than half of the border with which is formed by the winding Snake River and its Hells Canyon, the deepest gorge on the North American continent; to the south, Nevada and California, with which Oregon shares its mountain and desert systems; and, to the west, the Pacific Ocean, which produces the moderate climate of Oregon's western lands. The capital is Salem.

      Admitted to the Union as the 33rd state on Feb. 14, 1859, Oregon comprises an area of startling physical diversity, from the moist rain forests, mountains, and fertile valleys of its western third to the naturally arid and climatically harsh eastern deserts. Mountains, plateaus, plains, and valleys of different geologic ages and materials are arrayed in countless combinations, including such natural wonders as the Columbia River Gorge, Oregon Caves National Monument, Crater Lake National Park, the majestic snow-covered peaks of the Cascade Range, and the “moon country” of central Oregon. The name Oregon is thought to be Indian in origin.

      The forested mountains of western and northeastern Oregon have supplied the traditional core of the state's economy. Its many forest-product plants produce more than one-fifth of the nation's softwood lumber, much of its soft plywood, and large quantities of hardboard, pulp, and paper. Nationally, Oregon ranks first in the production of wood products. In addition, the multipurpose development of the Columbia River system provides huge quantities of electricity, water for irrigation and industry, shipping channels, and water for recreation. The heartland of Oregon, however, is the Willamette valley, containing the major cities of Portland, Eugene, and Salem and a rich and diversified agriculture.

Physical and human geography

The land
   Oregon has nine major landform regions. Of them the forest-blanketed Coast (Coast Ranges) Range, which borders the Pacific Ocean from the Coquille River northward, is the lowest. Its elevations are usually below 2,000 feet, but Marys Peak, southwest of Corvallis, reaches 4,098 feet (1,249 metres).

      The Klamath Mountains, which extend from California, lie south of the Coast Range and west of the Cascades. Of ancient resistant rocks, they have had a complicated geologic history. They are higher and more rugged than the Coast Range and lack the north–south orientation. The Rogue River, bisecting the area, provides the major drainage. Thick forests grow on these mountains, which also contain rich mineral deposits.

      The Willamette valley is essentially an alluvial plain produced by burying stream-modified lowland with enormous quantities of sediments brought down by tributary streams from the bordering mountains. The low, hilly areas in the central and northern portions are composed of resistant rocks. This valley contains the prime land of the state, and its soils support intensive agriculture.

      The Cascade Range forms a broad lava plateau. The wider western section is deeply eroded by numerous streams fed by heavy precipitation. The eastern section, less dissected, is crowned with a chain of volcanic peaks. Mount Hood (Hood, Mount), reaching 11,239 feet (3,428 metres) above sea level, is the highest peak in Oregon, and Mount Jefferson, rising to 10,497 feet (3,199 metres), is the second highest.

      In the north central Oregon plateau, known as the Deschutes–Umatilla Plateau, a portion of the Columbia River basin, streams are entrenched and provide some bold relief. The areas lying between the streams are broad, little-dissected, smoothly rolling surfaces that provide the land for Oregon's large wheat ranches.

      The Blue–Wallowa mountains comprise two highland masses in the northeastern part of the state. The name Blue Mountains refers to the eroded plateaus and ranges extending westward from the agriculturally important La Grande and Baker valleys. Basins and valleys, headquarters for large cattle ranches, are scattered through the Blue Mountains. The Wallowa Mountains, east of the La Grande and Baker valleys and near the Idaho border, contain the highest elevations in northeastern Oregon. They were heavily glaciated and display spectacular scenery.

      The area of the High Lava Plains, or High Desert, is located south of the Blue Mountains and eastward from the Cascade Range. It is the youngest and least eroded of the landform regions of Oregon, but the smoothness of the surface is broken by cinder cones, buttes, and craters; other features include immaturity of erosion and localized interior drainage. Low precipitation, short and erratic growing seasons, and the absence of soil in many places result in an arid landscape of skimpy vegetation, with the details of the surface features commonly visible.

