Brunswick


Brunswick
/brunz"wik/, n.
1. a former state of Germany: now part of Lower Saxony in Germany.
2. a city in Lower Saxony, in N central Germany. 247,800.
3. a town in NE Ohio. 27,689.
4. a city in SE Georgia. 17,605.
5. a town in SW Maine. 17,366. German, Braunschweig (for defs. 1, 2).

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I

Former duchy, central Germany.

A possession of the Welf family, the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneberg was created by Emperor Frederick II and included the lands surrounding the town of Brunswick (founded late 9th century). The electorate of Hanover was included in 1692; its rulers established the English royal house of Hanover. The duchy became part of the German Empire in 1871 and a German state after 1919. After World War II the region was incorporated into the state of Lower Saxony. The city of Brunswick (pop., 2002 est.: 245,500) is today an important industrial centre.
II
(as used in expressions)
New Brunswick University of
Otto of Brunswick

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      city, seat (1777) of Glynn county, southeastern Georgia, U.S. It lies on St. Simons Sound and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, about 75 miles (120 km) southwest of Savannah. Mark Carr, a friend of Georgia colony founder James Edward Oglethorpe, established a tobacco plantation in the 1740s on the site (then known as Plug Point) across from Fort Frederica (1736) on St. Simons Island; the fort became the southernmost British outpost in North America after King George's War (1744–48). Brunswick, founded in 1771 by Georgia's Royal Provincial Colonial Council, was named for the ancestral home in Germany of England's then-reigning house of Hanover (Hanover, House of). During the American Civil War the city was evacuated in 1862, but it was reoccupied the following year by the Confederates, who repulsed the only Union attack on it.

      Brunswick's deepwater port supports thriving seafood and shipping industries. Naval stores, pulp and wood products, and tourism based on the nearby Golden Isles (St. Simons, Little St. Simons, Jekyll, and Sea islands) are also important to its economy. Coastal Georgia Community College, founded as Brunswick College in 1961, has an enrollment of about 2,000, and Glynn Academy (1788) in the city is the second oldest high school in the state. Fort Frederica National Monument (established 1945) preserves the site of the old fort. Also nearby are Wolf Island National Wildlife Refuge (north) and Cumberland Island National Seashore (south). The Federal Law Enforcement Training Center is at Glynco, 6 miles (10 km) north. Inc. 1856. Pop. (1990) 16,433; (2000) 15,600.

      town, Cumberland county, southwestern Maine, U.S., at the falls of the Androscoggin River, 26 miles (42 km) northeast of Portland. First known as Pejepscot, the town originated in 1628 as a trading post, but Indian hostility retarded its early development. Growth began with its incorporation as a township in 1717, when it was named for the duchy of Brunswick, to which the king of England belonged. Control of municipal affairs by town meetings open to all registered voters continued until 1969, when a council-town manager government was adopted. The falls of the Androscoggin River furnished power for lumber and cotton milling and the manufacture of paper, textiles, and other products, but the closing of the last mill in 1955 ended the textile era. Manufactures now include shoes, composites, and candles. Bowdoin College was founded there in 1794; the Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum on its campus displays memorabilia of explorers Robert E. Peary (Peary, Robert Edwin) and Donald B. MacMillan, who are Bowdoin alumni. The Brunswick Naval Air Station, established during World War II, was reactivated in 1951. The town is the site of the Stowe House (1807), where Harriet Beecher Stowe (Stowe, Harriet Beecher) wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). Facilities for both summer and winter recreation are nearby. Inc. 1739. Area 47 square miles (121 square km). Pop. (1990) 20,906; (2000) 21,172.

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Universalium. 2010.

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