Some properties of the nitrogen group elements


Some properties of the nitrogen group elements

Table
Some properties of the nitrogen group elements
nitrogen phosphorus (white)
atomic number 7 15
atomic weight 14.0067 30.9738
colour of element colourless white
melting point (°C) −209.86 44.1
boiling point (°C) −195.8 280
density at 25 °C
(grams per cubic centimetre) 1.25 (grams per litre) 1.82
solubility in water
(volume per volume of water) 0.0231 none
valence 3, (5) 3, 5
isotopic abundance (terrestrial, percent) nitrogen-14 (99.63), nitrogen-15 (0.37) phosphorus-31 (100)
radioactive isotopes (mass numbers) 12, 13, 16, 17 28–30, 32–34
heat of fusion (calories per gram) 6.1 5.03
heat of vaporization (calories per gram) 47.7 130
specific heat (calories per gram per °C) 0.249 (diatomic) 0.189
critical temperature (°C) −147.1 675
critical pressure (atm) 33.5 80
electrical resistivity (microhm-centimetres) — 1 × 1017
hardness (Mohs' scale) — 0.5
crystal structure at 20 °C — cubic
radius
covalent (angstroms) 0.74 1.10
ionic (+3 ion, angstroms) 0.16 0.44
ionization energy (first, kilocalories per mole) 337 255
electronegativity
(Pauling) 3.05 2.15
(Sanderson) 4.49 3.34
arsenic antimony bismuth
atomic number 33 51 83
atomic weight 74.9216 121.75 208.980
colour of element steel gray silver pinkish silver
melting point (°C) 817 (28 atm) 630.5 271.3
boiling point (°C) 613 (sublimes) 1,380 1,560
density at 25 °C
(grams per cubic centimetre) 5.73 6.684 9.8
solubility in water
(volume per volume of water) none none none
valence 3, 5 3, 5 3, 5
isotopic abundance (terrestrial, percent) arsenic-75 (100) antimony-121 (57.25), antimony-123 (42.75) bismuth-209 (100)
radioactive isotopes (mass numbers) 68–74, 76–81, 85 112–120, 122, 124–135 196, 199–208, 210–215
heat of fusion (calories per gram) 88.5 38.3 12.5
heat of vaporization (calories per gram) 102 161 204.3
specific heat (calories per gram per °C) 0.082 0.0494 0.0294
critical temperature (°C) — — —
critical pressure (atm) — — —
electrical resistivity (microhm-centimetres) 33.3 (20 °C) 39 (0 °C) 106.8 (0 °C)
hardness (Mohs' scale) 3.5 3.0–3.5 2.5
crystal structure at 20 °C hexagonal hexagonal hexagonal
radius
covalent (angstroms) 1.19 1.38 1.46
ionic (+3 ion, angstroms) 0.58 0.76 0.96
ionization energy (first, kilocalories per mole) 228 201 170
electronegativity
(Pauling) 2.10 2.05 1.8
(Sanderson) 3.91 3.37 3.16
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Universalium. 2010.

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