- Southeast Asia
—Southeast Asian.the countries and land area of Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
* * *Vast region of Asia lying east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China.It includes a mainland area (also called Indochina) and a string of archipelagoes to the south and east and is generally taken to include Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines. For centuries the mainland portion was the site of numerous indigenous dynasties, but in the 19th century all but Thailand (Siam) came under the control of European powers, notably France (see French Indochina); all areas became independent after 1945.
* * *Introductionvast region of Asia situated east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China. It consists of two dissimilar portions: a continental projection (commonly called mainland Southeast Asia) and a string of archipelagoes to the south and east of the mainland (insular Southeast Asia). Extending some 700 miles (1,100 kilometres) southward from the mainland into insular Southeast Asia is the Malay Peninsula; this peninsula structurally is part of the mainland, but it also shares many ecological and cultural affinities with the surrounding islands and thus functions as a bridge between the two regions.Mainland Southeast Asia is divided into the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Vietnam, and the small city-state of Singapore at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula; Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, which occupy the eastern portion of the mainland, often are collectively called the Indochinese Peninsula. Malaysia is both mainland and insular, with a western portion on the Malay Peninsula and an eastern part on the island of Borneo. Except for the small sultanate of Brunei (also on Borneo), the remainder of insular Southeast Asia consists of the archipelagic nations of Indonesia and the Philippines.Southeast Asia stretches some 4,000 miles at its greatest extent (roughly from northwest to southeast) and encompasses some 5,000,000 square miles (13,000,000 square kilometres) of land and sea, of which about 1,736,000 square miles is land. Mount Hkakabo in northern Myanmar on the border with China, at 19,295 feet (5,881 metres), is the highest peak of mainland Southeast Asia. Although the modern nations of the region are sometimes thought of as being small, they are—with the exceptions of Singapore and Brunei—comparatively large. Indonesia, for example, is more than 3,000 miles from west to east (exceeding the west-east extent of the continental United States) and more than 1,000 miles from north to south; the area of Laos is only slightly smaller than that of the United Kingdom; and Myanmar is considerably larger than France.All of Southeast Asia falls within the tropical and subtropical climatic zones, and much of it receives considerable annual precipitation. It is subject to an extensive and regular monsoonal weather system (i.e., one in which the prevailing winds reverse direction every six months) that produces marked wet and dry periods in most of the region. Southeast Asia's landscape is characterized by three intermingled physical elements: mountain ranges, plains and plateaus, and water in the form of both shallow seas and extensive drainage systems. Of these, the rivers probably have been of the greatest historical and cultural significance, for waterways have decisively shaped forms of settlement and agriculture, determined fundamental political and economic patterns, and helped define the nature of Southeast Asians' worldview and distinctive cultural syncretism. It also has been of great importance that Southeast Asia, which is the most easily accessible tropical region in the world, lies strategically astride the sea passage between East Asia and the Middle Eastern–Mediterranean world.Within this broad outline, Southeast Asia is perhaps the most diverse region on Earth. The number of large and small ecological niches is more than matched by a staggering variety of economic, social, and cultural niches Southeast Asians have developed for themselves; hundreds of ethnic groups and languages have been identified. Under these circumstances, it often is difficult to keep in mind the region's underlying unity, and it is understandable that Southeast Asia should so often be treated as a miscellaneous collection of cultures that simply do not quite fit anywhere else.Yet from ancient times Southeast Asia has been considered by its neighbours to be a region in its own right and not merely an extension of their own lands. The Chinese called it Nanyang and the Japanese Nan'yō, both names meaning “South Seas,” and South Asians used such terms as Suvarnabhūmi (Sanskrit: “Land of Gold”) to describe the area.Modern scholarship increasingly has yielded evidence of broad commonalities uniting the peoples of the region across time. Studies in historical linguistics, for example, have suggested that the vast majority of Southeast Asian languages—even many of those previously considered to have separate origins—either sprang from common roots or have been long and inseparably intertwined. Despite inevitable variation among societies, common views of gender, family structure, and social hierarchy and mobility may be discerned throughout mainland and insular Southeast Asia, and a broadly common commercial and cultural inheritance has continued to affect the entire region for several millennia. These and other commonalities have yet to produce a conscious or precise Southeast Asian identity, but they have given substance to the idea of Southeast Asia as a definable world region and have provided a framework for the comparative study of its components.William H. FrederickThe landGeology and reliefThe physiography of Southeast Asia has been formed to a large extent by the convergence of three of the Earth's major crustal units: the Eurasian, Indian-Australian, and Pacific plates. The land has been subjected to a considerable amount of faulting (diastrophism), folding, uplifting, and volcanic activity over geologic time, and much of the region is mountainous. There are marked structural differences between the mainland and insular portions of the region.Mainland Southeast AsiaThe mainland is characterized by a series of generally north–south-trending mountain ranges separated by a number of major river valleys and their associated deltas. In many ways these ranges resemble ribs in a fan, where the interstices are deep trenches carved by the rivers. Although the mainland as a whole is similar in a structural sense, its various geologic components and the time periods of their orogenic (mountain-building) episodes differ. Much of the region has been affected by the gradual, continuing collision of the Indian subcontinent with the Eurasian Plate over roughly the past 50 million years, an event that—with diminishing intensity