- Hull, Clark L.
▪ American psychologistin full Clark Leonard Hullborn May 24, 1884, Akron, N.Y., U.S.died May 10, 1952, New Haven, Conn.American psychologist known for his experimental studies on learning and for his attempt to give mathematical expression to psychological theory. He applied a deductive method of reasoning similar to that used in geometry, proposing that a series of postulates about psychology could be developed, from which logical conclusions could be deduced and tested. If a test failed, the postulate could be revised, and if the test then succeeded, the findings would be added to the body of psychological science.As a student at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Hull became interested in psychology, receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1918. He then joined the faculty at Wisconsin and worked on the prediction and measurement of aptitude, which led to his first major publication, Aptitude Testing (1928). He became interested in hypnosis, conducting experiments in the field after joining the Institute of Human Relations at Yale University in 1929. The results of his rigorous scientific studies formed the basis of Hypnosis and Suggestibility (1933).During his early years at Yale, Hull began to formulate his global theory of behaviour, which he based on principles drawn from a variety of sources. He took certain ideas on conditioning from the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov and also borrowed from American psychologists, including John B. Watson, who emphasized the objective study of behaviour, and Edward L. Thorndike, who asserted the importance of reinforcement in learning.The reinforcement theory of learning formed the basis for most of Hull's work. The theory explains behaviour in terms of stimulus and response, which become associated with each other in the learning process. The tendency for an association to be made is strengthened when reinforcement is given, that is, when the response reduces a physiological or psychological need. When a need such as hunger is less strong, as when an animal in a laboratory test is satiated, the reinforcement (for example, food) has less effect and the animal performs less well on learning tasks. On the other hand, Hull hypothesized that animals would learn more quickly the stronger the physiological need or drive and the more immediate the reward or reinforcement; this he later confirmed by experiment. Complex behaviour could be explained by a series of such simple response mechanisms, according to Hull.Hull's learning theories were first presented in Mathematico-Deductive Theory of Rote Learning (1940), a collaboration with several coworkers, in which he expressed his findings through postulates stated in both mathematical and verbal forms. Hull believed that psychology had its own quantitative laws that could be stated in mathematical equations. He further developed these ideas in Principles of Behavior (1943), which suggested that the stimulus-response connection depends on both the kind and the amount of reinforcement. His lasting legacy to psychology is thought to be his approach to the study of behaviour, rather than the specifics of his theories.
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Hull, Clark L(eonard) — born May 24, 1884, Akron, N.Y., U.S. died May 10, 1952, New Haven, Conn. U.S. psychologist. He taught at the University of Wisconsin (1918–29) and was a member of Yale University s Institute of Human Relations (1929–52). Hull engaged in three… … Universalium
Hull, Clark L(eonard) — (24 may. 1884, Akron, N.Y., EE.UU.–10 may. 1952, New Haven, Conn.). Psicólogo estadounidense. Fue docente en la Universidad de Wisconsin (1918–29) y miembro del Instituto de relaciones humanas de la Universidad de Yale (1929–52). Abordó tres… … Enciclopedia Universal
Hull, Clark Leonard — ► (1884 1952) Psicólogo estadounidense. Destacan sus trabajos sobre las motivaciones y sobre el aprendizaje … Enciclopedia Universal
Халл Кларк / Hull, Clark L. — (1884 1952). Наиболее весомый вклад Халла в психологию состоит в разработанной им теории научения, считающейся одной из самых значительных теорий XX столетия … Психологическая энциклопедия
Clark L. Hull — Clark Leonard Hull Clark Leonard Hull Born 24 May 1884 Akron, New Yo … Wikipedia
Clark Hull — Clark Leonard Hull Clark Leonard Hull (1884 1952), est un psychologue behavioriste américain. Il est avant tout connu pour l introduction de la notion de pulsion dans sa théorie de l apprentissage. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Influence 3… … Wikipédia en Français
Clark L. Hull — Clark Leonard Hull Clark Leonard Hull (1884 1952), est un psychologue behavioriste américain. Il est avant tout connu pour l introduction de la notion de pulsion dans sa théorie de l apprentissage. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Influence 3… … Wikipédia en Français
Clark Hull — Clark Leonhard Hull (* 24. Mai 1884 in Akron, New York; † 10. Mai 1952 in New Haven, Connecticut) war ein US amerikanischer Psychologe. Er steuerte wesentliche Beiträge zur behavioristischen Lerntheorie bei und wird daher heute dem so genannten… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hull — Hull, Clark Leonard Hull, Cordell (Kingston upon Hull) ► C. de Gran Bretaña, en el E de Inglaterra, condado de Humberside, junto al mar del Norte; 246 700 h. Principal puerto pesquero del país. * * * (as used in expressions) Hull, Bobby Robert… … Enciclopedia Universal
Clark — Clark, Alvan Clark, John Maurice Clark, Mark Wayne * * * (as used in expressions) Clark Fork, río Clark, Champ James Beauchamp Clark Clark, Dick Richard Wagstaff Clark Clark, George Rogers … Enciclopedia Universal