Nobel Prize winners by year 5


Nobel Prize winners by year 5

Table
Nobel Prize winners by year (1991–2000)
year category name country* achievement literary area
1991
chemistry Ernst, Richard R. Switzerland improvements in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
economics Coase, Ronald U.S. application of economic principles to the study of law
literature Gordimer, Nadine South Africa novelist
peace Aung San Suu Kyi Myanmar
physics Gennes, Pierre-Gilles de France discovery of general rules for behaviour of molecules
physiology/
medicine Neher, Erwin Germany discovery of how cells communicate, as related to diseases
physiology/
medicine Sakmann, Bert Germany discovery of how cells communicate, as related to diseases
1992
chemistry Marcus, Rudolph A. U.S. explanation of how electrons transfer between molecules
economics Becker, Gary S. U.S. application of economic theory to social sciences
literature Walcott, Derek St. Lucia poet
peace Menchú, Rigoberta Guatemala
physics Charpak, Georges France inventor of detector that traces subatomic particles
physiology/
medicine Fischer, Edmond H. U.S. discovery of class of enzymes called protein kinases
physiology/
medicine Krebs, Edwin Gerhard U.S. discovery of class of enzymes called protein kinases
1993
chemistry Mullis, Kary B. U.S. inventors of techniques for gene study and manipulation
chemistry Smith, Michael Canada inventors of techniques for gene study and manipulation
economics Fogel, Robert William U.S. contributions to economic history
economics North, Douglass C. U.S. contributions to economic history
literature Morrison, Toni U.S. novelist
peace de Klerk, F.W. South Africa
peace Mandela, Nelson South Africa
physics Hulse, Russell Alan U.S. identifying binary pulsars
physics Taylor, Joseph H., Jr. U.S. identifying binary pulsars
physiology/
medicine Roberts, Richard J. U.K. discovery of "split," or interrupted, genetic structure
physiology/
medicine Sharp, Phillip A. U.S. discovery of "split," or interrupted, genetic structure
1994
chemistry Olah, George A. U.S. development of techniques to study hydrocarbon molecules
economics Harsanyi, John C. U.S. development of game theory
economics Nash, John F. (Nash, John F., Jr.) U.S. development of game theory
economics Selten, Reinhard Germany development of game theory
literature Oe Kenzaburo (Ōe Kenzaburō) Japan novelist
peace Arafat, Yasir (Arafāt, Yāsirʿ) Palestinian
peace Peres, Shimon Israel
peace Rabin, Yitzhak Israel
physics Brockhouse, Bertram N. Canada development of neutron-scattering techniques
physics Shull, Clifford G. U.S. development of neutron-scattering techniques
physiology/
medicine Gilman, Alfred G. U.S. discovery of cell signalers called G-proteins
physiology/
medicine Rodbell, Martin U.S. discovery of cell signalers called G-proteins
1995
chemistry Crutzen, Paul The Netherlands explanation of processes that deplete Earth's ozone layer
chemistry Molina, Mario U.S. explanation of processes that deplete Earth's ozone layer
chemistry Rowland, F. Sherwood U.S. explanation of processes that deplete Earth's ozone layer
economics Lucas, Robert E., Jr. U.S. incorporation of rational expectations in macroeconomic theory
literature Heaney, Seamus Ireland poet
peace Pugwash Conferences (founded 1957)
peace Rotblat, Joseph (Rotblat, Sir Joseph) U.K.