from west to east—has been responsible for deforming the land. Nonetheless, mainland Southeast Asia is relatively stable geologically, with no active or recently active volcanoes and, except in the northwest and north, little seismic activity.The ranges fan out southward from the southeastern corner of the Plateau of Tibet, where they are tightly spaced. A major rib of this system extends through the entire western margin of Myanmar (Burma); describing an elongated letter S, it consists of (from north to south) the Pātkai Range, Nāga Hills, Chin Hills, and Arakan Mountains. Farther to the south the same rib emerges from beneath the sea to become the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India.Another major system extends along a straight north-south axis from eastern Myanmar east of the Salween River through northwestern Thailand to south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Malay Peninsula. It consists of a series of elongated blocks rather than one continuous ridge. The core of these blocks is granite, which has intruded into previously folded and faulted limestone and sandstone. The altitudes of the ranges diminish from above 8,000 feet (2,440 metres) on the Chinese border in the north to below 4,000 feet on the Isthmus of Kra, and the ranges are spread farther apart toward the south.The easternmost major mountain feature on the mainland is the Annamese Cordillera (Chaîne Annamitique) in Laos and Vietnam. In the portion between Laos and Vietnam, the chain forms a nearly straight spine of ranges from northwest to southeast, with a steep face rising from the South China Sea to the east and a more gradual slope to the west. The mountains thin out considerably south of Laos and become asymmetrical in form. The upland zone is characterized by a number of plateau remnants.The rather neat fanlike pattern of the mountain ranges is interrupted occasionally by several old blocks of strata that have been folded, faulted, and deeply dissected. These ancient massifs now form either low platforms or high plateaus. The westernmost of these, the Shan Plateau of eastern Myanmar, measures some 250 miles (400 kilometres) from north to south and 75 miles from east to west and has an average elevation of about 3,000 feet. The largest of these features is the Korat Plateau (Khorat Plateau) in eastern Thailand and west-central Laos. This area actually is more of a low platform, which on average is only a few hundred feet above the floodplains of the surrounding rivers. It consists of a string of hills that direct surface drainage eastward to the Mekong River. The hills range in elevation from 500 to 2,000 feet, with the highest altitudes occurring near the southwestern rim.The broad river valleys between the uplands and the even wider deltas at the southernmost points contain most of the mainland's lowland areas. These regions generally are covered with alluvial sediments that support much of the mainland's cultivation and, in turn, most of its population centres. The most extensive coastal lowland is the lower Mekong basin, which encompasses most of Cambodia and southern Vietnam. The Cambodian portion is a broad, bowl-shaped area lying just above sea level, with numerous hill outcrops jutting above the landscape; at its centre is a large freshwater lake, the Tonle Sap. To the south the river's vast, flat delta occupies the entire southern tip of Vietnam. Outside the river deltas, the coastal lowlands are little more than narrow strips between the mountains and the sea, except around the southern half of the Malay Peninsula.The Malay Peninsula stretches south for some 900 miles from the head of the Gulf of Thailand (Siam) to Singapore and thus extends the mainland into insular Southeast Asia. The narrowest point, the Isthmus of Kra (Kra, Isthmus of) (about 40 miles wide), also roughly divides the peninsula into two parts: the long linear mountain ranges of the northern part described above give way just south of the isthmus to blocks of short, parallel ranges aligned north-south, so that the southern portion trends to the southeast and becomes much wider. In areas such as the west coast between southern Thailand and northwestern Malaysia, distinctive karst-limestone landscapes have developed. Peaks on the peninsula range from 5,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation.Insular Southeast AsiaCharacteristic of insular (or archipelagic) Southeast Asia are the chains of islands—the Malay (Malay Archipelago) and Philippine archipelagoes—that have been formed along the boundaries of the three crustal segments of the Earth that meet there. Crustal instability is marked throughout the region. Earthquakes and volcanic activity are quite common along the entire southern and eastern margin. One consequence of the seismic activity is that a large number of lakes are found in the region.Dominating the region is the Sunda Shelf, the portion of the Asian continental shelf that extends southward from the Gulf of Thailand to the Java Sea. Where the shelf meets and overrides the oceanic crust to the south, the vast volcanic arc of the Greater and Lesser Sunda islands have been formed. The islands are characterized by highland cores, from which flow short rivers across the narrow coastal plains. The shallow waters of the Sunda Shelf are as important to the inhabitants as the land, since the sea has facilitated communication and trade among the islands. At one time, sea levels were considerably lower than now, and land bridges existed on the Sunda Shelf that connected the islands and allowed plants and animals to migrate throughout the region.The extreme southeastern islands of Southeast Asia—the eastern Moluccas (Maluku) and the island of New Guinea—lie on the Sahul Shelf, a northwestern extension of Australia, and structurally are not part of Asia. In the east the Philippine Islands rise between two blocks of sinking (subducted) oceanic crust at the boundary of the Eurasian and Pacific plates.DrainageMainland Southeast Asia is drained by five major river systems, which from west to east are the Irrawaddy, Salween, Chao Phraya, Mekong, and Red rivers. The three largest systems—the Irrawaddy, Salween, and Mekong—have their origins in the Plateau of Tibet. These three rivers are somewhat atypical: their middle and upper drainage basins are not broad catchment areas with many small tributaries feeding larger ones but rather consist of a few streams confined to narrow, closely spaced valleys.The Irrawaddy River flows through western Myanmar, draining the eastern slope of the country's western mountain chain and the western slope of the Shan Plateau. Although the river itself is shorter than either the Salween or the Mekong rivers, its lowland areas are more extensive. Most conspicuous is its delta, which is about 120 miles wide at its base and is expanding rapidly into the Andaman Sea.The Salween River flows for