ethyl alcohol


ethyl alcohol
alcohol (def. 1).
[1865-70]

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also called  ethanol,  grain alcohol , or  alcohol 

      a member of a class of organic compounds that are given the general name alcohols; its molecular formula is C2H5OH. Ethyl alcohol is an important industrial chemical; it is used as a solvent, in the synthesis of other organic chemicals, and as an additive to automotive gasoline (forming a mixture known as a gasohol). Ethyl alcohol is also the intoxicating ingredient of many alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits.

      There are two main processes for the manufacture of ethyl alcohol: the fermentation of carbohydrates (the method used for alcoholic beverages) and the hydration of ethylene. Fermentation involves the transformation of carbohydrates to ethyl alcohol by growing yeast cells. The chief raw materials fermented for the production of industrial alcohol are sugar crops such as beets and sugarcane and grain crops such as corn (maize). Hydration of ethylene is achieved by passing a mixture of ethylene and a large excess of steam at high temperature and pressure over an acidic catalyst.

      Ethyl alcohol produced either by fermentation or by synthesis is obtained as a dilute aqueous solution and must be concentrated by fractional distillation. Direct distillation can yield at best the constant-boiling-point mixture containing 95.6 percent by weight of ethyl alcohol. Dehydration of the constant-boiling-point mixture yields anhydrous, or absolute, alcohol. Ethyl alcohol intended for industrial use is usually denatured (denaturation) (rendered unfit to drink), typically with methanol, benzene, or kerosene.

      Pure ethyl alcohol is a colourless, flammable liquid (boiling point 78.5 °C [173.3 °F]) with an agreeable ethereal odour and a burning taste. Ethyl alcohol is toxic, affecting the central nervous system. Moderate amounts relax the muscles and produce an apparent stimulating effect by depressing the inhibitory activities of the brain, but larger amounts impair coordination and judgment, finally producing coma and death. It is an addictive drug for some persons, leading to the disease alcoholism.

      Ethyl alcohol is converted in the body first to acetaldehyde and then to carbon dioxide and water, at the rate of about half a fluid ounce, or 15 ml, per hour; this quantity corresponds to a dietary intake of about 100 calories.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ethyl alcohol — Alcohol Al co*hol ([a^]l k[ o]*h[o^]l), n. [Cf. F. alcool, formerly written alcohol, Sp. alcohol alcohol, antimony, galena, OSp. alcofol; all fr. Ar. al kohl a powder of antimony or galena, to paint the eyebrows with. The name was afterwards… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • ethyl alcohol — Alcohol Al co*hol ([a^]l k[ o]*h[o^]l), n. [Cf. F. alcool, formerly written alcohol, Sp. alcohol alcohol, antimony, galena, OSp. alcofol; all fr. Ar. al kohl a powder of antimony or galena, to paint the eyebrows with. The name was afterwards… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • ethyl alcohol — n. (Chem.) the organic compound {C2H5.OH}, which is the intoxicating agent in beer, wine, and other fermented and distilled liquors; it is used pure or denatured as a solvent or in medicines and colognes and cleaning solutions and rocket fuel.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • ethyl alcohol — n. ALCOHOL (sense 1) …   English World dictionary

  • ethyl alcohol — n ETHANOL * * * see ethanol * * * ethanol …   Medical dictionary

  • ethyl alcohol — noun 1. the intoxicating agent in fermented and distilled liquors; used pure or denatured as a solvent or in medicines and colognes and cleaning solutions and rocket fuel; proposed as a renewable clean burning additive to gasoline • Syn: ↑ethanol …   Useful english dictionary

  • ethyl alcohol — ethanol eth an*ol ([e^]th [a^]n*[add]l), n. (Chem.) The organic compound {C2H5.OH}, the common {alcohol} which is the intoxicating agent in beer, wine, and other fermented and distilled liquors; called also {ethyl alcohol}. It is used pure or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • ethyl alcohol — [[t]i͟ːθaɪl æ̱lkəhɒl[/t]] N UNCOUNT Ethyl alcohol is the same as ethanol. [TECHNICAL] Syn: ethanol …   English dictionary

  • ethyl alcohol — etanolis statusas T sritis chemija formulė CH₃CH₂OH atitikmenys: angl. ethanol; ethyl alcohol rus. этанол; этиловый спирт ryšiai: sinonimas – etilo alkoholis …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • ethyl alcohol — alcohol, colorless volatile liquid used in liquors and also as a solvent …   English contemporary dictionary


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