Oaxaca


Oaxaca
/weuh hah"keuh/; Sp. /wah hah"kah/, n.
1. a state in S Mexico. 2,337,000; 36,375 sq. mi. (94,210 sq. km).
2. a city in and the capital of this state, in the central part. 118,810.

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I
State (pop., 2000: 3,438,7653,438,765), southern Mexico.

Bounded by the Pacific Ocean, it occupies 36,275 sq mi (93,952 sq km) 36,275 sq mi (93,952 sq km)and includes most of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The capital is Oaxaca. The Sierra Madre del Sur ends at the isthmus. Remains of pre-Columbian Zapotec and Mixtec structures are found at Mitla and Monte Albán. It has the largest population of Indian descent in Mexico. It is an agricultural and mining area.
II
in full Oaxaca de Juárez

City (pop., 2000: 251,846), capital of Oaxaca state, southern Mexico.

It lies in the fertile Oaxaca Valley, about 5,000 ft (1,500 m) above sea level. Founded in 1486 as an Aztec garrison and conquered by the Spanish in 1521, it had an important role in Mexican history and was the home of Benito Juárez and Porfirio Díaz. It is noted for its 16th-century architecture and its handicrafts.
III
(as used in expressions)
Oaxaca de Juárez
marqués del Valle de Oaxaca
Quinn Anthony Rudolph Oaxaca

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Mexico
in full  Oaxaca de Juárez  
 city, capital of Oaxaca estado (state), southern Mexico, lying in the fertile Oaxaca Valley, 5,085 feet (1,550 metres) above sea level. The city site, which has been inhabited for thousands of years, was important to numerous pre-Columbian civilizations, as evidenced by the Zapotec ruins at Monte Albán, lying adjacent to Oaxaca, and the nearby Mixtec ruins at Mitla. Occupied by the Aztecs from the 15th century, Oaxaca subsequently was conquered by the Spaniards and officially designated a city by Hernán Cortés (Cortés, Hernán, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca) in 1529. Some of the city's 16th-century art and architecture still survives, most notably in the Church of Santo Domingo, which includes Indian influences. Oaxaca's large Indian population continues to leave its imprint on the city's traditional festivals, colourful handicraft markets, and daily life.

      Oaxaca was the home of two of Mexico's most famous presidents, Porfirio Díaz (Díaz, Porfirio) and Benito Juárez (Juárez, Benito) (a Zapotec from the nearby village of Guelatao). The Benito Juárez Autonomous University of Oaxaca was founded there in 1827 (university status 1955), and the Regional Museum of Oaxaca (1933) exhibits the world-renowned treasures from Tomb No. 7 at Monte Albán. The colonial centre of Oaxaca and the Monte Albán archaeological zone were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.

      The city's economy is based largely on services, including education, government administration, and tourism associated with the pre-Columbian remains. Light manufactures include construction materials, processed foods, and beverages. Oaxaca is accessible by highway, railroad, and air. Pop. (2000) city, 251,846; urban agglom., 472,624.

  estado (state), southern Mexico. It is bounded by the states of Puebla and Veracruz to the north and Chiapas to the east, by the Pacific Ocean to the south, and by the state of Guerrero to the west. The city of Oaxaca (Oaxaca de Juárez) is the state capital.

      Two-thirds of the state's relief is mountainous. The well-watered spurs and foothills of the Sierra Madre del Sur descend in the south to a narrow Pacific coastal plain and in the east to the low Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Tehuantepec, Isthmus of) (also known within Oaxaca as the Chimalapas region). Parts of the northern border with Veracruz are extensions of the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico (Mexico, Gulf of) (Atlantic) lowlands.

      Oaxaca is one of Mexico's most ethnically diverse states, with a large concentration of indigenous groups who are chiefly engaged in subsistence farming. Some two-fifths of state residents speak indigenous languages, notably Zapotec, Mixtec, Mazatec, Chinantec, and Mixé. Agriculture and mining employ more than half of the workforce. The chief crops are corn (maize), wheat, coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, fibres, and tropical fruits. The mountains are veined with gold, silver, uranium, diamonds, and onyx, and mining is important. Services also account for a significant proportion of employment; manufacturing is limited.

      Although the rail network is incomplete in Oaxaca, air connections are good, and the Pan-American Highway traverses the state. Less than half the population lives in urban areas, including the capital and the much smaller cities of Juchitán (Juchitán de Zaragoza), San Juan Bautista Tuxtepec, and Salina Cruz, a port city.

      State government is headed by a governor, who is elected to a single term of six years. Members of the unicameral legislature, the State Congress, are elected to three-year terms. Oaxaca is divided into hundreds of local governmental units called municipios (municipalities), each of which is headquartered in a city, town, or village.

      In ancient times Oaxaca was inhabited by more than a dozen indigenous groups, most notably the Zapotec and Mixtec cultures. The Zapotec established a political and cultural centre at Monte Albán, near the present-day city of Oaxaca, about the 1st century BC. Monte Albán reached its zenith between AD 300 and 900, after which Zapotec influence began to decline in the face of Mixtec encroachment. The Mixtec had conquered the entire region by about the 13th century. After the fall of Mexico to the conquistador Hernán Cortés (Cortés, Hernán, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca) in 1521, Oaxaca was under Spanish rule for 300 years. Oaxaca became a state in 1824.

      The capital is the site of the state's main cultural institutions, including the Benito Juárez Autonomous University of Oaxaca (founded 1827; university status 1955) and the Regional Museum of Oaxaca (1933), which exhibits the renowned preconquest treasures from Tomb No. 7 at Monte Albán. In 1987 the colonial centre of Oaxaca city and the Monte Albán archaeological zone were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. Mitla is another monumental ruined city. Area 36,275 square miles (93,952 square km). Pop. (2000) 3,438,765; (2005) 3,506,821.

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Universalium. 2010.

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