several hundred miles through southern China before entering eastern Myanmar. In contrast to the Irrawaddy, the Salween is a highlands river throughout nearly all of its course. Its drainage basin is highly restricted with few tributaries, and its delta area is small. Even though the Salween's catchment area is limited and is sheltered from seasonal rains, its water volume fluctuates considerably from season to season.The Mekong (Mekong River)—one of the world's great river systems—is the longest river of mainland Southeast Asia and has the largest drainage basin. After flowing for some 1,200 miles through southern China, the Mekong flows for nearly 1,500 more miles through Laos (where it also forms much of the western border of the country), Cambodia, and Vietnam. The Tonle Sap in Cambodia, the largest lake in Southeast Asia, drains into the vast Mekong delta. The area of the lake varies greatly with the precipitation cycle of the region.The Chao Phraya River is the major river of Thailand and the shortest of the great rivers of the mainland. Rising in the northwestern highlands of Thailand, it drains the western portion of northern Thailand. The densely populated delta contains Bangkok, Thailand's capital and the largest city on the mainland. The Red River of northern Vietnam has the smallest drainage basin of the major rivers. The river follows a narrow valley through southern China and northwestern Vietnam before flowing into a relatively small lowland.SoilsSoutheast Asia, on balance, has a higher proportion of relatively fertile soils than most tropical regions, and soil erosion is less severe than elsewhere. Much of the region, however, is covered by tropical soils that generally are quite poor in nutrients. Often the profusion of plant life is more related to heat and moisture than to soil quality, even though these climatic conditions intensify both chemical weathering and the rate of bacterial action that usually improve soil fertility. Once the vegetation cover is removed, the supply of humus quickly disappears. In addition, the often heavy rainfall leaches the soils of their soluble nutrients, hastens erosion, and damages the soil texture. The leaching process in part results in laterites of reddish clay that contain hydroxides of iron and alumina.Laterite soils are common in parts of Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam and also occur in the islands of the Sunda Shelf, notably Borneo. The most fertile soils occur in regions of volcanic activity, where the ejecta is chemically alkaline or neutral. Such soils are found in parts of Sumatra and much of Java in Indonesia. The alluvial soils of the river valleys also are highly fertile and are intensively cultivated.ClimateAll of Southeast Asia falls within the warm, humid tropics, and its climate generally can be characterized as monsoonal (i.e., marked by wet and dry periods). Changing seasons are more associated with rainfall than with temperature variations. There is, however, a high degree of climatic complexity within the region.TemperaturesRegional temperatures at or near sea level remain fairly constant throughout the year, although monthly averages tend to vary more with increasing latitude. Thus, with the exception of northern Vietnam, annual average temperatures are close to 80° F (27° C). Increasing elevation acts to decrease average temperatures, and such locations as the Cameron Highlands in peninsular Malaysia and Baguio in the Philippines have become popular tourist destinations in part because of their relatively cooler climates. Proximity to the sea also tends to moderate temperatures.Much of Southeast Asia receives more than 60 inches (1,500 millimetres) of rainfall annually, and many areas commonly receive double and even triple that amount. The rainfall pattern is distinctly affected by two prevailing air currents: the northeast (or dry) monsoon and the southwest (or wet) monsoon.The northeast monsoon occurs roughly from November to March and brings relatively dry, cool air and little precipitation to the mainland. As the southwestward-flowing air passes over the warmer sea, it gradually warms and gathers moisture. Precipitation is especially heavy where the airstream is forced to rise over mountains or encounters a landmass. The east coast of peninsular Malaysia, the Philippines, and parts of eastern Indonesia receive the heaviest rains during this period.The southwest monsoon prevails from May to September, when the air current reverses and the dominant flow is to the northeast. The mainland receives the bulk of its rainfall during this period. Over much of the southern Malay Peninsula and insular Southeast Asia there is little or no prolonged dry season. This is especially marked in much of the equatorial region and along the east coast of the Philippines.While the dry and wet monsoons are important in explaining rainfall patterns, so too are such factors as relief, land and sea breezes, convectional overturning and cyclonic disturbances. These factors often are combined with monsoonal effects to produce highly variable rainfall patterns over relatively short distances. While many of the cyclonic disturbances produce only moderate rainfall, others mature into tropical storms—called cyclones in the Indian Ocean and typhoons in the Pacific—that bring heavy rains and destruction to the areas over which they pass. The Philippines are particularly affected by these storms.Plant lifeThe seasonal nature and pattern of Southeast Asia's rainfall, as well as the region's physiography, have strongly affected the development of natural vegetation. The hot, humid climate and enormous variety of habitats have given rise to an abundance and diversity of vegetative forms unlike that in any other area of the world. Much of the natural vegetation has been modified by human action, although large areas of relatively untouched land still can be found.The vegetation can be grouped into two broad categories: the tropical-evergreen forests (tropical rainforest) of the equatorial lowlands and the open type of tropical-deciduous, or “monsoon (monsoon forest),” forests in areas of seasonal drought. The evergreen forests are characterized by multiple stories of vegetation, consisting of a variety of trees and plants. Although a large diversity of tree species is found in these forests, members of the Dipterocarpaceae family account for roughly half of the varieties. Deciduous forests are found in eastern Indonesia and those parts of the mainland where annual rainfall does not exceed 80 inches. Just as in the equatorial forest, a wide variety of species is normally the rule. Certain species, such as teak, have become highly valued commercially. Teak is found in parts of Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos.In addition to these two basic types of vegetation, other regional patterns reflect topography. Especially noteworthy are coastal and