—Chicagoan, n./shi kah"goh, -kaw"-/, n.a city in NE Illinois, on Lake Michigan: second largest city in the U.S. 3,005,072.
* * *ICity (pop., 2000: 2,896,016), northeastern Illinois, U.S. Located on Lake Michigan and the Chicago River, Chicago has extensive port facilities.In the 17th century the name was associated with a portage between the Des Plaines and Chicago rivers connecting the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes with the Mississippi River. Fort Dearborn was built in 1803 on a tract acquired from Indians. It expanded rapidly after the completion of the Illinois and Michigan Canal (1848), which connected the Chicago and Mississippi rivers, and also became the nation's chief rail centre. Rebuilt quickly after a hugely destructive fire in 1871, it was the site of the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. It was the birthplace of the steel-frame skyscraper in the late 19th century, and it boasts designs by eminent architects, including Louis H. Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Nuclear scientists produced the first nuclear chain reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. After World War II the city underwent another building boom, but, as in other large cities, its population subsequently dropped as its suburbs grew. The third largest U.S. city, it is a major industrial, commercial, and transportation centre and is the site of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and the Chicago Board of Trade. Several museums and the Art Institute of Chicago are located there.II(as used in expressions)Chicago JudyChicago University of
* * *▪ American rock grouprock band, among the most popular American recording artists of all time, with sales of more than 100 million records. Initially a jazz-rock unit, Chicago thrived as it moved toward a lighter, ballad (pop ballad)-oriented rock style. Its original members were Terry Kath (b. Jan. 31, 1946, Chicago, Ill., U.S.— d. Jan. 23, 1978, Los Angeles, Calif.), Peter Cetera (b. Sept. 13, 1944, Chicago), Robert Lamm (b. Oct. 13, 1944, New York, N.Y.), Walter Parazaider (b. March 14, 1945, Chicago), Danny Seraphine (b. Aug. 28, 1948, Chicago), James Pankow (b. Aug. 20, 1947, Chicago), and Lee Loughnane (b. Oct. 21, 1946, Chicago).Called the Chicago Transit Authority before shortening its name to that of the city in which it was founded in 1967, Chicago distinguished itself from other rock bands of the late 1960s by the inclusion of horns in its lineup. The band's early albums, including its debut, Chicago Transit Authority (1969)—made after the group relocated to Los Angeles—were resonant with soul (soul music)-inflected jazz influences. By the early 1970s principal songwriters Cetera, Lamm, and Pankow and producer-manager James Guercio began to steer Chicago in a more pop-oriented direction. A series of hit albums over the next decade featured Top Ten songs such as “Does Anybody Really Know What Time It Is?” and “Saturday in the Park.” In the late 1970s, following the death of guitarist Kath, Chicago slumped; the band topped the charts again in the '80s with hits such as “Hard to Say I'm Sorry,” though it failed to maintain that momentum in the '90s. Vocalist Cetera also experienced some success as a soloist.Introductioncity, seat of Cook county, northeastern Illinois, U.S. With a population hovering near three million, Chicago is the state's largest and the country's third most populous city. In addition, the greater Chicagoland area—which encompasses northeastern Illinois and extends into southeastern Wisconsin and northwestern Indiana—is the country's third largest metropolitan area and the dominant metropolis of the Midwest.The original site for Chicago was unremarkable: a small settlement at the mouth of the Chicago River near the southern tip of Lake Michigan (Michigan, Lake). Indeed, a common notion for the origin of the city's name is an Algonquian (Algonquian languages) word for a wild leek (or onion) plant that grew locally. However, Chicago's location at the southwestern end of the vast Great Lakes system could not have been more ideal as the country expanded westward in the 19th century, and perhaps this is reflected in another interpretation of the Native American term as meaning “strong” or “great.” Regardless of which derivation is correct, it was soon recognized that the Chicago River formed a critical link in the great waterway that arose mid-century between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River. With the rise of railways soon thereafter, the young city became the country's railway hub, which helped diversify the city's rapidly growing industrial base. Chicago continued as America's crossroads with the explosive growth of air travel after World War II, which eased the city's transition into a postindustrial economy.Chicago sprawls along the lakeshore and extends inland to meet its suburbs in a ragged line. At its greatest extent, the city is some 25 miles (40 km) from north to south and 15 miles (25 km) from east to west. Area 228 square miles (591 square km). Pop. (2000) city, 2,896,016; Chicago-Naperville-Joliet MD, 7,628,412; Chicago-Naperville-Joliet MSA, 9,098,316; (2005 est.) city, 2,842,518; Chicago-Naperville-Joliet MD, 7,882,729; Chicago-Naperville-Joliet MSA, 9,443,356.Character of the cityA drive across Chicago's lively immigrant neighbourhoods is a trip around the world: the cultures of virtually every country can be found in food stores, restaurants, clothing shops, music and video dealers, places of worship, and street-corner conversations. Chicago's dizzying growth in the 19th century led to a reputation not only for disorder and political corruption but also for creativity in the arts, architecture, and business. The resulting economic opportunities also contributed to the diversity of the city's population.Chicago never fulfilled its dream of becoming the largest American city, but between 1890 and 1982 it was second only to New York City. That fact has contributed much to the city's reputed personality. In the 19th century it had the image of being aggressive and self-promoting, stealing population and businesses from the East. Chicago's “Windy City” nickname, in fact, came not from lake breezes but from its braggadocio—exhibited most dramatically in the 1890s, when it pushed aside New York and St. Louis, Mo., (Saint Louis) in the competition to become the site of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. Poet Carl Sandburg (Sandburg, Carl) hailed it as the “city of the big shoulders,” cunning and cruel, yet creative and strangely attractive. It was the “toddlin' town” of the 1920s tune, and Frank Sinatra (Sinatra, Frank) famously proclaimed it “my kind of town.” New York writer A.J. Liebling belittled its provinciality in a stinging series of magazine articles, collected in the 1952 book Chicago: The Second City. Chicagoans eventually forgot the book, but the adopted epithet stuck. Under the regime of the late mayor Richard J. Daley (Daley, Richard J), efficient municipal services made it the “city that works.” Chicagoans still like to refer to it as the “city of neighbourhoods,” even though that description can carry connotations of segregation by race, ethnicity, and social class.Few cities evoke as many contrasting pairs of images as Chicago. During the 19th century it was regarded as exceptional for the speed of its growth and the diversity of its population, yet its interior location supposedly made it a much more “typically American” city than New York. One-third of Chicago lay in ashes in the wake of the Great Fire of 1871, but it was rebuilt in record speed during the onset of an economic depression. It was the city of the humble immigrant and the new millionaire, the home of brazen criminals such as Al Capone (Capone, Al) and of great humanitarians such as settlement-house pioneer Jane Addams (Addams, Jane) and child-welfare crusader Lucy Flower (Flower, Lucy Louisa Coues). There were raucous saloons under the watchful eye of temperance leader Frances Willard (Willard, Frances). Fetid wooden slums and horrific public housing high-rises have coexisted cheek by jowl with a uniquely innovative architectural tradition and the beautiful Gold Coast lakefront neighbourhood just north of the river. Chicago traditionally has been a shot-and-a-beer town whose best-known culinary inventions include a deep-dish pizza and a hot dog elaborately overloaded with garnishes. At the same time, it has long enjoyed a reputation for cutting-edge innovation in the arts, and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra has maintained a high level of international renown.Chicago has been a stranger's town throughout its history. Its position as a hub for rail and air travel has always meant that at any one time a large portion of the people in the city are out-of-towners. Over the years its location has fostered a lively convention trade—a fact that has led hundreds of organizations and corporations to call it home. As the metropolis of the country's midsection, from the southern Great Plains to Canada and as far west as the Rocky Mountains, Chicago ranks among the country's top tourist destinations. On any given day, the parking lots of its museums are filled with cars from dozens of surrounding states, while its varied retailers and wholesalers have long been an interstate and international magnet for shoppers.LandscapeCity siteChicago lies mainly on a relatively flat glacial plain—on what was once the bottom of Lake Chicago (the precursor of Lake Michigan (Michigan, Lake))—averaging between 579 and 600 feet (176 and 183 metres) above sea level. Much of the site remained swampy, only a few feet above the lake level, before the central part of the city was filled in during the 19th century. Chicago is divided roughly into thirds by the North and South branches of the Chicago River, which join together about 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the lake. The original meandering river mouth was straightened soon after the town's founding, while a mile-long bend on the South Branch was eliminated to accommodate maritime traffic. A second important body of water, Lake Calumet, is located in the industrial southeastern part of the city; it is connected to the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal by the Calumet Sag (Cal-Sag) Channel and