      The Great Basin of the Basin and Range Province to the south, which merges with the High Lava Plains, has long, narrow, asymmetrical fault block ranges that alternate with wide basins. Small volcanoes are numerous in the western portion, where pumice modifies surface runoff, vegetation, and land use. Irrigation agriculture is practiced in the Upper Klamath Lake area, and hay is grown with irrigation in a number of other basins and valleys, but most of this region is used by range livestock.

      The Malheur–Owyhee Upland of southeastern Oregon is generally a high, warped plateau. It contains older lava and has been more eroded than the High Lava Plains. The major drainage system, the Owyhee River, has incised several notable canyons in an area locally called the Rimrock Country. Along the Snake River in the east central portion of the state there is highly productive irrigation agriculture to supplement livestock grazing.

      Oregon's climates range from equable, mild, marine conditions on the coast to continental conditions of dryness and extreme temperature in the interior. Location with respect to the ocean, prevailing wind and storm paths, and topography and elevation are the principal climatic control factors.

      The narrow coastal area and the bordering mountain slopes are marine influenced. Temperatures are mild and equable: July temperatures average 57° to 60° F (14° to 16° C), January temperatures about 40° to 46° F (4° to 8° C). Summers are relatively dry but receive only half the sunshine possible; other seasons are cloudy and wet. Annual precipitation ranges from 60 to 120 inches (1,500 to 3,000 millimetres) or more.

      The lowlands of the Willamette, Umpqua, and middle Rogue rivers are warmer in summer, slightly cooler in winter, and have less precipitation than the coast. July averages 67° to 72° F (19° to 22° C), with 65 to 70 percent of the possible sunshine; January averages about 40° F (4° C). The rainy season extends from October through April, with precipitation averaging 35 to 40 inches, except in the middle Rogue valley, where 20 to 25 inches are common.

      The Cascade Range has copious winter precipitation, including phenomenal snow depth, and short, dry, sunny summers. Above 3,000 feet, January average temperatures are below 32° F (0° C). Snow begins to fall in October and remains through April, with large patches persisting until July. The higher peaks support snowfields and small glaciers throughout the year. July average temperatures range from 50° to 60° F (10° to 16° C).

      The north central Oregon plateau receives 10 to 20 inches of precipitation annually. Distribution is fairly even, but the majority of the rainy days occur in winter. Summers are sunny, with July temperatures averaging 70° to 75° F (21° to 24° C). The brisk winters have considerable sunny weather, and January temperatures average 31° to 33° F (−1° to 1° C). The plateau area of central and southeastern Oregon has climatic characteristics similar to the north central plateau except for somewhat less precipitation and lower temperatures at higher elevations.

      The Blue–Wallowa mountains have climates that vary with location. The intermontane basins and valleys are similar to the north central plateau, with colder winters, while the higher, exposed elevations receive heavy precipitation, much of it in the form of snow during winter.

Plant and animal life
      Forests cover about 30,000,000 acres (12,000,000 hectares) of Oregon. In the eastern two-thirds of the state, ponderosa pine, large sagebrush, and western juniper predominate, along with various annual grasses and wildflowers. On the Blue–Wallowa mountains and the eastern slopes of the Cascades occur great stands of ponderosa pine in association with ground coverings of bitter brush, green manzanita, and herbaceous plants. The western slopes of the Cascade, Klamath, and Coast ranges are heavily forested with stands of Douglas fir, with varying degrees of undercover vines and intrusions of other tree growths depending on the age of the stand. In cleared areas of the damp coastal region are found alder and noncommercial deciduous growth. In the alpine zones of the mountains, larch, mountain hemlock, and alpine firs occur in association, and mountain mahogany is found in the Blue Mountains.