physics Perl, Martin Lewis U.S. discovery of tau subatomic particle
physics Reines, Frederick U.S. discovery of neutrino subatomic particle
physiology/
medicine Lewis, Edward B. U.S. identification of genes that control the body's early structural development
physiology/
medicine Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane Germany identification of genes that control the body's early structural development
physiology/
medicine Wieschaus, Eric F. U.S. identification of genes that control the body's early structural development
1996
chemistry Curl, Robert F., Jr. U.S. discovery of new carbon compounds called fullerenes
chemistry Kroto, Sir Harold W. U.K. discovery of new carbon compounds called fullerenes
chemistry Smalley, Richard E. U.S. discovery of new carbon compounds called fullerenes
economics Mirrlees, James A. U.K. contributions to theory of incentives under conditions of asymmetric information
economics Vickrey, William U.S. contributions to theory of incentives under conditions of asymmetric information
literature Szymborska, Wislawa (Szymborska, Wisława) Poland poet
peace Belo, Carlos Felipe Ximenes (Belo, Carlos Filipe Ximenes) Timorese
peace Ramos-Horta, José Timorese
physics Lee, David M. U.S. discovery of superfluidity in isotope helium-3
physics Osheroff, Douglas D. U.S. discovery of superfluidity in isotope helium-3
physics Richardson, Robert C. U.S. discovery of superfluidity in isotope helium-3
physiology/
medicine Doherty, Peter C. Australia discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells
physiology/
medicine Zinkernagel, Rolf M. Switzerland discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells
1997
chemistry Boyer, Paul D. U.S. explanation of the enzymatic conversion of adenosine triphosphate
chemistry Skou, Jens C. Denmark discovery of sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase
chemistry Walker, John E. U.K. explanation of the enzymatic conversion of adenosine triphosphate
economics Merton, Robert C. U.S. methods for determining the value of stock options and other derivatives
economics Scholes, Myron S. U.S. methods for determining the value of stock options and other derivatives
literature Fo, Dario Italy playwright, actor
peace Williams, Jody U.S.
physics Chu, Steven U.S. process of trapping atoms with laser cooling
physics Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude France process of trapping atoms with laser cooling
physics Phillips, William D. U.S. process of trapping atoms with laser cooling
physiology/
medicine Prusiner, Stanley B. U.S. discovery of the prion, a type of disease-causing protein
1998
chemistry Kohn, Walter U.S. development of the density-functional theory
chemistry Pople, John A. (Pople, Sir John A.) U.K. development of computational methods in quantum chemistry
economics Sen, Amartya India contribution to welfare economics
literature Saramago, José Portugal novelist
peace Hume, John Northern Ireland
peace Trimble, David Northern Ireland
physics Laughlin, Robert B. U.S. discovery of fractional quantum Hall effect
physics Störmer, Horst L. U.S. discovery of fractional quantum Hall effect
physics Tsui, Daniel C. U.S. discovery of fractional quantum Hall effect
physiology/
medicine Furchgott, Robert F. U.S. discovery that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system
physiology/
medicine Ignarro, Louis J. U.S. discovery that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system
physiology/
medicine Murad, Ferid U.S. discovery that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system
1999
chemistry Zewail, Ahmed H. Egypt/U.S. study of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy
economics Mundell, Robert A. Canada analysis of optimum currency areas and of policy under different exchange rate regimes
literature Grass, Günter Germany novelist
peace Doctors Without Borders (founded 1971)
physics Hooft, Gerardus 't The Netherlands study of quantum structure of electroweak interactions
physics Veltman, Martinus J.G. The Netherlands study of quantum structure of electroweak interactions
physiology/
medicine Blobel, Günter U.S. discovery that proteins have signals governing cellular organization
2000
chemistry Heeger, Alan J. U.S. discovery of plastics that conduct electricity
chemistry MacDiarmid, Alan G. U.S. discovery of plastics that conduct electricity
chemistry Shirakawa Hideki Japan discovery of plastics that conduct electricity
economics Heckman, James J. U.S. development of methods of statistical analysis of individual and household behaviour
economics McFadden, Daniel L. U.S. development of methods of statistical analysis of individual and household behaviour
literature Gao Xingjian France novelist, playwright
peace Kim Dae Jung South Korea
physics Alferov, Zhores I. (Alferov, Zhores) Russia development of fast semiconductors for use in microelectronics
physics Kilby, Jack S. (Kilby, Jack) U.S. development of the integrated circuit (microchip)
physics Kroemer, Herbert Germany development of fast semiconductors for use in microelectronics
physiology/
medicine Carlsson, Arvid Sweden discovery of how signals are transmitted between nerve cells in the brain
physiology/
medicine Greengard, Paul U.S. discovery of how signals are transmitted between nerve cells in the brain
physiology/
medicine Kandel, Eric R. (Kandel, Eric) U.S. discovery of how signals are transmitted between nerve cells in the brain
*Nationality given is the citizenship of recipient at the time award was made. Prizes may be withheld or not awarded in years when no worthy recipient can be found or when the world situation (e.g., World Wars I and II) prevents the gathering of information needed to reach a decision.
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