to Lake Michigan by the Calumet River.Downtown Chicago occupies the area between the lakeshore and the northern end of the South Branch and extends south from the river for a mile or so. Within this is the Loop (Loop, the), named in the 1880s for the square of blocks originally enclosed by streetcar tracks and now generally defined by the elevated tracks of the rapid-transit system. The Loop and the adjacent North Michigan Avenue corridor stretching north along the lakefront form the commercial and financial heart of the city.ClimateChicagoans have a pair of old adages about the local climate. The first—“If you don't like the weather, wait an hour and it will change”—may have something to do with the fact that temperature and precipitation, borne by prairie winds from Iowa or Minnesota, routinely collide with conditions generated by Lake Michigan to produce abrupt weather alterations. The second—“There are two seasons in Chicago: Christmas and the Fourth of July”—refers to the sometimes stark extremes in the weather. About 50 °F (28 °C) separate the January average of 28 °F (−2 °C) and the July average of 75 °F (24 °C). The average annual precipitation is 35 inches (900 mm). Chicagoans can enjoy lying on the beach in summer and skating in the parks in winter.The expansive Chicago region, however, is large enough to see simultaneous double-digit differences in temperature. Although city pavements are known to absorb and radiate enough heat to affect local meteorological patterns, the lake often provides a moderating influence, slightly warming the areas near it in winter, cooling them in summer, and generating occasional lake-effect showers and snowfalls.City layoutChicago presents a different face in each direction. One of the city's most attractive features is its miles of well-used parks and other public facilities along the lakeshore. Other parts of the city can be dismal. Sporadic industrial buildings, many of them abandoned, line the railroad routes and river branches that radiate out from the centre. The industrial landscape of the southeast portion of the city dominates the vista from the east. The western and northern approaches to Chicago present a vast expanse of tree-lined residential neighbourhoods, leading to a dramatic skyline of towering office, hotel, and apartment buildings that are concentrated downtown and along the lake.Thousands of tourists come each year just to view the architecture. The reconstruction of the city after the Great Fire of 1871 initiated a pattern of building innovation that expanded in the late 1880s with a wave of new office structures that were dubbed skyscrapers, a term reputedly coined in Chicago but which New York also claims. The steel frames of skyscrapers removed height limitations previously imposed by solid load-bearing masonry walls and allowed the use of large expanses of glass, terra-cotta facing, and other types of curtain walls. A generation of 1920s-era Art Deco office towers may be found principally in the LaSalle Street financial district, while the influence of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig), the German-born Chicago architect of great worldwide influence, can be seen in the 1950s–'80s generation of International-style (International Style) buildings. Scores of major structures have been constructed since the early 1970s. The 110-story, 1,454-foot (443-metre) Sears Tower (1974) remains one of the tallest in the world, while the 100-story John Hancock Center (1969), the 83-story Aon Center (originally Amoco Building; 1974), the 61-story AT&T Corporate Center (1989), and the 65-story 311 South Wacker Building (1990) rank among the country's tallest. Dozens of newer postmodern designs continue to remake the skyline.As Chicago grew rapidly in the 1880s, places that were once rural quickly became part of the city. In 1869, public health advocates, who called for Chicago to purify its air with a “green crown” of trees, joined with real estate interests to badger the state government into creating a ring of major parks linked together by broad boulevards. Growth led to a patchwork of neighbourhood green spaces. In 1934 the city consolidated 22 smaller park administrations to create the Chicago Park District, which operates more than 500 parks covering some 7,000 acres (2,800 hectares). Beyond the city, county forest preserve districts and the federal government have set aside thousands of acres of natural woodlands and have re-created prairies.A major outdoor gallery for the people, the city's parks and public plazas feature dozens of monuments and sculptures. Nineteenth-century works in bronze honour such figures as Presidents Abraham Lincoln (Lincoln, Abraham) and Ulysses S. Grant (Grant, Ulysses S.); immigrants have commemorated heroes and cultural figures including Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von) and Hans Christian Andersen (Andersen, Hans Christian). The philanthropist Kate Sturges Buckingham donated one of the world's largest fountains—Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain (dedicated 1927), which graces Grant Park just east of downtown. Beginning in the 1960s, Chicago acquired contemporary sculptures by Alexander Calder (Calder, Alexander), Claes Oldenburg (Oldenburg, Claes), Henry Moore (Moore, Henry), Marc Chagall (Chagall, Marc), Richard Hunt, and others. The most famous is the Pablo Picasso (Picasso, Pablo) sculpture in Daley Center Plaza, fabricated of steel designed to weather and once described by an unappreciative alderman as “six stories of rusting boiler-plate.”Like all cities, Chicago is still deeply affected by the physical artifacts of its history. The street pattern is basically an extension of the first city plan of 1830. It is a grid layout, eight blocks to a mile, with major commercial streets around the perimeters of each square mile (2.5 square km). Not all streets conform, some having evolved from meandering Native American trails radiating outward from the river mouth and others having paths determined by the presence of the river and the lake.Chicago can perhaps be thought of as a fragmented city, with the river branches, major streets, railroad embankments, and (more recently) expressways dividing it into a diversity of neighbourhoods and housing types. There are lakefront high-rises, including Lake Point Tower—once among the tallest apartment buildings in the country and now only one of many such structures in its increasingly fashionable district east of Michigan Avenue—in sharp contrast to thousands of smaller stone-front or brick flats farther inland. Constantly improving public transportation and seemingly unlimited supplies of affordable land have long made single-family housing in the city relatively attainable for many. Outlying neighbourhoods still consist of tens of thousands of bungalows (bungalow), built narrow and deep to fit city lots. Many of these homes were built in massive subdivisions where developers replicated the same basic house dozens of times.Chicago sprawls in all directions from the curving lakefront. The vast public-transportation and expressway networks have allowed the metropolitan area, popularly called Chicagoland, to stretch from Kenosha, Wis., around the south end of the lake through northwestern Indiana to the Michigan state line. Early suburban development gave the appearance of a wagon wheel. On the outer rim is a broad arc of older industrial cities— Waukegan, Elgin, St. Charles, Geneva, Aurora, Joliet, and Chicago Heights—that were once independent of Chicago; these cities formed part of a ring that informally defined the outer boundary of the metropolitan area until the latter part of the 20th century. Immediately surrounding the city are such communities as Evanston, Oak Park, Cicero, and Blue Island, all of which resisted annexation by their larger neighbour. Connecting the hub and rim are a number of other older residential suburbs that developed as part of spokelike strings of towns extending outward from the city along several commuter rail lines. The wheel pattern gradually broke down after World War II, when automobile commuting on a growing network of expressways allowed new subdivisions to displace the farms that lay between the spokes of the older rail-commuting suburbs. After 1960 the presence of O'Hare International Airport spurred businesses and light industry to concentrate in the northwest suburbs. New high-technology research facilities and offices developed after 1970 along the “Silicon Prairie” corridor stretching west of the city. As a result, the formerly quiet village of Naperville has been transformed into a sprawling “technoburb” with one of the largest populations in the state. Conversely, some of the older suburbs have replicated the inner-city pattern of aging structures, obsolete industrial buildings, and social problems, while the outward shift of jobs has accelerated the dispersal of residential development far beyond the ring of old industrial towns.PeopleThe most important fact about Chicago's population is its historic and rich diversity. Early Chicago was inhabited by the Sauk (or Sac), Fox, and Potawatomi peoples, and the first permanent nonnative resident, Jean-Baptist-Point Du Sable (Du Sable, Jean-Baptist-Point) (or DuSable), was of French-African heritage by way of the West Indies. French Canadian traders mixed with settlers from New England and the Middle Atlantic states. Irish, German, and Scandinavian immigrants began to pour in during the 1840s. In 1850 more than half of the population was foreign-born. During the latter half of the 19th century, arrivals from Italy, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Greece, Lithuania, Bohemia, China, and smaller countries entered the city through diverse portal neighbourhoods that were located just northwest and southwest of downtown. As they moved outward, they created communities that were virtually self-contained enclaves of commercial, social, and cultural activity. Elaborate churches and synagogues, many of which still survive, were often the centre of their lives.Race became a divisive issue after the turn of the 20th century. Job opportunities during World War I and restrictions on foreign immigration after 1924 lured tens of thousands of African Americans from the South. These new arrivals poured into a community on the city's South Side that had