      Oregon's animal life is related to its climatic zones. Deer and elk flourish in less populated parts; antelope are found in the eastern high plateau; and bear and fox, in the mountain foothills. The lakes are breeding grounds for waterfowl and resting places for migratory birds.

Settlement patterns
      At least five major patterns of land use emerge from the tangle of Oregon's natural landscapes and climates. The forested mountains—the Coast Range, the Cascades, the Klamath, and the Blue–Wallowas—show relatively little evidence of human habitation or modification except for the harvest pattern of clear-cutting in the Douglas fir region, the logging and forest-management roads, and scattered roadside homesites at lower elevations. Most of the few loggers live in the valley towns.

      The western valleys, dominated by the Willamette, are Oregon's main centres of population, industry, and transportation. Most persons live close to well-populated centres. The nearly 1,300 wood-product plants that in 1947 were located in valley towns or up tributary valleys into the forested mountains had, by the late 20th century, dwindled to less than 300 large-scale sawmills, plywood plants, and pulp mills.

      In the rolling, sparsely populated wheat country of north central Oregon, ranches commonly exceed 1,500 acres (600 hectares) in the eastern portion and double that size to the west, where wheat–fallow rotation is practiced. In regions of natural erosion alternate bands of crop and fallow occur. Farmsteads are widely separated, and owners often live in towns.

      The growth of natural feed in open range country is relatively poor, and cattle scatter over enormous areas. There are fences, occasional watering places with metal tanks, and ranchsteads located at great distances from one another.

      Most of the eastern Oregon towns except Pendleton lie in the area of irrigated agriculture, on the eastern slopes of the Cascades or near the Idaho border. Farming is highly mechanized.

The people
      Oregonians (Oregon) are predominantly white and American-born. There are small populations of Hispanics, blacks, and Asians. American Indians make up about 1 percent of the population. Roman Catholics form the largest single religious denomination but make up only one-third of all religious adherents. Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, Disciples of Christ, Lutherans, and Mormons are other large religious denominations.

      The people are unevenly distributed, the great majority living west of the crest of the Cascade Range in the Willamette valley. Nearly 60 percent of all Oregonians live in three metropolitan areas, Portland, Eugene, and Salem. Portland, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers and the largest city in the state, is a leading West Coast port and the major commercial, industrial, service, and cultural centre of the state. Eugene and Salem, the second and third largest cities, respectively, are important for trade and processing. Salem, the state capital, is among the nation's leading food-processing centres. The major cities outside the Willamette valley are Medford, in the Rogue valley; Klamath Falls, in south central Oregon; and Pendleton, in the north central plateau.

The economy
      Traditionally, Oregon has had a resource-oriented economy, strongly dependent upon its forests and farms. Through diversification, however, various new industries have been established and tourism, recreation, and trade and service activities have grown.

      Forest-product manufacturing is Oregon's leading industry. About one-half the land area of the state is forested, and nearly 40 percent produces commercial timber. Public agencies control about 60 percent of Oregon's commercial forest, and private owners the remaining 40 percent. Additional forest is reserved for wilderness preservation, recreation, and other exclusionary uses.

      The forest industry began as a producer of lumber: since 1938 Oregon has ranked first in softwood lumber. Products have changed, however, and by the late 20th century only 40 percent of the forest income was from lumber. More than one-third of the logs harvested go into plywood, which accounts for about one-third of the value of forest products. Pulp and paper plants and hardboard and particleboard plants contribute most of the remainder.

      Metals-related industries—primary metals, fabricated metals, and transportation equipment—were the pacesetters after World War II. They have been replaced by high-technology industries—machinery, electrical equipment, and instruments—as the major growth factor. The greatest concentration of metals-related industries is in the Portland metropolitan area. The high-technology industries are in Portland and the Willamette valley.

Agriculture and fishing
      The agricultural land base of Oregon includes both cropland and pastures and rangeland. Livestock products contribute one-third of the total commodity value, led by cattle and calves; dairy and poultry products are also significant. Wheat is the leading crop, but potatoes, barley, pears, apples, and grapes for wine are also important.