highland plant communities. Mangrove belts, of which there are more than 30 varieties, occur where silt is deposited in coastal areas. Upland forests dominated by maples, oaks, and magnolias are found especially on mainland mountain slopes.Human activity has been rapidly altering the stands of virgin forest in Southeast Asia. Most deforestation results from removal for fuelwood and clearing for agriculture and grazing. Although only a relatively small portion of the total land area has been permanently cleared for cultivation—e.g., in Java (Indonesia) and western Luzon (the Philippines)—in some areas shifting cultivation has brought about the replacement of virgin forest with secondary growth. In addition, nearly all countries have commercial logging industries; notable are those in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Myanmar. A growing problem has been illegal logging. Thus, timber harvesting has come to contribute significantly to deforestation. Programs in social forestry and reforestation have yet to halt the rapid denuding of the landscape.Animal lifeSoutheast Asia is situated where two major divisions of the world's fauna meet. The region itself constitutes the eastern half of what is called the Oriental, or Indian, zoogeographic region (part of the much larger realm of Megagaea). Bordering along the south and east is the Australian (Australian region) zoogeographic region, and the eastern portion of insular Southeast Asia—Celebes (Sulawesi), the Moluccas, and the Lesser Sunda Islands—constitutes a transition zone between these two faunal regions.Southeast Asia is notable, therefore, for a considerable diversity of wildlife throughout the region. These differences are especially striking between the species of the eastern and western fringes as well as between those of the archipelagic south and the mainland north. The differences stem largely from the isolation, over varying lengths of geologic time, of species following their migration from the Asian continent. In addition, the tropical rain forests in many parts of the region, with their great diversity of vegetation, have made possible the development of complex communities of animals that fill specialized ecological niches. Especially numerous are arboreal and flying creatures.The distinction between the two faunal regions is best depicted by their mammal populations. In general, Australia is inhabited largely by marsupials (marsupial) (pouched mammals) and monotremes (monotreme) (egg-laying mammals), while Southeast Asia contains placental mammals (placental mammal) and such hybrid species as the bandicoot of eastern Indonesia. Small mammals such as monkeys and shrews are the most numerous, while in many areas the larger mammals have been pushed into more remote areas and national preserves. Bears, gibbons, elephants, deer, civets, and pigs are found in both mainland and insular Southeast Asia, as are diminishing numbers of tigers. The Malayan tapir, a relative of the rhinoceros, is native to the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, while the tarsier is found in the Philippines and parts of Indonesia. A number of rare endemic species are found in Indonesia and East (insular) Malaysia, including the Sumatran and Javan rhinoceros, the orangutan, the anoa (a dwarf buffalo), the babirusa (a wild swine), and the palm civet.As the pace of development accelerates and populations continue to expand in Southeast Asia, concern has increased regarding the impact of human activity on the region's environment. A significant portion of Southeast Asia, however, has not changed greatly and remains an unaltered home to wildlife. The nations of the region, with only few exceptions, have become aware of the need to maintain forest cover not only to prevent soil erosion but to preserve the diversity of flora and fauna. Indonesia, for example, has created an extensive system of national parks and preserves for this purpose. Even so, such species as the Javan rhinoceros face extinction, with only a handful of the animals remaining in western Java.The peopleBy the late 20th century, Southeast Asia's (Southeast Asia) population (including Indonesia and the Philippines) was approaching a half billion, or about one-twelfth of the world's total. This population, however, was unevenly distributed within the region. By far the nation with the largest population was Indonesia, with about two-fifths of the regional total; in contrast, Brunei's population was only a tiny fraction of that. Nearly half of the regional population was accounted for by the mainland states, with Vietnam and Thailand being the most populous.Settlement patternsSoutheast Asia is predominantly rural: three-fourths of the people live in nonurban areas. Moreover, population is heavily clustered in fertile river valleys and especially in delta areas, such as those of the Mekong and Irrawaddy rivers. Historical, cultural, and environmental influences also have affected the settlement patterns. Java and other core areas such as the Bangkok (Thailand), Hanoi, and Manila metropolitan areas contain high population densities.While the rate of urbanization in Southeast Asia is relatively low compared with those of other developing regions, it is increasing rapidly. Singapore is unique in that it is essentially totally urban. In addition, the Philippines has a much higher than average level of urbanization, in part because of its Spanish and American colonial history. The largest cities—Jakarta (Indonesia), Bangkok, and Manila—are among the world's most populous. The growth of cities of all sizes is being fueled primarily by natural increase, but rural-urban migration also is a significant contributor. Rural dwellers continue to be attracted by the promise of employment and other opportunities, but for many migrants the informal (undocumented) economic sector in these large cities is the only hope for some form of employment.Settlement patterns in rural (rural society) areas tend to be associated with agricultural practices. Shifting (shifting agriculture) cultivation is still common in some parts of the region (notably the remote interior areas of Myanmar, Vietnam, and the island of Borneo), although the amount of land so utilized is gradually shrinking. The village is the unit of settlement and often functions collectively, and typically it is moved from time to time. By contrast, wet-rice cultivation, the dominant form of agriculture in Southeast Asia, is sedentary and results in relatively large rural agglomerations with well-developed village life and customs. Dry and upland farming often produces scattered homesteads.Population resettlement to provide agricultural employment and access to land is important in some Southeast Asian countries, notably Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam. By far the largest program has been conducted in Indonesia, where more than four million