existed since the mid-19th century. Soon dubbed Bronzeville, it became a centre of vibrant African American culture, amusement, and entrepreneurship. Mounting racial tensions, exacerbated by overcrowded and segregated housing on the South Side and the return of former soldiers, exploded in July 1919 into one of the country's worst race riots, which claimed 38 lives. Meanwhile, Mexican Americans, who had responded to the same wartime opportunities and who were exempt from the 1924 legislation, came by the thousands, attracted by jobs in railroading, steel, and meatpacking. The Great Depression of the 1930s effectively halted the city's growth, but World War II again attracted thousands of African Americans to work in defense plants and initiated a new wave of migration that grew rapidly during the 1950s. Refugees from Lithuania, Poland, and other eastern European countries also arrived after the war, as did newcomers from the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. At the same time, a thriving Japanese American community sprang from the relocation of workers from wartime internment camps to Chicago.Since the latter part of the 20th century, the city's population growth has been fueled by migrants from both around the country and around the world. By the early 21st century, African Americans made up roughly one-third of the population, and whites constituted some two-fifths. Mexican Americans, whose numbers have mushroomed faster than those of any other group, have settled in a corridor extending southwestward from the Pilsen and Little Village neighbourhoods near downtown to suburban Cicero. They have been joined by others from every country in Central and South America. African immigrants have come from all regions of that continent. Hispanics now make up a growing one-fourth of the city's population. The relaxation of immigration restrictions in the mid-1960s brought a substantial wave into the South Asian community, making Devon Avenue on the far North Side its arrival portal and main shopping street. There sari stores coexist with Jewish delis, Russian bookstores, and Palestinian markets. Meanwhile, Korean Americans also have prospered in small businesses scattered across the city. In 1975, arrivals following the Vietnam War created an instant neighbourhood centred near the lake on Argyle Street, where Cambodians, Thai, Hmong, and other Southeast Asians leaving their homelands have found opportunity.Change has been a constant factor in the ethnic and neighbourhood makeup of the city, forcing many groups to struggle to maintain their communities. urban renewal for expressways and public housing was the major destabilizing factor during the 1950s and '60s, notably for African Americans and Puerto Ricans. The loss of industrial jobs also devastated neighbourhoods, while chain stores drew money out of local circulation. Federal home loans—which restricted where and how funds could be spent—along with increased capacity on commuter rail lines and new expressway construction encouraged the post-World War II generations to build new homes in the suburbs, leaving behind aging parents in declining city neighbourhoods. In many areas the thousands of bungalows (bungalow) that had been built in a relatively short period of time all started to deteriorate. Without new housing stock to replace decaying structures, the downward cycle toward abandonment began in many areas of the South and West sides. The departing families were replaced by newly arrived minorities, whose poverty and race were disadvantages in an increasingly segregated city.The destruction of the old housing stock produced a loss of population, which led to the closing of such community anchors as churches, schools, and hospitals. Politicians and planners tried to contain the African American communities by constructing expressways around those areas and concentrating the residents of minority neighbourhoods in rows of monolithic public-housing high-rise apartment buildings. The Robert Taylor Homes near the lakefront on the South Side was the largest such project ever built in the country.The most recent destabilizing factor in some areas of the city has been gentrification. Conveniently located old houses and apartment buildings have lured enough financing to transform once-abandoned districts into communities of upscale housing units. Since the last decades of the 20th century, thousands of new residents have moved into the light-manufacturing belt surrounding the Loop. Where immigrant workers once carried their lunch pails to work in factories, these young urban professionals clutch briefcases and talk on their cell phones as they walk to work in downtown office towers. Similar developments are transforming the housing and manufacturing districts along several rapid-transit (popularly, “L,” for “elevated”) lines and in parts of the traditionally African American communities along the south shore of the lake. Boutiques and coffeehouses have displaced small grocers and other marginal merchants. While the process has saved neighbourhoods in one sense and brought back large numbers of affluent residents to the city, it has also tended to increase property values and tax assessments to the point where longtime residents of more-modest means are displaced. Indeed, many of the 1960s-era public-housing projects (including Robert Taylor) have now been razed, although some provisions have been made for housing the former tenants.EconomyBesides church steeples and skyscrapers, smokestacks have long dominated the Chicago horizon. The city's position as a rail hub and a port aided its use of the Midwest's raw materials to produce a wide range of goods: light manufactures such as food, food products, candy, pharmaceuticals, and soap; communication equipment, scientific instruments, and automobiles; and refined petroleum, petroleum products, and steel. The city also became a major printing and publishing centre. This diversity originally grew out of Chicago's role as a transshipment point for eastbound grain and lumber as well as meat, which was smoked or packed in salt. The city assumed a new role as manufacturer of military supplies during the American Civil War, adding leather goods, steel rail, and food processing. Although railroading, steel, and meatpacking continued to be the largest employers, by the late 19th century manufacturing was branching into chemicals, furniture, paint, metalworking, machine tools, railroad equipment, bicycles, printing, mail-order sales, and other fields that were considered the cutting edge in their day. The production of most of the country's telephone equipment made Chicago the Silicon Valley of an earlier era. Industrial diversification also depended on a skilled workforce, whose numbers were enhanced through a tradition of innovative vocational training.ManufacturingAlthough Chicago failed to attract the automobile-manufacturing dominance it sought, its other industries thrived through much of the 20th century. It became a major radio and electronics centre during the 1920s. Like all manufacturing cities, Chicago was devastated by the Great Depression. The World War II boom involved more than 1,400 companies producing a wide range of military goods. Diversification, however, also made Chicago's job market vulnerable to changes in almost any industry. In addition, the city's abundant multistory factory buildings, which were often located in congested districts, could not compete with newer suburban industrial parks that had their sprawling single-story plants and access to expressways. Many companies sought new (and cheaper) labour markets south and west in the Sun Belt or overseas while keeping their headquarters in Chicago. Estimates of industrial jobs lost during the first four postwar decades run as high as one million, but manufacturing has remained a significant—if diminished—component of the regional economy.Finance and other servicesThe drop in manufacturing's preeminence has been mirrored by a dramatic rise in the service sector, which now employs some one-third of the city's workforce. Notably, Chicago has fallen back on its original preindustrial role as a trading centre. The city's rapid early growth and its location as the rail hub amid the country's farm belt made it the logical site for commodities trading. In 1848, traders created the Chicago Board of Trade to rationalize the process of purchasing and forwarding grain to Eastern markets. Over the years the scope of its trading expanded to include a number of commodities, and in 1973 it spun off an independent Chicago Board Options Exchange to regularize trading of corporate stock options. Meanwhile, in 1874 the new Chicago Produce Exchange began providing trading services for butter, eggs, poultry, and other farm product markets; in 1919 it changed its name to the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. The fourth trading institution, the Chicago Stock Exchange, was organized in 1882 to handle corporate securities; mergers with exchanges in other cities led to it being renamed the Midwest Stock Exchange in 1949, but the original name was restored in 1993. All four of these institutions—along with trading, banking, and other financial functions—have made the downtown LaSalle Street district synonymous with Chicago's regional dominance, though the long-standing tradition of face-to-face trading that built them has experienced increased competition from electronic trading.Chicago, with dozens of major banks, remains second only to New York City as a national financial hub. However, local wholesaling and retailing have fallen increasingly under the control of out-of-town interests, which have either bought out or squeezed out department stores and retailers in several product lines.Chicago's position as a national transportation hub has long guaranteed the city a steady stream of conventions and trade shows. It has hosted numerous national political conventions since the one in 1860 that nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presidency. Older venues such as the Coliseum, the International Amphitheater, and the Chicago Stadium have given way to the United Center and the UIC Pavilion in the city and the Allstate Arena in suburban Rosemont, near O'Hare. McCormick Place, the lakefront convention complex just south of downtown, has been expanded several times