      Chinook, silver, chum, and pink salmon and shellfish are the most valuable fishery products. Other fish include flounder, tuna, ocean perch, and rockfish.

      In mining, stone and construction sand and gravel make up the bulk of the value. Quarrying occurs in every county, but the greatest quantities are taken near urban areas. The only integrated nickel mine and smelter in the nation is located near Riddle. Studies have shown that the state likely has additional extractable reserves.

      Tourism has become a major sector of Oregon's overall economy. Those coming to the state enjoy its scenery and myriad opportunities for recreation, including hiking, skiing, fishing, beachcombing, and windsurfing. Tourism supports the many small businesses that provide food, lodging, fuel, and other supplies and services.

      In addition to an extensive network of highways and roads under the jurisdiction of the state, the federal government, and counties and municipalities, Oregon has forest development roads, national park roads, and military and Indian reservation roads that are controlled by federal agencies and various local governments. Railroads provide north–south and east–west routes. The largest airport is Portland International Airport; other significant commercial airfields are at Eugene, Medford, Pendleton, Klamath Falls, and Redmond.

      Throughout the state's history water transportation has been important. Six of the port districts are located on the Columbia above the head of deep navigation, where barge traffic is composed principally of grain and petroleum downstream and cement and structural steel upstream. Portland, open to oceangoing vessels, is by far the most important port. The other districts stretch along the Oregon coast and up the Columbia on the deep-draft channel. Portland, Astoria, Newport, and Coos Bay have regular shipments to and from foreign countries.

Administration and social conditions
      The state constitution was adopted in 1857. Oregon has been in the vanguard of several innovative movements in U.S. government collectively known as the Oregon System. In 1902 the concepts of initiative and referendum were introduced, by which voters are able to initiate and vote upon statutes or constitutional revisions; these were supplemented in 1908 by the system of recall, under which the removal of elected officials can be initiated by the voters. The state was also one of the earliest to impose a state income tax, which it did in 1923.

      State government in Oregon follows the pattern of most states. Limited to two four-year terms within any 12-year period, the governor supervises the state budget, coordinates the activities of state agencies, boards, and commissions, initiates future planning, and is the focus of federal–state interaction. The governor may also veto individual items in appropriation bills. The legislature comprises the Senate, with 30 members serving four-year terms, and the House of Representatives, with 60 members serving two-year terms.

      The court system is headed by the seven-justice Supreme Court, which has general administrative authority over all other courts. The justices, elected for six-year terms, elect one of their members as chief justice.

      Oregon gives its towns and cities home rule—that is, the right to choose their own form of government. Most cities with populations of more than 2,500 have the council–manager form of government, whereas smaller cities usually are governed by a city council and a mayor. Portland is governed by four commissioners and a mayor.

      In 1958 a constitutional amendment authorized counties to adopt home-rule charters, and in 1973 a state law granted all counties the power to exercise broad home-rule authority. In most counties a county judge and two commissioners or a board of commissioners exercise the powers of government. These officials usually are elected for terms of three years.

      Oregon's budget includes general fund revenue derived from personal and corporate income, excise, inheritance, and insurance taxes and from liquor sales and other fund revenue derived from federal grants, use taxes, trust funds, licenses, and the sale of services and commodities. In 1971 the legislature passed a far-reaching program to deal with the problem of air and water pollution, and in 1973 a mandatory program of land and resource development and conservation was established.

      Republicans dominated Oregon's politics through much of the state's history. With post-World War II industrial and population growth, however, Democrats came to outnumber Republicans in registration. An unusual number of Oregonians have made their mark in the U.S. Congress by their independent stances.

      The first free public school system was created by the territorial legislature in 1849. In 1951 the legislature established a board of education, appointed by the governor. The constitution provides for an elected superintendent of public instruction.