people have been voluntarily resettled from Java and Bali to the less populated islands. Despite considerable success, the program has been plagued by such problems as improper site selection, environmental deterioration, migrant adjustment, land conflicts, and inadequate financing. A program in Malaysia also has been quite successful, in part because it has set much smaller resettlement targets and has been better funded. Vietnamese development policy also has utilized the resettlement of people in an effort to revitalize areas outside the major population centres.Ethnic compositionSoutheast Asia's population includes a wide variety of ethnic groups and cultures. This diversity is related to its position as a focus of converging land and sea routes. In addition, over the span of human habitation, the region alternately has been a bridge and a barrier to the movement of people. The peopling of Southeast Asia took place through various southward migrations. The initial peoples arrived from the Asian continental interior. Successive movement displaced these initial settlers and created a complex ethnic pattern.On the mainland the Khmer peoples of Cambodia remain as ancestors of earlier Pareoean peoples. Similarly, remnants of the Mon group are found in parts of Myanmar and Thailand; the ethnic mixture there has been produced by overlaying Tibeto-Burman and Tai, Lao, and Shan peoples. The contemporary Vietnamese population originated from the Red River area in the north and may be a mixture of Tai and Malay peoples. Added to these major ethnic groups are such less numerous peoples as the Karens, Chins, and Nāgas in Myanmar, who have affinities with other Asiatic peoples. Insular Southeast Asia contains a mixture of descendants of Proto-Malay (Nesiot) and Pareoean peoples who were influenced by Malayo-Polynesian and other groups. In addition, Arabic, Indian, and Chinese influences have affected the ethnic pattern of the islands.In modern times the Burmans account for more than two-thirds of the ethnic stock of Myanmar, while ethnic Thais and Vietnamese account for about four-fifths of the respective populations of those countries. Indonesia is clearly dominated by the Javanese and Sundanese ethnic groups, while Malaysia is more evenly split between the Malays and the Chinese. Within the Philippines, the Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, and Bicol groups are significant.Linguistic compositionLanguage patterns in Southeast Asia are highly complex and are rooted in four major language families: the Sino-Tibetan, Tai (Tai languages), Austro-Asiatic, and Austronesian (Austronesian languages) (Malayo-Polynesian). Languages derived from the Sino-Tibetan group are found largely in Myanmar, while forms of the Tai group are spoken in Thailand and Laos. Austro-Asiatic languages are spoken in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. The languages of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines are rooted in an Austronesian and Polynesian stock. Despite this broad generalization, it must be noted that innumerable separate languages as well as dialects are used in the region. This linguistic diversity is especially conspicuous in fragmented areas such as the Philippines and Indonesia and in highland and remote areas on the mainland, and it has been a retarding factor in national integration and development. Notable in this regard is Myanmar.Dominant languages do exist in most of the nations. Burmese (Burmese language) and Thai (Thai language) are spoken by large groups of people in Myanmar and Thailand, respectively. Similarly, Khmer (Khmer language) is the primary language in Cambodia, as is Vietnamese in Vietnam. Within the Philippines, Pilipino (Filipino) and English are the official languages, but Tagalog and Visayan also are important. Malay and Indonesian are, respectively, the official languages of Malaysia and Indonesia; these languages are quite similar and are mutually intelligible. Indonesian is a good example of a true national language and is spoken widely across the archipelago. Thus, unlike in Myanmar, language actually has been a unifying element in the country.Numerous languages also have been introduced into the region by immigrant populations. Perhaps most significant are the variety of dialects spoken by the Chinese communities in many Southeast Asian countries. The most commonly used are Cantonese, Hokkien, Hakka, and Teochew, reflecting the southern Chinese coastal origins of many of the immigrants. The largest concentration of Chinese speakers is in Singapore, where they constitute the majority population. Concentrations of ethnic Chinese also live in most of the larger urban areas of the region.Indian immigrants also are numerous and are associated with the economic development of several Southeast Asian nations. Their role as labourers on the rubber plantations of Malaysia is well known, and Tamil and Hindi speakers form significant minorities in the country. Indian communities also are scattered throughout the region and are especially conspicuous in Singapore and Myanmar.ReligionsBuddhism, Islām, and Christianity are all practiced within Southeast Asia. Buddhism, particularly the more orthodox Theravāda form, dominates the religious pattern of most of the mainland; only in northern Vietnam is the more liberal Mahāyāna Buddhism more common.Islām (Islāmic world) is predominant in the southern half of the Malay Peninsula, the Malay Archipelago, and the southern Philippines. As a result of the large Muslim population in Indonesia, Islām is the religion of some two-fifths of Southeast Asians. The diffusion of the religion began in the early 14th century through contact with Muslim traders in northern Sumatra. Perhaps more than any of the other religions, Islām has been a strong force in binding together its adherents. It has profoundly affected cultural, social, political, and economic matters in areas where it is practiced.The spread of Christianity came with European contact. Roman Catholicism was introduced to insular Southeast Asia by the Spanish and the Portuguese in the 16th century and somewhat later to the Indochinese Peninsula by the French. Catholicism is most important in the Philippines and southern Vietnam. Protestantism also is locally important. The Batak and Minangkabau peoples in Sumatra and a growing number of Chinese in Singapore and elsewhere adhere to various Protestant denominations.Hinduism, once much more widespread, now is practiced by many people in the region's Indian communities. In addition, this religion, modified by animism and other influences, is the primary faith on the island of Bali in Indonesia. Various forms of animism also are practiced in the region's more remote areas, particularly in central Borneo, northern Laos, and northern Myanmar.Demographic trendsThe annual rate of natural increase in Southeast Asia averages slightly higher than