to remain among the largest trade-show facilities in the country. Each year, McCormick Place alone hosts dozens of conventions and trade shows that draw many hundreds of thousands of people and pump considerable revenue into the local economy. Millions more businesspeople, tourists, and other short-term visitors come to the city annually to shop, dine, visit museums, and take in sporting and musical events, many of them staying in the region's tens of thousands of hotel rooms.TransportationChicago continues to be the country's rail transportation (railroad) hub. Each day thousands of Amtrak passengers arrive or change trains at Union Station, much as railway travelers did 150 years ago. The shift of freight carriers to containers has meant that rail yards and tracks are more likely to be filled with tractor trailers and stacks of giant boxes than boxcars and gondolas. Belt railways that circle the region still provide interchange between lines, but, as rail lines have consolidated, the corporate headquarters for much of the rail industry have left the city. Despite the preeminence of the railroads in handling freight, maritime industries survived and expanded to remain competitive in high bulk–low value hauling.From the early days of commercial aviation, Chicago's city government has recognized and capitalized on the advantageous flexibility of air routes over more-or-less permanent railroad tracks. During the 1920s the city established Municipal Airport on the Southwest Side, which quickly developed into one of the country's busiest air hubs. However, by the end of the 1950s, the advent of jet airliners and their requirement of longer runways threatened to make landlocked Municipal obsolete. After long debate, the city chose to build a new facility by utilizing the old Orchard Field (hence the official acronym “ORD” used on luggage tags) in northwest suburban Park Ridge. In 1949 the new airport was named in honour of Lieutenant Commander Edward (“Butch”) O'Hare, a wartime naval air hero, while Municipal was renamed Midway for the critical 1942 Allied battle victory in the Pacific. Long the undisputed busiest airport in the country, O'Hare more recently has competed with other large facilities across the country for the distinction, while a rejuvenated Midway became a regional hub. For decades the city has debated the issue of constructing a third major airport.The move toward publicly operated mass transit grew out of adversity, as the Great Depression forced a collection of private streetcar and elevated-rail companies into bankruptcy. Public funding allowed the construction of a long-delayed subway system. Work began in 1938 on a north-south line under State Street that was completed in 1943, and a second, parallel route under Dearborn Street opened in 1950. These lines and the Loop elevated (“L”) structure—completed in 1897 and still the essential downtown link in the system—constitute the core of a network of rapid-transit rail lines that came to include service to O'Hare and Midway. Meanwhile, in 1945 the Illinois state legislature, the General Assembly, created the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) to take over operation of the “L” carriers; independent bus companies were absorbed in 1952.Although Chicago grew most rapidly while it rode “L” trains and streetcars, it also fell in love with the automobile. Chicago's expressway system dates to the 1920s, when Lake Shore Drive was rebuilt as a divided highway. (Some claim it to be one of the country's oldest expressways.) But the postwar rush to suburbia, automobile commuting, and the 1956 Interstate Highway Act brought about the construction of the modern network. The Congress Street (later Eisenhower) Expressway to the west, completed in 1956, was the region's first interstate highway. During the following decade, a spiderweb of Loop-directed expressways and encircling bypass routes was superimposed on the region, which roughly followed the outlines of the original wagon-wheel pattern of settlement.The move to the automobile left public transit in crisis. In 1973 the Illinois General Assembly created the Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) and gave it the power to levy a sales tax to support the CTA as well as a failing commuter rail system (which was unified and named Metra). Privately owned and municipal bus routes in the suburbs were similarly united under the name of Pace (1983). The RTA has revitalized the system and even expanded it, notably into areas northwest and southwest of the city not previously served. In addition, there is one independent commuter rail line, the heavily subsidized South Shore Line to South Bend, Ind., the country's sole surviving electric interurban line.Occasionally, Chicagoans run the risk of being “bridged”—shut out of the Loop because bridges in the central area must be raised to allow passage of river traffic. There are several dozen movable bridges over waterways within the city. Two of the most noteworthy are the large double-deck Michigan Avenue and Outer Drive (or Link) bridges, the latter connecting the northern and southern parts of Lake Shore Drive. Although bridge raisings are now rare—confined largely to specified times to allow the passage of tall-masted sailboats—the river bustles in warmer weather with pleasure craft, sightseeing boats, and the occasional barge.An aging remnant of Chicago's infrastructure came to light dramatically in April 1992, when an under-river tunnel was punctured, leading to massive flooding in downtown basements. A system of freight tunnels had been constructed below Loop streets at the beginning of the 20th century to haul cargo, coal, and ashes to and from downtown buildings. Eventually abandoned after having served its original purpose, the system found new life carrying communications wiring and fell into obscurity until the flood. There are also unused remains of three vehicular tunnels downtown that were built under the river before 1900 because the river's heavy shipping traffic so disrupted the use of the bridges.Administration and societyGovernmentChicago's government is as complex as its people, with layers of shared responsibility created by its history. The city itself is divided into 50 wards and is led by a mayor who is elected to a four-year term. However, many powers belong to the aldermen, one elected from each ward, who sit on the city council and must approve most mayoral actions. This arrangement has meant that historically the city has been governed either by forming loose coalitions and making deals or—especially during the heyday of the Democratic Party's political (political machine) “machine” (1931–78)—by controlling who got elected alderman. Mayoral control reached its zenith during the era of Richard J. Daley (Daley, Richard J). The cry of one supporter that “Chicago ain't ready for reform” began Daley's 21-year reign, which ended with his death in December 1976. After him followed a series of short mayoralties, including those of Michael Bilandic (1976–79) and Chicago's first female mayor, Jane Byrne (1979–83), both of whom faced unprecedented fiscal problems. During the first term of Harold Washington (Washington, Harold) (1983–87), the city's first African American mayor, conflict with a coalition of white aldermen, known locally as “Council Wars,” brought city business almost to a halt. Another African American, Eugene Sawyer, served briefly as mayor after Washington's sudden death, but he was defeated in 1989 by Richard M. Daley (Daley, Richard M.), son of the former mayor. The second Daley also was able to govern with little opposition, in large part because he, like his father, developed considerable influence over the city council. Meanwhile, a series of semi-independent departments and agencies oversee such governmental responsibilities as parks, public transit, education, community colleges, water reclamation, and mosquito abatement.Cook county, organized in 1831, reaches out well beyond the city limits, especially in the northwest. Its board is responsible for the operation of the county's health system and extensive forest preserve district, and the county sheriff's department patrols primarily unincorporated areas and aids in the operation of a large court system. The suburban “collar counties” of Lake, McHenry, Kane, DuPage, Will, and Kendall were once entirely rural with low population densities, but the massive influx of residents and businesses has forced them to expand services. Over time, the city and these counties together developed an identity that is distinct from “downstate,” the remainder of Illinois.The government of the state of Illinois has a presence in Chicago not only in the form of the architecturally distinctive James R. Thompson Center downtown but also in such responsibilities as welfare, employment, and state police patrols of expressways. The overwhelmingly Democratic city and the heavily Republican downstate and suburban constituencies have long been at odds. The population parity among the three that prevailed during the mid-20th century has given way to a surging suburban presence in the legislature and a subsequent decline in power statewide by Chicago and downstate interests.Municipal servicesGas, electric, and cable-television utilities are operated by franchised private corporations, but the water system is city-owned. Chicago not only supplies its own drinking water (drawn from inlets in the lake far from shore) but also provides it to dozens of suburbs through an extensive pipeline network. The city is also responsible for collecting trash and maintaining Chicago's vast network of streets and alleys and its sewer system. However, wastewater treatment is the responsibility of a separate regional water-reclamation district. With well over 10,000 sworn officers on the streets, the Chicago Police Department is the biggest in the Midwest and one of the largest nationally. That status is shared by the city's fire department, which has nearly 100 engine companies.Drainage has been a chronic problem in Chicago. An approach taken in the late 19th century was to raise the street level several feet in the central area (many of these older structures with a below-grade first floor can still be found). The major engineering marvel of the turn of the 20th century was reversing the flow of the Chicago River so