      Opportunities for education after high school are provided by community colleges, a state system of higher education composed of three universities (the University of Oregon, Oregon State University, and Portland State University), three regional colleges, two specialized schools, and several private colleges. The community colleges are administered by lay boards, supported by local taxes, and responsive to local needs in their curricula. Private colleges include Reed College (1909) in Portland, Willamette University (1842) in Salem, and Lewis and Clark College (1867) in Portland.

Health and welfare
      The Department of Human Resources coordinates the activities of the state's principal social service agencies. More than 250 programs provide service directly to citizens. The Oregon Health Sciences University, located in Portland, includes schools of medicine, dentistry, and nursing, hospitals and outpatient clinics, and other facilities. The university's Institute for Advanced Biomedical Research was one of the world's first centres to focus on study of the molecular biology of the brain.

Cultural life
      As a relatively young state and one in which the human imprint is scarcely visible over vast stretches of land, Oregon has not developed a cultural identity equivalent to those of the longer settled or more heavily populated regions. Its people, however, no less in the sparsely settled areas of the east than in the population centres of the Willamette valley, take full part in the increasingly homogeneous character of American life. Portland has large auditoriums and a coliseum. Theatrical and musical groups are found in all of the cities and larger towns, and the Oregon Shakespearean Festival in Ashland draws thousands of viewers each summer. University and college communities have public offerings in the arts and other cultural activities.

      In addition to sporting events, both spectator and participatory, Oregon has a number of attractions related to its history and location. These include the Pendleton Round-Up, which attracts participants from across the West; Albany's World Championship Timber Carnival, which takes place each July 4 and features logger events, carnivals, and a parade; and Portland's Rose Festival in early June.

      The Multnomah County Library, in Portland, was the first to serve the public on a large scale; it began membership service in 1864 and free service in 1902. The Oregon State Library in Salem maintains a general reference service and loan collection.

      The Oregon Historical Center in Portland and the Horner Museum at Oregon State University own large collections of items from pioneer days in the Oregon country. The Oregon Museum of Science and Industry in Portland features demonstrations of science at work in Oregon industries. The Portland Art Museum features Northwest Coast Indian art and pre-Columbian art in its collection. The Murray Warner Collection of Oriental Art at the University of Oregon has one of the largest Asian collections in the United States. The High Desert Museum, in Bend, has living exhibits of plants and animals native to the arid region of the Pacific Northwest.

History
      When the first Europeans arrived in the Oregon country—a region vaguely defined at the time but roughly comparable to the present Pacific Northwest—about 125 Indian (Native American) tribes with a population estimated at 100,000 to 180,000 lived in and around the area. In what became the state of Oregon, the leading tribes were the salmon-eating Chinook along the lower Columbia River; the Tillamook, Yamel, Molala, Clackamus, and Multnomah in the northwest; the Santiam and Coos in the southwest; the Cayuse, Northern Paiute, Umatilla, Nez Percé, and Bannock in the dry lands east of the Cascade Range and in the Blue–Wallowa mountains; and the Klamath and Modoc in the south central area. Their mode of life resulted in a relatively small population: they had no form of agriculture and no domesticated animals other than the dog; and they used crude implements for gathering, hunting, and fishing. The tribes along the Columbia River, known as the Canoe Indians, fashioned excellent canoes from logs.

The explorers
      The first Europeans to see the Oregon coast were Spanish sailors searching for a northwest passage. In 1579 English pirate Francis Drake (Drake, Sir Francis), in quest of Spanish loot and a northwest passage in his Golden Hind, anchored in an inlet north of the Golden Gate and with a brass plate “took possession” of the country for Queen Elizabeth I. Until the third quarter of the 18th century, when the Spanish renewed exploration along the coast, the Oregon country remained unexplored. In 1778 the English sea captain James Cook (Cook, James) visited and traded in Oregon.

