Mullis, Kary B.


Mullis, Kary B.

▪ American chemist
in full  Kary Banks Mullis  
born Dec. 28, 1944, Lenoir, N.C., U.S.

      American biochemist, cowinner of the 1993 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a simple technique that allows a specific stretch of DNA to be copied billions of times in a few hours.

      After receiving a doctorate in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1973, Mullis held research posts at various universities. In 1979 he joined Cetus Corp., a California biotechnology firm, where he carried out his prizewinning research. From 1986 to 1988 he was director of molecular biology for Xytronyx, Inc., in San Diego, Calif.; thereafter he worked as a freelance consultant.

      Mullis developed PCR in 1983. Earlier methods for obtaining a specific sequence of DNA in quantities sufficient for study were difficult, time-consuming, and expensive. PCR uses four ingredients: the double-stranded DNA segment to be copied, called the template DNA; two oligonucleotide primers (short segments of single-stranded DNA, each of which is complementary to a short sequence on one of the strands of the template DNA); nucleotides (nucleotide), the chemical building blocks that make up DNA; and a polymerase enzyme that copies the template DNA by joining the free nucleotides in the correct order. These ingredients are heated, causing the template DNA to separate into two strands. The mixture is cooled, allowing the primers to attach themselves to the complementary sites on the template strands. The polymerase is then able to begin copying the template strands by adding nucleotides onto the end of the primers, producing two molecules of double-stranded DNA. Repeating this cycle increases the amount of DNA exponentially: some 30 cycles, each lasting only a few minutes, will produce more than a billion copies of the original DNA sequence.

      PCR has extremely wide applications. In medical diagnostics the technique made it possible to identify the causative agent of a bacterial or viral infection directly from a very small sample of genetic material; it was also used to screen patients for genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and Huntington's chorea. Evolutionary biologists employed PCR to study minute amounts of DNA extracted from the fossil remains of ancient species, and forensic scientists used it to identify crime suspects or victims from traces of blood, semen, or strands of hair left at a crime scene. The technique was also an important tool in gene sequencing.

Additional Reading
Paul Rabinow, Making PCR: A Story of Biotechnology (1996), is an essential book on Mullis and the development of the polymerase chain reaction.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Mullis , Kary Banks — (1944–) American biochemist Born in Lenoir, North Carolina, Mullis was educated at Georgia Institute of Technology and at the University of California, Berkeley, where he completed his PhD in 1973. After postdoctoral periods at the University of… …   Scientists

  • Mullis, Kary B(anks) — born Dec. 28, 1944, Lenoir, N.C., U.S. U.S. biochemist. He received his doctorate from the University of California at Berkeley. In 1983 he invented the polymerase chain reaction, with which scientists can determine the order of nucleotides in a… …   Universalium

  • Mullis, Kary B(anks) — (n. 28 dic. 1944, Lenoir, N.C., EE.UU.). Bioquímico estadounidense. Se doctoró en la Universidad de California en Berkeley. En 1983 inventó la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, con la cual los científicos pueden determinar el orden de los… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Kary B. Mullis — Kary Banks Mullis (* 28. Dezember 1944 in Lenoir, North Carolina) ist ein amerikanischer Biochemiker. Er erhielt 1993 den Nobelpreis für Chemie für die Entwicklung der Polymerase Kettenreaktion (PCR) im Jahr 1983. Er ist außerdem für seine… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kary Banks Mullis — (* 28. Dezember 1944 in Lenoir, North Carolina) ist ein amerikanischer Biochemiker. Er erhielt 1993 den Nobelpreis für Chemie für die Entwicklung der Polymerase Kettenreaktion (PCR) im Jahr 1983. Er ist außerdem für seine Mitgliedschaft in der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mullis — Kary Banks Mullis (* 28. Dezember 1944 in Lenoir, North Carolina) ist ein amerikanischer Biochemiker. Er erhielt 1993 den Nobelpreis für Chemie für die Entwicklung der Polymerase Kettenreaktion (PCR) im Jahr 1983. Er ist außerdem für seine… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kary Mullis — Kary Banks Mullis (* 28. Dezember 1944 in Lenoir, North Carolina) ist ein US amerikanischer Biochemiker. Er erhielt 1993 den Nobelpreis für Chemie für die Entwicklung der Polymerase Kettenreaktion (PCR) im Jahr 1983. Er ist außerdem für seine… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kary B. Mullis — Kary Mullis Kary Mullis Kary Bank Mullis est un scientifique américain né le 28 décembre 1944 à Lenoir, en Caroline du Nord. Il reçoit le prix Nobel de chimie en 1993 pour la découverte de la PCR. Mullis …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kary Mullis — Naissance 28 décembre 1944 Nationalité …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mullis — Kary Banks …   Scientists