that the sewage and runoff water dumped into it no longer ran into the lake—except after heavy storms, when the locks had to be opened. The problem of untreated storm water flowing into the lake was addressed by an ambitious project popularly called Deep Tunnel. It consists primarily of a vast system of large tunnels bored in the bedrock deep beneath the region that collects and stores storm water until it can be processed at treatment facilities.HealthDuring the city's early decades, its citizens suffered through periodic epidemic scourges that killed thousands, but by the turn of the 20th century these outbreaks were largely under control, thanks mainly to improved sanitation, water filtration, and the reversed flow of the river away from the lake. Chicagoans also may feel secure in the quality of medical care available. The first line of defense is the city health department, which annually administers hundreds of thousands of immunizations at its primary care clinics and conducts tens of thousands of inspections of the city's food establishments. The county operates an extensive system of public health-care facilities, which provide much of the treatment for the poor. The system is anchored by John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County (formerly Cook County Hospital), one of the largest such public institutions in the country with one of the busiest emergency rooms; it also operates a branch at Provident Hospital, a historic African American institution. Stroger Hospital is part of the massive Illinois Medical District on the Near West Side, a concentration of hospitals, medical schools, and other facilities. Medical schools affiliated with the University of Illinois at Chicago, Northwestern University, Loyola University, Rush University, and the University of Chicago are national leaders in several fields. In addition, dozens of hospitals are scattered throughout the metropolitan region, although hospital closings and cutbacks in federal spending have left some areas underserved.EducationChicago's enormous school system has laboured to overcome long-term problems with its quality while attempting to serve diverse ethnic and social class groups. About 500 elementary and 90 secondary schools serve more than 400,000 students, many of them from impoverished families. Another 200 parochial and private schools serve some 70,000 more students.Higher education has always lured the young to Chicago. Private church-related institutions emerged in the region during the mid-19th century, including Northwestern University, founded by Methodists in 1851, in Evanston; Lake Forest College (Presbyterian; 1857), farther up the North Shore in Lake Forest; and Wheaton College (Wesleyan Methodist; 1860), in west-suburban Wheaton. Two institutions destined to become world-renowned were founded on the city's South Side in 1890: the University of Chicago (Chicago, University of) (the second school of that name; the first, founded by Baptists in 1857, closed in 1886) and the Armour Institute of Technology (which merged with another institution in 1940 to form the Illinois Institute of Technology). Roosevelt University (1945), which occupies the historic Auditorium Building, and Columbia College (1890) are located downtown, as are branch campuses of Northwestern and of the two principal Roman Catholic institutions, DePaul (DePaul University) (1898) and Loyola (Loyola University Chicago) (1870) universities. Public higher education in the city took longer to emerge. The University of Illinois (Illinois, University of) at Chicago (1867), which started as a two-year branch campus for World War II veterans, is the flagship among the public institutions, which include Northeastern Illinois University (1961), Chicago State University (1867), and the seven City Colleges of Chicago.Cultural lifeThe cultural life of any major city involves two sharply different activities. The first is the creative act of composing, writing, or producing an artistic work. The second consists of collecting, displaying, and performing the various artistic creations. Chicago has long been a leader in both categories.The artsFrom the 1890s through the 1920s, Chicago was a magnet for artistically ambitious and talented but often little-known writers, many of whom had fled the Midwest's dusty country towns. Theodore Dreiser (Dreiser, Theodore), Sherwood Anderson (Anderson, Sherwood), George Ade (Ade, George), and Opie Read (Read, Opie) produced a gritty form of urban literature rooted in the everyday lives of ordinary people, as did Chicago-born Henry Blake Fuller (Fuller, Henry Blake), Finley Peter Dunne (Dunne, Finley Peter), and I.K. Friedman. Their works, which often debuted in newspapers, expressed a sense of awe at the skyscrapers, factories, varied people, and hectic pace of urban life. Novelist Hamlin Garland (Garland, Hamlin), meanwhile, emphasized negative aspects of farm and small-town life in his works. Most of the first generation of writers had left by 1910, but the city attracted iconoclastic poets. Carl Sandburg, Vachel Lindsay (Lindsay, Vachel), and Edgar Lee Masters (Masters, Edgar Lee) helped Harriet Monroe (Monroe, Harriet) launch the influential Poetry magazine.The Great Depression of the 1930s reoriented another generation of writers away from awestruck downtown views. Such literary giants as James T. Farrell (Farrell, James T.), Saul Bellow (Bellow, Saul), and Nelson Algren (Algren, Nelson) set their stories of life's struggles in their own ethnic working-class neighbourhoods. The emergence of Richard Wright (Wright, Richard) heralded the arrival of African Americans to the literary scene, which included young postwar talents such as novelist Willard Motley, poet Gwendolyn Brooks (Brooks, Gwendolyn), and playwright Lorraine Hansberry (Hansberry, Lorraine). These same ethnic, racial, and social class themes continued to dominate 20th-century Chicago literature in the works of Harry Mark Petrakis (Petrakis, Harry Mark), Stuart Dybek, Cyrus Coulter, William Brashler, Leon Forrest (Forrest, Leon), Sandra Cisneros (Cisneros, Sandra), and Ana Castillo (Castillo, Ana). Meanwhile, other Chicago writers have drawn upon the gritty personality of the Windy City as a backdrop. Sara Paretsky (Paretsky, Sara) and Scott Turow (Turow, Scott) helped to create a new Chicago mystery genre. Studs Terkel (Terkel, Studs) elevated the oral history of ordinary people to an art form, much as Mike Royko, who revived the newspaper column as urban literature, used common sense to deflate pompous politicians.Theatre in Chicago is also balanced between the lavish downtown venues and a tradition of low-budget experimentation among outlying groups that number more than 200. In the early 1970s, several small acting companies created storefront theatres in the Lincoln Park neighbourhood on the North Side. These include the Steppenwolf and Body Politic theatres, as well as the Organic Theatre, which was one of the first to showcase the plays of David Mamet (Mamet, David). These off-Loop (often non-Equity) groups gained national acclaim for their productions and performers (many of whom later became famous in film and on television). Soon, actors who came out of the Chicago theatre scene carried a certain cachet. The famed Second City, which for decades has been performing improvisational comedy in the Old Town neighbourhood, spawned spin-off groups and inspired similar companies elsewhere. Meanwhile, dance has become increasingly important in Chicago, with the Hubbard Street Dance Company offering contemporary performances, the River North Chicago Dance Company producing hip-hop, house, and jazz dancing, Chicago Moving Company with modern dance, and the Muntu Dance Theater showcasing traditional and contemporary African American forms.On any given day virtually all genres of music are performed somewhere in Chicago. There are specialized classical ensembles such as the Newberry Consort for Renaissance music, Music of the Baroque, and the Chicago Opera Theatre, which performs 20th-century and Baroque operas. The Old Town School of Folk Music (1957), on the far North Side, is the world's largest permanent centre for the study of both traditional and contemporary folk music. The many African Americans who moved to Chicago in the 20th century have had a dynamic impact on music. As the home of Muddy Waters (Waters, Muddy), Howlin' Wolf, Buddy Guy (Guy, Buddy), and other greats, the city has long been internationally known as a centre for the blues, which can be heard in clubs throughout the city. Chicago has also played a critical role in the development of American jazz, through the work of such pioneers as Louis Armstrong (Armstrong, Louis), Benny Goodman (Goodman, Benny), and Jelly Roll Morton (Morton, Jelly Roll) and, later, such innovative groups as the Jazz Ensemble of Chicago. gospel music traces its roots to the city in the late 1920s, when Thomas Andrew Dorsey (Dorsey, Thomas Andrew), the musician son of a Baptist preacher, combined blues with church music. During the summer Chicagoans can hear music at two long-established outdoor music venues. Ravinia Festival (1903), in north suburban Highland Park, is the summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra; it also features performances of popular music. The lakefront Grant Park area east of downtown has been the home of free classical concerts since 1935. It is also the site of a lively series of city-sponsored festivals of blues, jazz, gospel, Latin American, and other specialized music as well as the Taste of Chicago, one of the largest outdoor food festivals in the country.Cultural institutionsMany of Chicago's arts groups and institutions may be found in clusters. Michigan Avenue might fairly be called the main cultural thoroughfare of Chicago, because most of the major institutions are located on or near it. South of the Loop and east of Michigan Avenue is the Museum Campus (created in the 1990s by relocating part of Lake Shore Drive), which joins the south end of Grant Park to the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum (1930), the John G. Shedd Aquarium (Shedd Aquarium) (1930), and the Field Museum of Natural History (1893). Several blocks farther north, the Auditorium Theatre (1889) is the site of touring plays, popular concerts, and visiting orchestras and is the home of the Joffrey Ballet, which