the annual world rate. Considerable variation exists, however, among the region's countries. The Philippines, Laos, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Brunei are characterized by higher growth; Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia, on the other hand, have considerably lower rates, primarily because of the implementation of effective family-planning programs in these countries. In general, the pace of fertility decline is accelerating, although it is being offset by declining infant mortality and increasing life expectancy. Infant mortality for the region approximates the world average. In the more developed nations—especially Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand—health care programs for infants and children have helped bring about mortality rates well below world averages, while the scarcity of these programs in such countries as Cambodia and Laos has contributed to continued high rates. Life expectancy in the region is somewhat below the world average, with Cambodia having the lowest average and Singapore the highest.Population change also is directly related to internal and external migration. As noted above, rural-to-urban migration continues to be a major aspect of change in nearly all Southeast Asian nations. In certain countries, considerable evidence exists for movements between rural areas (e.g., Thailand) and mobility between urban areas (Indonesia). Internal migration in the Philippines is dominated by movements to Manila and to the frontier areas in the south. Perhaps most significant, given the increasing mobility of the population and access to transport services, is the growth of nonpermanent population movements. Seasonal and other forms of circular migration for limited periods of time are conspicuous, especially in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The growth in transport access also has created greater commuting ranges for individuals who in the past often had to leave their homes and fields for extended periods to take up work.Refugee movements have been conspicuous in the region, particularly since the mid-1970s. The Vietnamese out-migration to Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia, as well as to Hong Kong, is noteworthy. Cambodian and Laotian peoples also have experienced displacement. In addition, there have been numerous instances of religious minorities fleeing persecution, such as the departure of Muslim Burmans in the early 1990s.The economyEven prior to the penetration of European interests, Southeast Asia was a critical part of the world trading system. A wide range of commodities originated in the region, but especially important were such spices as pepper, ginger, cloves, and nutmeg. The spice trade initially was developed by Indian and Arab merchants, but it also brought Europeans to the region. First the Portuguese, then the Dutch, and finally the British and French became involved in this enterprise in various countries. The penetration of European commercial interests gradually evolved into annexation of territories, as traders lobbied for an extension of control to protect and expand their activities. As a result, the Dutch moved into Indonesia, the British into Malaya, and the French into Indochina.Europe's interest and activity in the region was further enhanced by the opening of the Suez Canal, the development of telegraphic communications, the adoption of steam shipping, and the prospects for trade with China. In the case of Malaya, the gradual diffusion of British administration provided systems of law and order and of taxation and allowed for the gradual development of infrastructure, principally reliable transport systems. This environment attracted Chinese immigrants, and the growth of the tin mining industry soon followed. Later rubber plantations were established, which brought about still further immigration. Similar developments took place in Burma (Myanmar), Vietnam, and Indonesia. In Siam (Thailand) during the second half of the 19th century, a rapid expansion of Western enterprise occurred, though not by colonization. Both British and American firms began trading in the region. The impact of the Western activity was essentially to remove trade from what had been a Chinese monopoly and to emphasize the export of a single commodity, rice. Established indigenous textile and sugar-processing industries were replaced by imports, and the economy slowly became dependent on rice exports. The Philippines gradually developed a plantation farming system under Spanish and later American influence, although rice, sugar, and tobacco continued to be produced by small-scale growers and processed by Chinese enterprises until the mid-19th century.The incorporation of Southeast Asia into the world economy had a major impact on the distribution of the region's economic development, and it created more uneven patterns of population growth and economic activity. It also brought about a stronger sense of class distinction and resulted in a larger discrepancy between the wealthy and poor. The worldwide economic depression of the 1930s severely affected the commercialized areas most dependent on the world economy. Unemployment rose, and the period produced the seeds of political change and activism that culminated in the independence of most of the region's countries after World War II.Since the 1950s the economic development strategies of virtually all the capitalist Southeast Asian states have emphasized urban industrialization, while agricultural development generally has been viewed as subsidiary to industrial growth. These strategies have met with mixed success. Indeed, the trading pattern of the region by and large has continued to be one of producing and exporting raw materials and importing manufactured goods. Only Singapore has reached an advanced level of industrialization, in the process becoming one of the world's great centres of industry and commerce.There is great disparity in development rates within the region, especially between the member and nonmember countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (ASEAN). Those belonging to this grouping—Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand—generally have experienced significant economic development since the mid-1960s; the exception has been the Philippines, the economy of which has grown at a much slower rate. Development has been extremely slow or nonexistent in the non-ASEAN countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam, and these are among the poorest nations in the world.AgricultureAgriculture is the main source of livelihood in every country in the region except Brunei and Singapore. Agricultural employment, however, has been declining. More than two-thirds of the workforces of Cambodia and Laos practice agriculture. As the economies of the ASEAN countries have been restructured toward growth in industry