aneurysm


aneurysm
aneurysmal, aneurismal, adj.aneurysmally, aneurismally, adv.
/an"yeuh riz'euhm/, n. Pathol.
a permanent cardiac or arterial dilatation usually caused by weakening of the vessel wall.
Also, aneurism.
[1650-60; < Gk aneúrysma dilation, equiv. to aneurys- (var. s. of aneurýnein to dilate; see AN-3, EURY-) + -ma n. suffix]

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Blood-filled protrusion in the wall of a blood vessel (usually an artery, and particularly the aorta).

Disease or injury weakens the wall so that normal blood pressure makes it balloon out. Typically, the two inner layers rupture and the outer layer bulges. In a false aneurysm, all three layers rupture and surrounding tissues hold the blood in place. Symptoms vary with size and location. Aneurysms tend to enlarge over time, and blood-vessel walls weaken with age. Many aneurysms eventually burst, causing serious, even massive, internal bleeding; aortic aneurysm rupture causes severe pain and immediate collapse. Rupture of an aneurysm in the brain is a major cause of strokes. Treatment can consist of simply tying off a small vessel; more serious aneurysms require surgery to replace the diseased section of artery with a plastic graft.

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 widening of an artery that develops from a weakness or destruction of the medial layer of the blood vessel. Because of the constant pressure of the circulating blood within the artery, the weakened part of the arterial wall becomes enlarged, leading ultimately to serious and even fatal complications from the compression of surrounding structures or from rupture and hemorrhage. Aneurysms may occur in any part of the aorta or major arteries. Usually caused by atherosclerosis (thickening of the arterial walls), aneurysms also may be the result of infection (such as syphilis), trauma, or congenital abnormalities.

      The symptoms of an aneurysm vary with the extent of the defect and its location. A person with an aortic aneurysm may not have symptoms until the aneurysm enlarges beyond 5 or 6 cm (2 or 2.5 inches) in diameter. If an aneurysm in the chest presses against the windpipe and the bronchi, it can interfere with breathing and lead to coughing; pain may occur in the back, front, or side and may radiate to the neck or shoulders. An abdominal aneurysm may cause pain in the abdomen or back that may radiate into the groin or upper thigh.

 Diagnosis of an aneurysm is made by physical examination, X-ray, or imaging with ultrasound, computerized tomography (computerized axial tomography) (CT) scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or aortography. The treatment of large aneurysms involves the surgical removal of the diseased segment and its replacement with an artificial artery made from a synthetic fibre such as Dacron™. Endovascular surgery is a less invasive procedure: a fine, meshlike tube (stent) covered with a graft of Dacron™ or some other plastic material is advanced to the site of the aneurysm in a catheter that has been inserted into a groin artery; once in place, the stent is expanded by balloon dilation and the graft attached to the wall of the artery above and below the aneurysm, relieving the pressure on the weakened walls of the blood vessel.

Michael E. DeBakey
 

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Universalium. 2010.

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