moved from New York City to Chicago in 1995. A few more blocks north is Symphony Center (formerly Orchestra Hall), home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and its training ensemble, the Civic Orchestra of Chicago, as well as a venue for other musical events. Across the street sits the Art Institute of Chicago, a world-class art museum and school dating to 1893 at its present site; it surveys world art and is notable for its large collection of French Impressionist paintings. Just to the north is the old Chicago Public Library (1897) building, since 1991 the Chicago Cultural Center; graced with marble and mosaic interiors and a large Tiffany stained-glass dome, it provides a variety of spaces for performances and temporary art exhibits. The Cultural Center is on the edge of a burgeoning downtown theatre district, with large venues for touring plays and musicals, more-intimate stages for smaller groups, and the Goodman Theatre, which was founded in the 1920s. East of North Michigan Avenue is the Museum of Contemporary Art (founded 1967), which collects works created after 1945. On the west side of the Loop, the Civic Opera House (1929) on Wacker Drive is the home of Chicago's Lyric Opera.Another notable cluster of cultural institutions is found in the Hyde Park community on the South Side near the University of Chicago campus. The Museum of Science and Industry (Science and Industry, Museum of) opened in 1933 in the heavily restored Palace of Fine Arts from the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. It houses a five-story Omnimax theatre. The university's Oriental Institute (1931) contains a collection of artifacts from archaeological expeditions to the Middle East and East Asia. The DuSable Museum of African American History (1961) is one of the country's oldest museums devoted to the study of African American life and history. In addition, Robie House (1908–10), owned by the university, is one of the finest examples of Prairie-style (Prairie style) architecture.Chicago's cultural life is by no means concentrated in a few places. Its voluminous libraries, located around the city, also make it a major research centre. After the Great Fire of 1871 destroyed private collections in the city, a gift of books from donors in England was used to create the Chicago Public Library. Philanthropists also established the private Newberry (1887) and John Crerar (1894) libraries, the latter now a part of the University of Chicago. The varied collections of institutions of higher education also help make Chicago one of the country's leading library centres.There are other specialized institutions scattered throughout the city, including the Chicago History Museum (established 1856; formerly the Chicago Historical Society), which focuses on local and American history. Ethnic diversity and pride are reflected in the many small museums devoted to the art and history of various national groups. Several gallery districts have also developed north and west of the downtown area to showcase the work of artists who have found relatively inexpensive space in scattered neighbourhoods.RecreationTourists and Chicagoans alike are drawn as culture and amusement consumers to the varied and lively leisure life of the city. The slogan “Urbs in Horto” (“City in a Garden”), which has appeared on the official seal of the city since 1837, reflects not only an extensive system of city parks as well as backyard and rooftop gardening but also public institutions dedicated to nature education and recreation. Within the city the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum of the Chicago Academy of Sciences (1999) is located near the Lincoln Park Zoo (1868), one of the country's few remaining zoos offering free admission, and the West Side's Garfield Park contains one of the nation's largest conservatories (1907). The more-open space of the suburbs is home to other nature retreats, including a second zoological park, the Brookfield Zoo (formally the Chicago Zoological Society). The more than 1,500-acre (600-hectare) Morton Arboretum (1922) in Lisle and the Chicago Botanic Garden (1972) in Glencoe are outstanding open-air museums. Added to these are the belts of county forest preserves.“Wait till next year!” is the perennial cry of the ever-optimistic Chicago sports fan. The city has produced some championship professional teams over the years—notably the Bulls (men's basketball) during the 1990s—but, more typically, teams find themselves out of contention at the end of the regular season; the Cubs and White Sox, two of the oldest franchises in Major League Baseball, have made only a handful of World Series appearances between them. Other professional teams include the Bears (gridiron football), Blackhawks (hockey), Fire (football [soccer]), and Sky (women's basketball).The park district offers many opportunities for nonprofessional athletics of all types, while many local residents find great pleasure as weekend sailors and power boaters on Lake Michigan. In addition, crowds of runners, walkers, and cyclists take advantage of the paths that wind their way through the city's lakefront parkland. Two newer venues, Navy Pier and Millennium Park, have become the most popular lakefront draws for visitors and residents alike. Navy Pier, extensively renovated in the 1990s, boasts amusements, restaurants, theatres, and docking facilities for boat excursions. Millennium Park, built largely over railroad tracks at the northwestern corner of Grant Park and officially opened in 2004, includes fountains, eye-catching sculptures, gardens, a large outdoor concert facility designed by architect Frank Gehry (Gehry, Frank O.), a restaurant, and an outdoor ice skating rink.Press and broadcastingChicago has always been one of the country's great newspaper towns, but the once-numerous major metropolitan dailies have dwindled to only two: the Chicago Sun-Times and the Chicago Tribune. Another daily, the Chicago Defender, is oriented primarily toward the city's African American community, and Crain's Chicago Business provides economic and financial news. In addition, there are dozens of daily and weekly foreign-language, neighbourhood, and suburban newspapers, including the weekly La Raza, which serves a growing Hispanic population.Chicago had a central role in the development of both radio and television broadcasting, and it has continued to be a leader in both mediums. The public television station WTTW was one of the country's pioneers in educational programming. There are scores of radio and television stations in the region.HistoryThe 19th centuryEarly growthChicago's critical location on the water route linking the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River shaped much of its early history. It was populated by a series of native tribes who maintained villages in the forested areas near rivers. Beginning with Father Jacques Marquette (Marquette, Jacques) and French Canadian explorer Louis Jolliet (Jolliet, Louis) in 1673, a steady stream of explorers and missionaries passed through or settled in the region, but it was not until 1779 that the first nonnative resident made it his permanent home: Jean-Baptist-Point Du Sable (Du Sable, Jean-Baptist-Point) maintained a thriving trading post near the mouth of the Chicago River until 1800, when he moved out of the region. Within a few years the federal government had erected Fort Dearborn (Dearborn, Fort) to establish a military presence in the area. The garrison was located on the south bank at the river mouth; it was destroyed during the War of 1812 (1812, War of) but was rebuilt in 1816. By that time, numerous traders linked the region with international fur markets. Even after Illinois became a state in 1818, however, Chicago remained a small settlement. It was incorporated as a town in 1833 with a population of about 350.Population growth remained stagnant until the federal government allocated funding that allowed work to begin on the Illinois and Michigan Canal, a vital link between Lake Michigan (Michigan, Lake) and the Illinois River. Because the project was to be financed largely by sales of adjacent land, which would benefit from the commerce it brought, the canal helped to fill Chicago with speculators. The boom led to a second incorporation, this time as a city, on March 4, 1837; the population was 4,170. That same year a devastating national economic depression delayed the city's development for several years. Canal construction drew thousands of Irish labourers to the area, when what was supposed to be a simple ditch a few hundred yards long grew into a waterway of some 75 miles (120 km), often cut through solid rock. After the canal opened in 1848, it brought grain and other raw materials to the city, while providing what was then a fast and convenient means of travel to the interior of the state.Emergence as a transportation hubChicago's railway (railroad) age also began in 1848, when a locomotive named the Pioneer arrived by ship from Buffalo, N.Y., and went into service for the new Galena and Chicago Union Railroad. The line's 11-mile (18-km) track extended straight west from the city, but its namesake destination, the lead-mining metropolis in the northwest corner of the state, declined in importance before extensions even reached it. Other lines soon extended to the west, including the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy (Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company), the Rock Island (Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific Railroad Company), and the Illinois Central (Illinois Central Railroad). The Chicago and Milwaukee (Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad Company) line linked the rival ports by rail. In 1852 two separate lines entered from the east and provided direct rail service to the Eastern Seaboard. By the beginning of the 20th century, no fewer than 30 interstate routes fanned out from the city, and the resulting ease in reaching both raw materials and markets contributed to the city's rapid commercial and industrial development. Most important of all, Chicago was the terminus of every one of the railroads; passengers, raw materials, and finished goods all had to be transferred between lines in the city, thus contributing to an extraordinary development of hotels, restaurants, taxicabs, warehouses, rail