      In 1787 Boston merchants sent two ships to the Oregon country under Captains Robert Gray (Gray, Robert) and John Kendrick. On his second voyage Gray entered the harbour that bears his name (in Washington), and in May 1792 he sailed over the bar of the Columbia River and named it for his ship, the Columbia. This was the first U.S. claim to the Pacific Northwest by right of discovery.

      The Northwest was also approached by land. Two British fur companies, the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company, raced across the continent to open routes to the Pacific; the Americans were not far behind. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark (Lewis and Clark Expedition) reached the mouth of the Columbia in 1805, strengthening the U.S. claim to the region. John Jacob Astor (Astor, John Jacob), at the head of the Pacific Fur Company, began white settlement of the Oregon country with the establishment of a trading post at Astoria in 1811. In 1824 the Hudson's Bay Company established Fort Vancouver, and John McLoughlin was appointed to head this company's far-flung operations. For the next 22 years he was the dominating figure in the region.

Permanent settlement
      Beginning in 1830, thousands of people from the Midwest migrated to the Pacific Northwest. Missionaries played a role in settlement. In 1834 the Methodists, headed by Jason Lee, established the first permanent settlement in the Willamette valley. The migrations that carved the deep wagon wheel ruts still visible in the Oregon Trail began in the early 1840s. After 1838 U.S. claims and rights to the region were constantly before Congress. Settlers in the Willamette valley made known their desire to become part of the United States. In 1843 representatives met at Champoeg to organize a provisional government; a set of laws patterned after those of Iowa was accepted. By 1844 the British government had concluded that the Columbia River boundary line would have to be abandoned, and the Hudson's Bay Company moved its chief Northwest depot to Fort Victoria. In spite of the “fifty-four forty or fight” slogan of the presidential campaign of 1844, the 49th parallel was accepted by both nations as the boundary, and the Oregon country was added to the United States in 1846.

Statehood and growth
      The influx of population led to political agitation, and in 1853 the Washington Territory was given independent status. Oregon became the 33rd state in 1859. By 1883, following several conflicts with whites, most of the Indians of Oregon had been moved to reservations. The same year a railroad linking Oregon with the rest of the nation was begun, which vastly improved the opportunity for economic growth. Agriculture and forestry were especially stimulated, and by the turn of the 20th century two-thirds of the people of Oregon lived in rural areas. During the 20th century, however, the cities grew rapidly, and by the late 20th century more than two-thirds of the people were living in urban areas. Land use planning and legislation have helped to preserve the state's environment. Since 1940 there has been diversification of the economy, including rapid growth in international trade, and a significant increase in the number of people emigrating to Oregon from other states.

Richard M. Highsmith, Jr.

Additional Reading
Federal Writers' Project, Oregon: End of the Trail (1940, reprinted 1972), is still a useful overview. Samuel N. Dicken and Emily F. Dicken, Two Centuries of Oregon Geography, 2 vol. (1979–82), covers both historical and descriptive geography. Topical maps of the state may be found in William G. Loy, Stuart Allan, and Clyde P. Patton, Atlas of Oregon (1976); and Carolyn Young et al., Oregon Environmental Atlas (1988); while DeLorme Mapping Company, Oregon Atlas & Gazetteer, 3rd ed. (1998), focuses on topography. Ewart M. Baldwin, Geology of Oregon, 3rd ed. (1981), is a handy summary reference. Lewis A. McArthur, Oregon Geographic Names, 6th ed., rev. and enlarged by Lewis L. McArthur (1992), combines geography and local history.Historical treatment is provided by Phil F. Brogan, East of the Cascades, 4th ed. (1977), a popularization of central Oregon's history; Gordon B. Dodds, Oregon: A Bicentennial History (1977), an introduction; and Charles H. Carey, General History of Oregon Through Early Statehood, 3rd ed. (1971). Oregon Historical Quarterly publishes current research.Richard M. Highsmith, Jr.

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Universalium. 2010.

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