Holland


Holland
/hol"euhnd/, n.
1. John Philip, 1840-1914, Irish inventor in the U.S.
2. Sir Sidney (George), 1893-1961, New Zealand political leader: prime minister 1949-57.
3. the Netherlands.
4. a medieval county and province on the North Sea, corresponding to the modern North and South Holland provinces of the Netherlands.
5. a city in W Michigan. 26,281.
6. Textiles.
a. a cotton cloth treated to produce an opaque finish, as for window shades.

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I
Historic region, The Netherlands, occupying the northwestern portion of the modern country.

It originated in the early 12th century as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1299 Holland was united with Hainaut. Members of the house of Wittelsbach served as counts of Holland, Zeeland, and Hainaut until 1433, when they ceded the titles to Philip III (the Good), duke of Burgundy. It passed to the Habsburgs in 1482 and became a centre of the revolt against Spain in 1572. Holland and six other northern Netherlands provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579, proclaiming the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Its capital, Amsterdam, became Europe's foremost commercial centre in the 18th century. The Napoleonic kingdom of Holland occupied the territory (1806–10). In 1840 it was divided into the provinces of North Holland and South Holland.
II
(as used in expressions)
Holland Brian and Eddie
Edward Holland
Holland of Foxley and of Holland Henry Richard Vassall Fox 3rd Baron

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 city, Ottawa county, southwestern Michigan, U.S., on Lake Macatawa, an inlet of Lake Michigan (Michigan, Lake), some 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Grand Rapids. In 1847 A.C. Van Raalte, a minister from The Netherlands, led a group of Dutch settlers to the site, which became a focus for further Dutch immigration. Early lumber industries gave way to agriculture, poultry raising, manufacturing (office furniture, auto parts, food products), and resort activities. Holland State Park and Dutch Village (a recreation and exhibition complex) are nearby, and the annual Tulip Time Festival in May is a popular event. The Holland Museum has exhibits of Dutch folklore; another popular attraction is an 18th-century Dutch windmill, called De Zwaan (“The Swan”), brought from The Netherlands in the 1960s. Hope College (1851) and Western Theological Seminary (1866) are maintained by the Reformed Church in America. Inc. city, 1867. Pop. (2000) city, 35,048; Holland–Grand Haven MSA, 238,314; (2005 est.) city, 34,429; Holland–Grand Haven MSA, 255,406.

▪ historical region, The Netherlands
      historical region of The Netherlands, divided since 1840 into the provinces of Noord-Holland (North Holland) and Zuid-Holland (South Holland). It constitutes the flat, low-lying northwestern portion of the modern country.

      Holland originated in the early 12th century as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire and was ruled by a dynasty of counts that traced its origin to the 9th century. These nobles had reemerged in the 10th century after Viking devastation of the coastal area had ended, and they proceeded to expand their territory of present Noord-Holland northward, at the expense of the Frisians, and eastward and southward, which involved them in a series of wars with the bishops of Utrecht. The name Holland perhaps derives from the region around Dordrecht, which was known as Holtland (“Wooden Land”).

      Dirk III, the third in the line of the early counts of Holland, conquered much of what is now Zuid-Holland from the bishops of Utrecht; he defeated their forces and an imperial army in 1018 at Vlaardingen, a fortification that he had erected to levy river tolls on traffic in the Meuse (Maas) River delta. Under Dirk's descendants Holland reached its final frontiers by the 13th century, although it gained possession of Zeeland in 1323.

      In 1170 Holland's physical shape was altered by flooding, a devastation that helped to form the Zuiderzee (now the IJsselmeer). William II, count of Holland from 1234 to 1256, promoted land reclamation, pressed for the maintenance of waterways and dikes, and encouraged municipal development by granting trading privileges to the growing towns of the county. He was also elected German king in 1247 by the opponents of Conrad IV in Germany. The family line of the ancestor of the house of Holland, Dirk I (who had received the original feudal land from the Carolingian Charles III the Simple in 922) continued until 1299—a line of 14 descendants. At that time John I of Avesnes, count of Hainaut and a relative of John I, the last of the old house of the counts of Holland, took the title of John II of Holland, uniting Holland with Hainaut to the south.

      During the succeeding rule of the house of Avesnes, economic prosperity was promoted by extensive land reclamation, and the towns profited by growing trade and fishery enterprises. A disputed succession on the death of William IV (1345) led to a prolonged civil war between factions known as the Hooks (Hoeken) and the Cods (Kabeljauwen), who came to represent rival aristocratic and middle-class parties, respectively. The issue was finally settled with the intervention of the house of Wittelsbach (Wittelsbach, House of), whose members served as counts of Holland, Zeeland, and Hainaut until forced to give up the titles to Philip III the Good, duke of Burgundy, in 1433.

      Under the Burgundian line of counts, Holland's material prosperity increased continually owing to the thriving herring fishery and the development of the carrying trade. Under Philip's son, Charles the Bold, Holland suffered from heavy taxation, however, and, after Charles's death in 1477 and the collapse of the central government, Holland, along with other Burgundian possessions, passed to the Habsburgs (1482). Philip (Philip I) IV the Handsome (Philip I of Spain), grandson of Charles the Bold, came of age in 1494, and the territory of Holland prospered under his rule for 12 years. Upon his death, his son Charles II (later Holy Roman emperor Charles V) succeeded him. In 1555 Charles abdicated rule of the Netherlands in favour of his son, the future Philip II of Spain.

      In 1559 William I of Orange (William the Silent) was appointed stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht by Philip II. Under William's leadership Holland and Zeeland in 1572 became the centre of the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain. Holland, along with the six other northern Netherlands provinces, declared its independence from Spain in 1579, proclaiming the United Provinces (Dutch Republic) of the Netherlands. The last vestiges of the old order disappeared at the end of 1587, when Holland became one of the sovereign provinces of the seven United Provinces. The province of Holland during the 17th and 18th centuries was governed by its states (States General). After 1608 this assembly consisted of 19 delegations, 1 representing the nobility and 18 the towns, each having a single vote. Important questions such as peace and war, the voting of subsidies, and the imposition of taxation required unanimous approval in the estates. During periods when the estates was not in session, the continuous supervision of the province was confided to a group of deputed councillors, who were charged with its general administration as well as with the carrying out of the resolutions of the estates.

      In the 17th century, Holland was the dominant power in the Dutch Republic, and, during the next 100 years, its capital, Amsterdam, became Europe's foremost commercial centre. Because of this predominance, both the Republic and the present Kingdom of The Netherlands are often called “Holland”; but this name as applied to the whole country is proper only for the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland, which occupied the territory of the old republic between 1806 and 1810. See also Noord-Holland; Zuid-Holland.

      submersible vessel considered the principal forerunner of the modern submarine, designed by John Holland for the United States Navy and accepted by the Navy in 1900. It was 53 feet (16 metres) long, displaced 74 tons, and was armed with a gun that could fire a 100-pound (45-kilogram) projectile half a mile (about 0.8 kilometre). Its hull was cigar-shaped, and the tanks were flooded for submersion, two features similar to those of modern submarines. The “Holland” had an apparatus that took it to a predetermined depth and another device that kept it level. For surface cruising it was powered by a gasoline engine; this also served to turn a generator to charge the batteries that provided the current for the electric motors used for underwater propulsion. The “Holland” had a surface speed of seven knots (nautical miles per hour).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Holland 1 — was the first submarine commissioned by the Royal Navy, the first in a six boat batch of the Holland class submarine. She can still be seen at the Royal Navy Submarine Museum, Gosport.HistoryIn 1901 she was commissioned from John Philip Holland… …   Wikipedia

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