- Watson, John B.
▪ American psychologistin full John Broadus Watsonborn January 9, 1878, Travelers Rest, near Greenville, South Carolina, U.S.died September 25, 1958, New York, New YorkAmerican psychologist who codified and publicized behaviourism, an approach to psychology that, in his view, was restricted to the objective, experimental study of the relations between environmental events and human behaviour. Watsonian behaviourism became the dominant psychology in the United States during the 1920s and '30s.Watson received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Chicago (1903), where he then taught. In 1908 he became professor of psychology at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, and immediately established a laboratory for research in comparative, or animal, psychology. He articulated his first statements on behaviourist psychology in the epoch-making article “Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It” (1913), claiming that psychology is the science of human behaviour, which, like animal behaviour, should be studied under exacting laboratory conditions.His first major work, Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, was published in 1914. In it he argued forcefully for the use of animal subjects in psychological study and described instinct as a series of reflexes activated by heredity. He also promoted conditioned responses as the ideal experimental tool. In 1918 Watson ventured into the relatively unexplored field of infant study. In one of his classic experiments, he conditioned fear of white rats and other furry objects in an 11-month-old boy.The definitive statement of Watson's position appears in another major work, Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist (1919), in which he sought to extend the principles and methods of comparative psychology to the study of human beings and staunchly advocated the use of conditioning in research. His association with academic psychology ended abruptly. In 1920, in the wake of sensational publicity surrounding his divorce from his first wife, Watson resigned from Johns Hopkins. He entered the advertising business in 1921.Watson's book Behaviorism (1925), for the general reader, is credited with interesting many in entering professional psychology. Following Psychological Care of Infant and Child (1928) and his revision (1930) of Behaviorism, Watson devoted himself exclusively to business until his retirement (1946).
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Watson, John Christian — ▪ prime minister of Australia born April 9, 1867, Valparaiso, Chile died Nov. 18, 1941, Sydney, N.S.W., Austl. politician and the first Labour prime minister of Australia (1904). Educated in New Zealand, Watson moved to Sydney to work as a … Universalium
Watson, John B(roadus) — born Jan. 9, 1878, Travelers Rest, near Greenville, S.C., U.S. died Sept. 25, 1958, New York, N.Y. U.S. psychologist. Trained at the University of Chicago, Watson taught psychology at Johns Hopkins University (1908–20). He is remembered for… … Universalium
Watson, John Broadus — (1878–1958) American psychologist and founder of behaviourism . His first major work, Behavior: an Introduction to Comparative Psychology (1914), established the principles of scientific behaviourism, rejecting any reliance on introspection,… … Philosophy dictionary
Watson, John Broadus — ► (1878 1958) Psicólogo estadounidense. Fue el creador del método conductista o behaviorista, que solo tiene en cuenta en psicología los hechos observables … Enciclopedia Universal
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John B. Watson — John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 ndash;September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior. He also conducted the controversial Little Albert… … Wikipedia
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