and services, there has been a corresponding decline in the proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP) derived from agriculture, most significantly in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.Agricultural output in Southeast Asia has increased significantly since 1970. There are wide variations in this growth across the region, with the greatest gains in Malaysia and Thailand and little or no increase in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Hunger and malnutrition are problems in pockets of even the most developed countries, but they have been especially serious in Cambodia because of crop failures and internal strife. The condition of the rural population everywhere is clearly related to limited access to land, the landless experiencing greater poverty and poorer health. Landlessness is perhaps most serious in the Philippines.The dominant form of agriculture in the region is wet- rice cultivation. Where conditions permit, two crops typically are planted each year. Other food crops such as corn (maize), cassava, and pulses (legumes) frequently are grown in drier areas where there is too little water for a second planting of rice. Rice production requires a reliable water supply. Thailand and the Philippines rely heavily on rain-fed systems, while Indonesia utilizes irrigation to a large extent. Irrigation or some other form of water control is especially critical in the cultivation of the high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of rice that have been introduced since the 1960s. The spread of the so-called Green Revolution—in which HYVs and chemical fertilizers and pesticides are utilized—has brought mixed results. There is little doubt that production has increased because of the higher yields of these hybrid strains and because their more rapid maturation increases the possibility of multiple annual crops. Frequently, however, poorer farmers are not able to take advantage of these strains, because of the high cost of their use. The goal of rice self-sufficiency has been difficult to achieve for most countries.A large variety of cash crops are grown for the local and export markets, both on large commercial estates and by individual growers or smallholders. Tree crops are the most important in terms of value, although the area devoted to them is limited largely to equatorial areas. Rubber and palm oil are significant in Malaysia, Indonesia, and southern Thailand, while coconuts and sugar are important in the Philippines. Other major export crops are cacao, coffee, and spices, while crops grown largely for local and regional consumption include chilies, sweet potatoes, peanuts (groundnuts), and tobacco. The cultivation of opium poppies is important in parts of Myanmar and Thailand.The emphasis on rubber and palm oil production is in response to a considerable (though fluctuating) worldwide demand for these commodities and because of a nearly continuous harvest period that provides year-round employment. Foreign corporations once dominated production, but, as the region's countries gained independence, much of the production was nationalized. Government ownership continues to predominate, with increasing private ownership.Fishing contributes only a token amount to the GDP of Southeast Asian countries, but it is an important livelihood in certain areas and supplies a significant portion of the local diet. Marine output has gradually expanded with new technologies. The maritime nations of Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines all have globally important fishing industries. Shrimp catches are especially in demand in the world economy. Aquaculture has become increasingly important in the region, such species as shrimp, carp, and grouper being raised in excavated ponds.Industryindustrialization in Southeast Asia is a relatively recent phenomenon, much of the development having occurred only since the early 1960s. As mentioned above, industrialization policies have been critical goals in the market economies of the ASEAN countries; and, in all of them except Brunei, industry's share of the GDP has grown considerably. The most significant increases have occurred in Singapore, Thailand, and the Philippines. Manufacturing in particular has accounted for the greatest changes, with Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand making especially large gains during the 1980s.Small factories dominate, both in terms of the number of companies and the number of workers employed. Agricultural processing is most important in virtually all nations. The notable exception is Singapore, where the manufacture of a variety of products, headed by electrical and electronic and transport equipment, is dominant. In Thailand, Myanmar, and the Philippines, textiles and clothing are significant, as is the chemical industry in Thailand and Indonesia. Light, labour-intensive goods, such as electrical and electronic products, are increasingly important. It is in the manufacture of these products and textiles that the most employment has been gained.tin is the most important metallic mineral in the region in terms of value, and Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia account for more than half of world production. In Malaysia and elsewhere, however, alluvial lodes are becoming depleted, and the remaining concentrations are less economical to mine. Fluctuating market prices have also discouraged tin production. Nickel, copper, and chromite are also mined, although the quantities produced in the region are minor in terms of world production. Southeast Asia has considerable reserves of oil and natural gas, notably in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei.TradeGiven Southeast Asia's strategic location and the early development of trade there, it is not surprising that trade is especially important to all nations in the region. The value of regional trade is about one-third that of the United States. Most striking is the almost total dominance of trade by the market economies. Exports, as a percentage of the GDP, are small in Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Laos and moderately so in Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Countries with a relatively large proportion of export trade are Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei. Composition of exports is important. In this respect, Indonesia—the trade structure of which long has been dominated by oil—has been relatively successful in diversifying its exports toward plywood, rattan, coffee, rubber, and textiles. Conversely, Malaysia, with a trade pattern of exporting palm oil, tropical hardwoods, and tin, now derives the majority of its export income from petroleum products. This revenue has been used to build up the country's industrial base. Thailand exhibits a much less diverse export structure, where food and manufactured goods account for nearly