yards, and trucking companies.The railroad, along with the telegraph, the grain elevator, agricultural newspapers, and the trading floor of the Chicago Board of Trade, facilitated the collection of commodities from the farm belt, which was rapidly developing to the west. The city soon became the focal point of a “golden funnel” that collected and processed grain, lumber, and meat and then sent them to markets in the eastern United States and Europe. Trade encouraged ancillary industries such as the manufacture of steel rails and railroad equipment, shipbuilding, packaging, and printing, as well as the development of hotels and restaurant facilities. However, nothing at that time personified Chicago industry more than meatpacking and the vast Union Stock Yards on the city's Near Southwest Side.Conflagration and rebirthChicago's growth was unprecedented. The population reached nearly 30,000 in 1850 and was triple that a decade later. Cheap transportation to the outskirts of the city encouraged middle-class dispersal, but poor neighbourhoods near the downtown area were congested; structures there were also built of wood. Serious fires (Chicago fire of 1871) were frequent, but no one could have anticipated the events of the evening of Oct. 8, 1871. Months without rain had parched the city, and a major fire the previous night had exhausted firefighters and damaged equipment. It is not known what happened in the De Koven Street barn of Patrick and Catherine O'Leary, on the city's West Side. Vandals, milk thieves, a drunken neighbour, spontaneous combustion, even (though unlikely) the O'Learys' legendary cow—any could have started a blaze there that roared out of control in minutes. Misdirected fire equipment arrived too late, and a steady wind from the southwest carried the flames and blazing debris from block to block. The slums became kindling for the downtown conflagration, where even the supposedly fireproof stone and brick buildings exploded in flames as the destruction swept northward. Only rainfall, the lake, and stretches of unbuilt lots on the North Side finally halted the wave of destruction a full day after it started. The most famous fire in American history claimed about 300 lives, destroyed some 17,450 buildings covering almost 3.5 square miles (9 square km), and caused $200 million in damage. Roughly one-third of the city lay in ruins, and an equal proportion of the population—nearly 100,000 people—was homeless.Chicago rebuilt quickly, reached more than a half million residents in 1880, and accomplished construction miracles. As a response to public health concerns, the newly formed Sanitary District of Metropolitan Chicago began work in 1889 on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, the waterway that when opened in 1900 not only allowed larger vessels to pass through the port of Chicago but also made it possible to reverse the flow of the Chicago River; the improvement in public health once pollutants were carried away from Lake Michigan was dramatic. Meanwhile, a host of talented architects (Western architecture) that included Louis Sullivan (Sullivan, Louis), Dankmar Adler (Adler, Dankmar), William Holabird (Holabird, William), Daniel H. Burnham (Burnham, Daniel H.), John Wellborn Root (Root, John Wellborn), and William Le Baron Jenney (Jenney, William Le Baron), who had been attracted to Chicago by the postfire rebuilding opportunities, stayed on in the 1880s to design a new generation of even taller downtown buildings. Department stores and offices crowded into the central area, and industrial growth along the river branches and rail lines was equally phenomenal. Commuter railroads and transit improvements promoted outward residential dispersal of the middle class, a clientele served by a young Frank Lloyd Wright (Wright, Frank Lloyd) and the emerging “Prairie school (Prairie style)” architects. This suburban boom prompted the city to annex some 125 square miles (324 square km) in 1889, which included many adjacent communities and also much open farmland.Social strains and a world's fair: the city comes of ageThat same year two young women, Jane Addams (Addams, Jane) and Ellen Gates Starr (Starr, Ellen Gates), arrived to take up residence in one of the congested slums that had sprung up in the tumbledown West Side of the city. Their Hull House programs in recreation, job training, day care, health care, thrift, workplace safety, and culture combated but did not eradicate rampant unemployment, crime, and other social problems that were endemic in urban tenements. Discontent with living conditions, in turn, helped to fuel outbursts against the low wages, unemployment, monotonous work, and steep production quotas that came with the city's rapid industrialization. Outbreaks of labour violence became common, and the Chicago experience made the rest of the country fearful that the future would be filled with proletarian strife. Local workers battled police during the nationwide railway strike of 1877. But the Haymarket Riot of 1886 captured the world's attention when police efforts to break up a protest meeting in the Randolph Street produce market were met with a bomb explosion that killed seven policemen and an unknown number of workers. The prolonged trial and the execution of those who were accused of plotting the blast deeply divided the community and the world. Eight years after that, violence once more erupted as workers at the Pullman Palace Car Company on the South Side walked off the job to protest wage cuts that were not matched by rent reductions at George Pullman (Pullman, George M)'s model town where most were forced to live.In 1890 Chicago's population pushed past the one million mark. That year the U.S. Congress granted the city the right to host the World's Columbian Exposition, honouring the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus (Columbus, Christopher)'s 1492 arrival in the New World. Delays pushed the opening into 1893. Set in Jackson Park, some 8 miles (13 km) south of downtown along the lakeshore, the event was a spectacular extravaganza that assembled more than a million artifacts representing the world's industrial and cultural progress. Besides enlightening exhibits, performances, and off-site intellectual conferences, the fair offered the Midway Plaisance, a collection of ersatz travel experiences, bazaars, eateries, and rides, the most famous of which was the 255-foot (78-metre) Ferris wheel. The event attracted some 25.8 million visitors during its six-month run.Chicago since c. 1900“No little plans”The fair opened during a financial panic and closed during a deep depression, but the city's recovery four years later was dramatic. Chicago's population surged past two million in 1907 and three million in 1923. The city eagerly adopted every transportation innovation: streetcars moved first by horses, then by means of underground cables, and finally by electricity were supplemented in the 1890s by the first elevated rail lines. However, every transportation innovation seemed to produce only more congestion. The railroads also left their physical mark on the city. Concerns over grade-crossing safety forced the rail lines to construct tall embankments for their tracks, which, in turn, walled off neighbourhoods. The smoke and noise from thousands of freight trains and hundreds of passenger-train arrivals and departures each day saturated the city in gloomy soot and jangled its nerves.Chicago was well on its way to choking on its growth when architects Daniel H. Burnham (Burnham, Daniel H.) and Edward P. Bennett unveiled their 1909 Plan of Chicago. Commissioned by two private commercial organizations, the plan provided a rational transportation-based blueprint for urban growth (urban planning), notably in the central area. It promised to replace ugliness and congestion with extraordinary beauty and efficiency. Although plans for relocating railroads were ignored, Chicago's city government eagerly adopted ideas for plazas, major thoroughfares that bridged railway tracks, a double-deck street along the river downtown, monumental bridge structures, and the preservation of the lakefront for park purposes—inspired by Burnham's now-famous credo “Make no little plans.” The document was never officially adopted by the city council, but it became a shopping list for projects started during the 1920s, including construction of the Michigan Avenue Bridge and the Outer Drive. In 1916 the city completed the 1.5-mile- (2.4-km-) long Municipal (later Navy) Pier as a combination shipping warehouse and public recreation retreat. But the city, under the leadership of Mayor William Hale (“Big Bill”) Thompson, went into debt far beyond its ability to repay, and the double-deck Wacker Drive and Outer Drive Bridge improvements remained unfinished at the onset of the Great Depression.Chicago became notorious during the Prohibition years of the “Roaring” 1920s as a wide-open town, gaining a reputation for corruption, gangsterism, and intermittent mayhem. Al Capone (Capone, Al), John Dillinger (Dillinger, John), and the St. Valentine's Day Massacre (Saint Valentine's Day Massacre) became bywords worldwide. Furthermore, the city government was virtually insolvent years before the 1929 stock market crash. Republican Thompson was defeated by Democrat Anton Cermak (Cermak, Anton J.) in 1931, the first of a long string of Democratic mayors. Cermak, however, fell two years later to an assassin's bullet intended for U.S. President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt (Roosevelt, Franklin D.), who was visiting the city. The new mayor, Edward J. Kelly, gladly accepted federal relief funds that employed thousands on projects that completed the Outer Drive Bridge, built the State Street subway, and constructed hundreds of miles of streets, sewers, sidewalks, and curbs. Workers for other relief projects painted murals in post offices and schools, collected sources for historical research, and provided free music. Chicago's WPA Federal Theatre (WPA Federal Theatre Project) created Swing Mikado, which later enjoyed success on Broadway, and also developed new techniques of improvisational comedy and puppetry. In 1933–34 Chicago played host to its second world's fair, the Century of Progress Exposition, organized to mark the centennial of the town charter. Conceived initially to displace