- carbonyl group
the bivalent radical CO, occurring in acids, ketones, aldehydes, and their derivatives.
* * *in organic chemistry, a divalent chemical unit consisting of a carbon (C) and an oxygen (O) atom connected by a double bond. The group is a constituent of carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides, acyl halides, amides, and quinones, and it is the characteristic functional group (reactive group) of aldehydes (aldehyde) and ketones (ketone). Carboxylic acids (and their derivatives), aldehydes, ketones, and quinones are also known collectively as carbonyl compounds.Because of a difference in the electron affinities of the carbon and oxygen atoms, the electron pairs that constitute the double bond are held closer to the oxygen atom than to the carbon atom; the electron-rich oxygen atom acquires a negative charge and the electron-deficient carbon atom a positive charge. Thus, molecules containing the carbonyl group are polar. Compounds containing a carbonyl group have higher melting and boiling points than hydrocarbons containing the same number of carbon atoms and are more soluble in polar solvents such as water. The carbonyl group can enter into a variety of chemical reactions; nucleophilic reagents (electron-rich reagents) are attracted to the carbon atom, whereas electrophilic reagents (electron-seeking reagents) are attracted to the oxygen atom.Aldehydes and ketones contain carbonyl groups attached to alkyl or aryl groups and a hydrogen atom or both. These groups have little effect on the electron distribution in the carbonyl group; thus, the properties of aldehydes and ketones are determined by the behaviour of the carbonyl group. In carboxylic acids and their derivatives, the carbonyl group is attached to one of the halogen atoms or to groups containing atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. These atoms do affect the carbonyl group, forming a new functional group with distinctive properties.
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carbonyl group — noun the bivalent radical CO • Hypernyms: ↑group, ↑radical, ↑chemical group • Substance Holonyms: ↑carbonyl * * * the bivalent radical CO, occurring in acids, ketones, aldehydes, and their derivatives … Useful english dictionary
Carbonyl — In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal… … Wikipedia
Carbonyl reduction — synthesis of an alcohol by ester reduction Carbonyl reduction in organic chemistry is the organic reduction of any carbonyl group containing compound by a reducing agent. Typical carbonyl compounds are ketones , aldehydes, carboxylic acids and… … Wikipedia
Carbonyl sulfide — Chembox new Name = Carbonyl sulfide ImageFile = Carbonyl sulfide 2D dimensions.png ImageName = Carbonyl sulfide ImageFile1 = Carbonyl sulfide 3D vdW.png ImageName1 = Space filling 3D model of carbonyl sulfide IUPACName = carbonyl sulfide Section1 … Wikipedia
carbonyl — /kahr beuh nil/, adj. 1. containing the carbonyl group. n. 2. a compound containing metal combined with carbon monoxide, as nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO)4. [1865 70; CARBON + YL] * * * … Universalium
carbonyl — [kär′bə nil΄] n. [ CARBON + YL] 1. the chemical group CO 2. any of a wide variety of compounds containing this group, esp. certain metal compounds carbonylic [kär′bənil′ik] adj … English World dictionary
Group 2 organometallic chemistry — The group 2 elements are known to form organometallic compounds. . Of these, organomagnesium compounds, usually in the form of Grignard reagents are widely used in organic chemistry, while the other organometallic compounds of this group… … Wikipedia
Carbonyl reductase (NADPH) — In enzymology, a carbonyl reductase (NADPH) (EC number|126.96.36.199) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction:R CHOH R + NADP+ ightleftharpoons R CO R + NADPH + H+Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are R CHOH R and NADP+, whereas its 3 … Wikipedia
carbonyl — noun a) In organic chemistry, a divalent functional group, ( CO ), characteristic of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amides, carboxylic acid anhydrides, carbonyl halides, esters and others. b) Any compound of a metal with carbon monoxide,… … Wiktionary
carbonyl — noun Date: 1863 1. an organic functional group or radical –CO– occurring in aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and their derivatives 2. a coordination complex involving the neutral radical CO < chromium carbonyl > • carbonylic… … New Collegiate Dictionary