all of its total trade. Likewise, Brunei relies almost entirely on its petroleum exports. Singapore, however, has utilized its unique geographic position and highly educated labour force to attract multinational corporations. As a result, investment in the manufacturing and, increasingly, service sectors has greatly expanded.Intraregional trade among the ASEAN members, while important, accounts for only about one-fifth of Southeast Asia's total trade. Philippine trade within the region is especially small, reflecting its long-term orientation toward the United States. Far more important, therefore, is the trade with countries outside the region, dominated by that with Japan, Europe, and the United States; increasingly significant, however, is the trade with Taiwan, China (especially Hong Kong), and South Korea.Transportation and communicationsBefore World War II the various colonial powers of the region attempted to provide reliable transport systems. Emphasis first was placed on developing road networks, followed by railways. The infrastructure that was built during the colonial period, however, deteriorated rapidly after the war; since achieving independence, many of the countries gradually have been restoring and extending their road networks. This activity has been notable in Indonesia, where, because of the country's vastness, the task has been enormous. Transport systems in Myanmar and the countries of the Indochinese Peninsula in general are poorly developed, except in some parts of Vietnam, where improvements were made during wartime.Road transport continues to be of overwhelming importance in the region. Since all countries but Laos have maritime access, water transport is next in importance. It is especially vital in archipelagic Indonesia and the Philippines and also is significant in Malaysia and Thailand. Railways are of minor importance, in part because the region's archipelagic nature is not conducive to their construction but more critically because the relatively short hauling distances allow road transport to be more competitive. Even in Thailand—where the potential for rail transport is greatest—an extensive highway system and the availability of reliable vehicles provide a formidable challenge to rail.All of the ASEAN countries have strong domestic air transport systems. The most extensive is in Indonesia, which provides critical links between the islands. In addition, the Indonesian government maintains subsidized air services to the smaller islands. Most ASEAN nations also have international air fleets, the largest of which are maintained by Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand.There has been increased emphasis on the development of communications throughout the ASEAN states. Singapore has become renowned for its extensive communications infrastructure and capability. Telephone service is most abundant in the urban areas of the more developed states, although telecommunications in the rural areas of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Thailand remains deficient. Indonesia has made significant improvements in its communications infrastructure through the deployment of satellites that enhance television and telephone transmission to remote areas of the archipelago.Thomas R. LeinbachAdditional ReadingGeneral worksGeorge Kurian (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Third World, 4th ed., 3 vol. (1992), and Atlas of the Third World, 2nd ed. (1992); and Richard Ulack and Gyula Pauer, Atlas of Southeast Asia (1989), contain general descriptions of a variety of aspects of the individual countries. Comprehensive annual publications include The Far East and Australasia and Asia Yearbook.Physical and human geographyTwo classic geography texts are E.H.G. Dobby, South East Asia, 11th ed. (1973); and Charles A. Fisher, South-East Asia, 2nd ed. (1966). Keith Buchanan, The Southeast Asian World (1967), is older but still a useful overview. Joseph E. Spencer and William L. Thomas, Asia, East by South, 2nd ed. (1971); Joseph E. Spencer, Oriental Asia (1973); and R.D. Hill (ed.) South-East Asia (1979), also are valuable. Detailed studies of specific topics include Charles S. Hutchison, Geological Evolution of South-East Asia (1988); K. Takahashi and H. Arakawa (eds.), Climates of Southern and Western Asia (1981); N. Mark Collins, Jeffrey A. Sayer, and Timothy C. Whitmore (eds.), The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: Asia and the Pacific (1991); and Timothy C. Whitmore, Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East, 2nd ed. (1984).Encyclopedia of World Cultures, vol. 5, East and Southeast Asia, ed. by Paul Hockings (1993), contains good introductory essays on the region's numerous ethnic groups; and Frank M. LeBar, Gerald C. Hickey, and John K. Musgrave, Ethnic Groups of Mainland Southeast Asia (1964), though dated, is still a good general work. Ronald Provencher, Mainland Southeast Asia (1975), is an anthropological treatment. Victor Purcell, The Chinese in Southeast Asia, 2nd ed. (1965, reissued 1980), is a classic work. Gehan Wijeyewardene (ed.), Ethnic Groups Across National Boundaries in Mainland Southeast Asia (1990), concentrates on the Thai border area. Also useful are Guy Hunter, South-East Asia—Race, Culture, and Nation (1966); Robbins Burling, Hill Farms and Padi Fields: Life in Mainland Southeast Asia (1965); Jonathan Rigg, Southeast Asia: A Region in Transition (1991); and Fred R. von der Mehden, Religion and Modernization in Southeast Asia (1986). Among works on urbanization are T.G. McGee, The Southeast Asian City (1967), older but still useful; and Paul Wheatley, Nāgara and Commandery: Origins of the Southeast Asian Urban Traditions (1983).General surveys of the region's economy include Chris Dixon, South East Asia in the World-Economy (1991); and Brian Wawn, The Economies of the ASEAN Countries (1982). Among the studies of economic development are Donald W. Fryer, Emerging Southeast Asia, 2nd ed. (1979), a well-written, insightful book; Denis Dwyer (ed.), South East Asian Development (1990); David Drakakis-Smith, Pacific Asia (1992), a brief text; and Richard Robison, Kevin Hewison, and Richard Higgott (eds.), Southeast Asia in the 1980s: The Politics of Economic Crisis (1987). Discussions of resource utilization include George Kent and Mark J. Valencia (eds.), Marine Policy in Southeast Asia (1985); Lim Teck Ghee and Mark J. Valencia (eds.), Conflict Over Natural Resources in South-east Asia and the Pacific (1990); and Mark J. Valencia, South-east Asian Seas: Oil Under Troubled Waters (1985). International Association of Agricultural Economists, World Atlas of Agriculture, vol. 2, Asia and Oceania (1973), offers a good background treatment. Thomas R. Leinbach and Chia Lin Sien, South-East Asian Transport (1989), discusses regional transport development.Thomas R. Leinbach
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