bark


bark
bark1
barkless, adj.
/bahrk/, n.
1. the abrupt, harsh, explosive cry of a dog.
2. a similar sound made by another animal, as a fox.
3. a short, explosive sound, as of firearms: the bark of a revolver.
4. a brusque order, reply, etc.: The foreman's bark sent the idlers back to their machines.
5. a cough.
v.i.
6. (of a dog or other animal) to utter an abrupt, explosive cry or a series of such cries.
7. to make a similar sound: The big guns barked.
8. to speak or cry out sharply or gruffly: a man who barks at his children.
9. Informal. to advertise a theater performance, carnival sideshow, or the like, by standing at the entrance and calling out to passersby.
10. to cough.
v.t.
11. to utter in a harsh, shouting tone: barking orders at her subordinates.
12. bark at the moon, to protest in vain: Telling her that she's misinformed is just barking at the moon.
13. bark up the wrong tree, to assail or pursue the wrong person or object; misdirect one's efforts: If he expects me to get him a job, he's barking up the wrong tree.
[bef. 900; ME berken, OE beorcan; akin to OE borcian to bark, ON berkja to bluster, Lith burgéti to growl, quarrel, Serbo-Croatian brgljati to murmur]
Syn. 11. shout, bellow, yell, roar, bawl.
bark2
barkless, adj.
/bahrk/, n.
1. the external covering of the woody stems, branches, and roots of plants, as distinct and separable from the wood itself.
2. Tanning. a mixture of oak and hemlock barks.
3. candy, usually of chocolate with large pieces of nuts, made in flat sheets.
v.t.
4. to rub off or scrape the skin of, as by bumping into something: to bark one's shins.
5. to remove a circle of bark from; girdle.
6. to cover, enclose, or encrust with or as if with bark.
7. to treat with a bark infusion; tan.
8. to strip the bark from; peel.
[1250-1300; ME < ON borkr (gen. barkar)]
bark3
/bahrk/, n.
1. Naut. a sailing vessel having three or more masts, square-rigged on all but the aftermost mast, which is fore-and-aft-rigged.
2. Literary. a boat or sailing vessel.
Also, barque.
[1425-75; late ME barke < OF barque LL barca, L *barica, baris < Gk bâris Egyptian barge < Coptic bari barge]

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I
In woody plants, tissues outside of the vascular cambium.

The term is also used more popularly to refer to all tissues outside the wood. The inner soft bark is produced by the vascular cambium; it consists of secondary phloem (food-conducting) tissue whose innermost layer transports food from the leaves to the rest of the plant. The layered outer bark contains cork and old, dead phloem. The bark is usually thinner than the woody part of the stem or root.
II
(as used in expressions)

* * *

▪ plant tissue
      in woody plants, tissues external to the vascular cambium (the growth layer of the vascular cylinder); the term bark is also employed more popularly to refer to all tissues outside the wood. The inner soft bark, or bast (bast fibre), is produced by the vascular cambium; it consists of secondary phloem tissue whose innermost layer conveys food from the leaves to the rest of the plant. The outer bark, which is mostly dead tissue, is the product of the cork cambium (phellogen). Layered outer bark, containing cork and old, dead phloem, is known as rhytidome. The dead cork cells are lined with suberin, a fatty substance that makes them highly impermeable to gases and water. Gas exchange between the inner tissues of bark-covered roots and stems and their surroundings takes place through spongy areas (lenticels) in the cork.

      Bark is usually thinner than the woody part of the stem or root. Both inner bark (secondary phloem) and wood (secondary xylem) are generated by the vascular cambium layer of cells: bark toward the outside where the oldest layers may slough off, and wood toward the inside where it accumulates as dead tissue.

▪ sailing craft
also spelled  barque 
 sailing ship of three or more masts, the rear (mizzenmast) being rigged for a fore-and-aft rather than a square sail. Until fore-and-aft rigs were applied to large ships to reduce crew sizes, the term was often used for any small sailing vessel. In poetic use, a bark can be any sailing ship or boat.

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Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bark — Bark, also known as periderm, is the outermost layer of stems and roots of woody plants such as trees. It overlays the wood and consists of three layers, the cork or phellem, the phelloderm and the cork cambium or phellogen. Products used by… …   Wikipedia

  • BARK — bezeichnet: einen Schiffstyp, siehe Bark (Schiff) einen Hersteller von Einbaumotoren für Motorräder, siehe Bark (Einbaumotoren) in der Psychoakustik ein Maß für die Tonhöhenempfindung, siehe Bark Skala die Gemeinde Bark im Kreis Segeberg in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bark — bezeichnet: einen Schiffstyp, siehe Bark (Schiffstyp) einen Hersteller von Einbaumotoren für Motorräder, siehe Bark (Einbaumotoren) in der Psychoakustik ein Maß für die Tonhöhenempfindung, siehe Bark Skala die Gemeinde Bark im Kreis Segeberg in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • bark — bark; bark·hau·sen; bark·less; bark·ly·ite; bark·om·e·ter; bark·stone; em·bark; em·bark·ment; man·bark·lak; bark·en; bark·er; de·bark; man·bark·lac; …   English syllables

  • bark — bark1 [bärk] n. [ME < ON bǫrkr, akin to MLowG borke] 1. the outside covering of the stems and roots of trees and woody plants 2. some kinds of this matter used in tanning, dyeing, etc. 3. CINCHONA vt. 1. to treat with a bark infusion, as in… …   English World dictionary

  • Bark — Bark, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Barked} (?); p. pr. & vb. n. {Barking}.] 1. To strip the bark from; to peel. [1913 Webster] 2. To abrade or rub off any outer covering from; as to bark one s heel. [1913 Webster] 3. To girdle. See {Girdle}, v. t., 3.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • bark — Ⅰ. bark [1] ► NOUN ▪ the sharp explosive cry of a dog, fox, or seal. ► VERB 1) give a bark. 2) utter (a command or question) abruptly or aggressively. ● one s bark is worse than one s bite Cf. ↑ …   English terms dictionary

  • BARK — ( Binär Aritmetisk Relä Kalkylator , Swedish for Binary Arithmetic Relay Calculator ) was an early electromechanical computer. BARK was built using standard phone relays, implementing a 32 bit binary machine and could perform addition in 150 ms… …   Wikipedia

  • bark|y — «BAHR kee», adjective, bark|i|er, bark|i|est. 1. consisting of or covered with bark. 2. of the nature of bark …   Useful english dictionary

  • bark — vb Bark, bay, howl, growl, snarl, yelp, yap mean to make the sound of or a sound suggestive of a dog. Bark implies the sharp, explosive utterance characteristic of dogs; it may be used not only of them and of another animal (as a seal) that… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • bark — [n1] plant covering case, casing, coat, cortex, crust, husk, peeling, rind, shell, skin; concept 428 bark [n2] animal yelp bay, growl, grunt, howl, roar, snarl, woof, yap, yip; concept 64 bark [v1] yelp arf, bay, cry, gnarl, growl, howl, snap …   New thesaurus


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