Jawa Timur


Jawa Timur

English  East Java 

      provinsi (province), eastern Java, Indonesia. It is bounded by the province of Jawa Tengah (Central Java) on the west, the Java Sea on the north, the Indian Ocean on the south, and the Bali Strait on the east. It includes the Madura, Kangean, Sapudi, Raas, Sepanjang, Bawean, and Masalembo-Besar islands in the Java Sea.

      A series of great volcanic cones, including the highest one, Mount Arjuno, rising to 10,955 feet (3,339 metres), runs lengthwise through Jawa Timur from west to east. The cones constitute an upland zone that acts as a barrier to communication. Broad valleys, roughly one every 20–30 miles (30–50 km) and mostly covered with volcanic debris, separate the volcanic peaks. Repeated replenishment of the fertility of the soil with lava and ash has occurred in the Surakarta, Madiun, Kediri, and Malang basins, which as a result are heavily populated and intensively cultivated. A discontinuous series of plateaus flanks the volcanic belt in the south, extends for more than 100 miles (160 km) along the coast, and becomes progressively more barren toward the drier east. The northern flank of the volcanic belt comprises the Kapur Utara Mountains; these limestone highlands extend eastward into Madura Island and stand in contrast to the province's highly fertile northern coastal plain.

      Faulting and folding have caused most of the streams to drain northward toward the sheltered inner Java Sea. The Solo and Brantas rivers have extended their drainage basins deep into the southern uplands. The other major streams include the Baru, Puger, Madiun, Geneng, and Sampean. The uplands (barring their eastern margin) and the valley slopes are covered with teak, ebony, catechu, pine, oak, maple, and ironwood. The river basins are bordered by a dense growth of bamboo thickets, and the coastal lowlands are dotted with casuarina and herbaceous plants.

      Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for most of the population. The main crop, rice, is grown on terraced slopes. Other crops, including tea, coffee, rubber, corn (maize), spices, tobacco, sugarcane, copra, cassava, and natural fibres, are raised on unterraced slopes and in coastal lowlands. Kapok and cinchona are grown on the highlands. The province's industries include shipbuilding, automobile assembly, textile milling, metalworking, petroleum, and the manufacture of machinery, glass, chemicals, leather and rubber goods, transport equipment, paper, processed food, and beverages. An oil refinery is located in Wonokromo, and a fertilizer plant is at Gresik. There is a network of roads and railways linking Surabaya (capital of the province), Pasuruan, Mojonerto, Kediri, Blitar, and Malang. The Javanese and Madurese are the province's major ethnic groups and are Muslims. There are also a considerable number of Balinese, Indians, and Chinese. Early Hindu and Buddhist bathing places, cave hermitages, temples, and images of gods are located at various sites in the province. Area 18,503 square miles (47,922 square km). Pop. (2000) 34,783,640.

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Universalium. 2010.

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