the Capone crime era from the city's image, the fair turned into a celebration of technology as the saviour of the country's economy. Its Art Deco–style architecture and brilliant colours were a lure for tens of millions of visitors during its two-year run.Decline and confrontationWorld War II placed Chicago in a strategic production role because of its diverse industrial base, and the city's economy boomed. In addition, the nearby Great Lakes Naval Training Center and Fort Sheridan were major induction and basic-training facilities, and Northwestern University operated the country's largest naval midshipmen's school. Thousands of naval pilots also passed through Glenview Naval Air Station, receiving flight instruction on two aircraft carriers on the lake that were converted from old passenger vessels. As the country's rail hub, Chicago hosted traveling military personnel in four Chicago servicemen's centres; one of them, the historic Auditorium Building, not only served 24 million meals by the war's end but also saw its magnificent stage used as a bowling alley.The postwar years began a period of many adjustments. In 1947 Mayor Kelly was replaced by a reform-oriented businessman named Martin Kennelly, whose eight years in office ended with the election of Richard J. Daley (Daley, Richard J) in an intra-party coup. Chicago reached its population peak of 3.62 million in 1950, but by that time there were already signs of impending industrial decline. In addition, the city's social fabric was changing. Chicago went through many difficult years of increasing racial tensions, as its expanding African American community sought to escape the boundaries of segregated neighbourhoods. Some efforts to achieve this were peaceful, such as the crusade that brought civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. (King, Martin Luther, Jr.), to Chicago in 1966. However, black frustrations also spilled over into violence, including riots in the summer of 1967 and even larger ones following King's assassination (in Memphis, Tenn.) in 1968. Whites generally responded by leaving the city in increasing numbers for the suburbs.The bloody confrontation that erupted between anti-Vietnam War protesters (and other demonstrators) and police at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago focused negative attention on the city and the last major old-fashioned big-city political machine in the country. However, the growing difficulties and uncertainties of the postwar era that, essentially, came to a head at the convention help explain why so many Chicagoans held on for so long to the Democratic machine, especially as it developed under Daley. His leadership gave them jobs, representation by nationality, and, most important, some sense of predictability in a changing world.Although some of Chicago's neighbourhoods decayed and much of its industry moved either to the suburbs, out of state, or overseas, the city's central area began to revive in the late 1950s under Daley's leadership. The John Hancock Building, the Sears Tower, and dozens of other new office structures in the Loop and Near North areas, as well as the emergence of O'Hare International Airport as the country's air hub, provided enticements for attracting corporate headquarters. By the mid-1970s the downtown office revival was beginning to produce the first signs of gentrification in nearby neighbourhoods. The political upheaval that followed Daley's death in 1976 drew headlines away from the nascent downtown revival. The initiation of Chicagofest, a music and food extravaganza that was later transformed into the Taste of Chicago, signaled the beginning of what has been a continuing city effort to lure suburban leisure spending back to the city through a series of outdoor special events.In 1989 Daley's son, Richard M. Daley (Daley, Richard M.), took office as mayor and placed even more emphasis on attracting corporate headquarters, trade, tourism, and the convention business. The influx of new residents to downtown, as well as growing Hispanic and other ethnic communities, brought a halt to half a century of population decline, and Chicagoans numbered some 2.8 million by the early 21st century. Two events held in Chicago in the 1990s—several opening matches of the 1994 World Cup football (soccer) finals and the 1996 Democratic National Convention—were great successes for the city and garnered it considerable national and international notice. In 2007, shortly after Daley was reelected to his fifth (and fourth full) term as mayor (his first had been for two years), the city was selected as the U.S. entry for hosting the 2016 Olympic Summer Games (Olympic Games).Creativity, a fascinating mix of cultures, bold new buildings, a vital economy, and the dichotomy between wealth and poverty continue to mark life in Chicago. While it deservedly celebrates a rich cultural past, Chicago remains the innovative cultural centre of the Midwest. Much as it did more than a century ago, the city continues to attract talented young artists, musicians, actors, and writers from throughout the region.Perry R. Duis Cathlyn SchallhornAdditional ReadingGeneral worksGeneral works about Chicago include Bessie Louise Pierce, A History of Chicago, 3 vol. (1937–57, reissued 1957–75); and Donald L. Miller, City of the Century: The Epic of Chicago and the Making of America (1996, reissued 2003), both of which cover the city's history to 1893. William Cronon, Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (1991), is essential to an understanding of Chicago's early development. Rosemary K. Adams (ed.), A Wild Kind of Boldness: The Chicago History Reader (1998), is a general anthology.City layoutExplorations of Chicago's built environment can be found in Harold Mayer and Richard Wade, Chicago: Growth of a Metropolis (1969, reissued 1973); and Daniel Bluestone, Constructing Chicago (1991), which detail the physical city through photographs and text. Homer Hoyt, One Hundred Years of Land Values in Chicago (1933, reissued 2000), is more general than the title suggests. The classic study of Chicago's building innovation is Carl Condit, The Chicago School of Architecture (1964, reissued 1973). Two books by John Zukowsky (ed.), Chicago Architecture, 1872–1922: Birth of a Metropolis (1987, reissued 2000), and Chicago Architecture and Design 1923–1993: Reconfiguration of an American Metropolis (1993, reissued 2000), are monumental. The best sources for individual structures are Frank A. Randall, History of the Development of Building Construction in Chicago, 2nd ed. (1999); and Alice Sinkevitch (ed.), AIA Guide to Chicago, 2nd ed. (2004). Though a bit dated, Chicago Dept. of Public Works, Chicago Public Works: A History (1973), is still useful.PeopleNeighbourhood social patterns are the focus of a pair of guidebooks, Dominic Pacyga and Ellen Skerrett, Chicago, City of Neighborhoods: Histories and Tours (1986); and Richard Lindberg, Ethnic Chicago (1993, reissued 1997). The most important histories of ethnicity and race include Melvin G. Holli and Peter d'A. Jones, Ethnic Chicago: A Multi-Cultural Portrait, 4th ed. (1995); Allan Spear, Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto, 1890–1920 (1967, reissued 1970); and James R. Grossman, Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration (1989, reissued 1991). Arnold R. Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940–1960 (1983, reissued 1998), takes the story into the Daley years.Other works of social history are also neighbourhood-based. The lives of the working class are detailed in Lizabeth Cohen, Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919–1939 (1990); and in two books by Perry R. Duis, Challenging Chicago: Coping with Everyday Life, 1837–1920 (1998), and The Saloon: Public Drinking in Chicago and Boston, 1880–1920 (1983, reissued 1999). By contrast, Frederick Cople Jaher, The Urban Establishment: Upper Strata in Boston, New York, Charleston, Chicago, and Los Angeles (1982); and James Gilbert, Perfect Cities: Chicago's Utopias of 1893 (1991), deal principally with the elite.TransportationInformative works on the critical role of transportation in the creation of the city are Bruce Moffat, The “L”: The Development of Chicago's Rapid Transit System, 1888–1932 (1995); and Paul Barrett, The Automobile and Urban Transit: The Formation of Public Policy, 1900–1930 (1983). Anne Durkin Keating, Building Chicago (1988, reissued 2002); and Michael Ebner, Creating Chicago's North Shore (1988), demonstrate the importance of transportation in developing the city's fringe and suburbs.GovernmentThe best studies of the city's politics examine its chief executive. Douglas Bukowski, Big Bill Thompson, Chicago, and the Politics of Image (1998), illuminates the varying image of the chameleon-like mayor. Melvin Holli and Paul Green (eds.), The Mayors: The Chicago Political Tradition, 3rd ed. (2005), covers mainly the 20th century. Roger Biles, Big City Boss in Depression and War: Mayor Edward J. Kelly of Chicago (1984), traces the career of one of the city's most powerful mayors. Both Roger Biles, Richard J. Daley: Politics, Race, and the Governing of Chicago (1995); and Adam Cohen and Elizabeth Taylor, American Pharaoh (2001), recount the Daley years, as does the earlier and now-classic Mike Royko, Boss: Richard J. Daley of Chicago (1961, reissued 1988). Gary Rivlin, Fire on the Prairie: Chicago's Harold Washington and the Politics of Race (1992), details the city's first African American mayor.HistoryExtraordinary events often altered the city's development. This was true during wartime, the subject of Theodore Karamanski, Rally 'Round the Flag: Chicago and the Civil War (1993); and Perry R. Duis and Scott LaFrance, We've Got a Job to Do: Chicagoans and World War II (1992). John E. Findling, Chicago's Great World's Fairs (1994), studies the city's two expositions. Chicago's most famous calamity is described in Ross Miller, The Great Chicago Fire (2000; originally published as American Apocalypse: The Great Fire and the Myth of Chicago, 1990). Carl Smith, Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief: The Great Fire, The Haymarket Bomb, and the Model Town of Pullman (1995), describes the impact of three remarkable events on Chicago and on urban social change.Perry R. Duis Cathlyn Schallhorn
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