Schmidt, Arno

▪ German author
in full  Arno Otto Schmidt 
born January 18, 1914, Hamburg-Hamm, Germany
died June 3, 1979, Celle

      novelist, translator, and critic, whose experimental prose established him as the preeminent Modernist of 20th-century German literature. With roots in both German Romanticism and Expressionism, he attempted to develop modern prose forms that correspond more closely to the workings of the conscious and subconscious mind and to revitalize a literary language that he considered debased by Nazism and war.

      Born the son of a policeman in the working-class suburb of Hamburg-Hamm, Schmidt moved with his sister and mother back to his parents' hometown of Lauban in Silesia after the death of his father in 1928. He graduated from Gymnasium (a secondary school that prepares students for higher education) in 1933 and briefly attended a commercial school in nearby Görlitz; for the next seven years he worked as an accountant at a textile factory. In 1937 he married. Drafted into the army in 1940, he served in the artillery at a flak base in Norway until the end of the war. After being held as a prisoner of war for eight months, he worked briefly as an interpreter for the British military police. His home in Lauban and, more importantly for him, his library had been lost in the war, and he and his wife were officially classified as Displaced Persons. In 1946 they found refuge in a one-room apartment in Cordingen in Lower Saxony. From there he launched his literary career with a series of novellas, beginning with Leviathan (1949; Eng. trans. Leviathan), in which a doomed attempt to escape a bombing raid in a commandeered train reflects the plight of humankind as the plaything of a malicious God.

      Schmidt continued to search for a home, moving from one cramped apartment to another in Lower Saxony, Rhine Hessia, the Saarland, and Darmstadt. His works during these years include a triptych of short novels dealing with war and its aftermath: Brand's Haide (1951; Brand's Heath), Aus dem Leben eines Fauns (1953; Scenes from the Life of a Faun), and Schwarze Spiegel (1951; Dark Mirrors). He also wrote a biography of Friedrich, baron de La Motte Fouqué (Fouqué, Friedrich Heinrich Karl de la Motte, Baron) (1958); two volumes of literary criticism; eight more novellas, including Seelandschaft mit Pocahontas (1955; Lake Scenery with Pocahontas), a bittersweet love story that almost landed him in court on charges of pornography and blasphemy; Das steinerne Herz (1956; The Stony Heart), a novel critical of postwar politics and society in both East and West Germany; and Die Gelehrtenrepublik (1957; translated as The Egghead Republic [1979] and Republica Intelligentsia [1994]), a dystopian science-fiction novel that satirizes East-West relations and remains his most popular work. To supplement his meagre income he translated both best-sellers and classics from the English. Over the next two decades he would translate works by James Fenimore Cooper (Cooper, James Fenimore), Wilkie Collins (Collins, Wilkie), Edward Bulwer-Lytton (Lytton, Edward George Earle Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron), and Edgar Allan Poe (Poe, Edgar Allan).

      In 1958 Schmidt moved to the village of Bargfeld near Celle in the Lüneburg Heath. Over the next 20 years, until his death in 1979, he wrote some of the landmarks of postwar German literature. In Kaff auch Mare Crisium (1960; Boondocks/Moondocks), a novel set on the German heath and on the Moon in the wake of nuclear war, he began to push the limits of experimentation with orthography and punctuation. The influence of James Joyce (Joyce, James) and Sigmund Freud (Freud, Sigmund) are apparent in both a collection of short stories, Kühe in Halbtrauer (1964; Country Matters), and, most especially, in Zettels Traum (1970; Bottom's Dream)—a three-columned, more than 1,300-page, photo-offset typescript, centring on the mind and works of Poe. It was then that Schmidt developed his theory of “etyms,” the morphemes of language that betray subconscious desires. Two further works on the same grand scale are the “novella-comedy” Die Schule der Atheisten (1972; School for Atheists) and Abend mit Goldrand (1975; Evening Edged in Gold), a dream-scape that has as its focal point Hiëronymus Bosch (Bosch, Hiëronymus)'s Garden of Earthly Delights and that has come to be regarded as his finest and most mature work.

      Schmidt was a man of vast autodidactic learning and Rabelaisian humour. Though complex and sometimes daunting, his works are enriched by inventive language and imbued with a profound commitment to humanity's intellectual achievements.

John E. Woods

Additional Reading
Collections of Schmidt's work include Arno Schmidt, Die Bargfelder Ausgabe [Gesammelte Werke], 18 vols. (1987– ), Collected Early Fiction, 4 vols. (1994–97), and Radio Dialogs, 3 vols. (1997–2002). Bibliographical sources (in German) include Günter Jürgenmeister, Arno Schmidt, Werke und Kondordanz, Die Bargfelder Ausgabe auf CD-ROM (1998); Robert Weninger, Arno Schmidt Bibliographie (1995); and Wolfgang Martynkewiscz, Arno Schmidt (1992). Two English-language sources are Robert Weninger, Framing a Novelist: Arno Schmidt Criticism 1970–1994 (1995); and M.R. Minder, Arno Schmidt: A Critical Study of His Prose (1982).John E. Woods

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