Chase, Salmon P.


Chase, Salmon P.

▪ chief justice of United States
in full  Salmon Portland Chase 
born Jan. 13, 1808, Cornish Township, N.H., U.S.
died May 7, 1873, New York City
 lawyer and politician, antislavery leader before the U.S. Civil War, secretary of the Treasury (1861–64) in Pres. Abraham Lincoln's wartime Cabinet, sixth chief justice of the United States (1864–73), and repeatedly a seeker of the presidency.

      Chase received part of his education from his uncle Philander Chase, the first Episcopal bishop of Ohio and later of Illinois, and his legal training (1827–30) from William Wirt, U.S. attorney general. From 1830 he practiced law in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he became widely known for his courtroom work on behalf of runaway slaves and white persons who had aided them. Originally a Whig, he changed his politics according to fluctuations in the antislavery movement. After leading the Liberty Party in Ohio (from 1841), he helped to found the Free-Soil Party (1848) and the Republican Party (1854). Between terms in the U.S. Senate (1849–55, 1860–61), he was the first Republican governor of Ohio (1855–59). He sought the Republican presidential nomination openly in 1856 and 1860, and surreptitiously in 1864 while serving in Lincoln's Cabinet; in 1868, during his chief justiceship, he sought the Democratic nomination as an opponent of the Radical Republicans' program of reconstructing the defeated Southern states, and in 1872 he was once more an unsuccessful candidate.

      At the 1860 Republican convention in Chicago, Chase permitted the delegates pledged to him to cast decisive votes for Lincoln (Lincoln, Abraham) on the third ballot. As a reward Lincoln appointed him secretary of the Treasury, in which position for the next three years he was responsible for financing the Union war efforts. He held the Treasury post until June 1864, and in December of that year he was appointed chief justice to succeed Roger Brooke Taney, who had died in October.

 Temperamentally unsuited to judicial office, Chase nonetheless enhanced the prestige of the Supreme Court by his caution in dealing with Reconstruction measures and by his fairness in presiding over the Senate's impeachment trial (ending in acquittal) of President Andrew Johnson in 1868. In Mississippi v. Johnson (1867) and Georgia v. Stanton (1867), Chase spoke for the court in refusing to prohibit Johnson and Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton from enforcing the Reconstruction Acts. By disavowing the court's jurisdiction in Ex parte McCardle (McCardle, Ex Parte) (1868), Chase sidestepped the question of whether a U.S. military commission in a former Confederate state could try a civilian for opposing those statutes. He dissented when the court invalidated, in Cummings v. Missouri and Ex parte Garland (both 1867), state and federal loyalty oaths prerequisite to the practice of learned professions. In various cases in 1872–73 (near the end of his life), in a court whose majority narrowly construed the postwar Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution, he tried to protect the rights of blacks from infringement by state action.

Additional Reading
The standard biography is Albert Bushnell Hart, Salmon Portland Chase (1899, reissued as Salmon P. Chase, 1980). Frederick J. Blue, Salmon P. Chase (1987), is also of interest.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chase Salmon Osborn — (* 22. Januar 1860 im Huntington County, Indiana; † 11. April 1949 in Poulan, Georgia) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und von 1911 bis 1913 der 27. Gouverneur von Michigan. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Frühe Jahre …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Chase,Salmon Portland — Chase (chās), Salmon Portland. 1808 1873. American jurist who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1864 1873). He presided over the trial of President Andrew Johnson (1868). * * * …   Universalium

  • Chase, Salmon P(ortland) — born Jan. 13, 1808, Cornish Township, N.H., U.S. died May 7, 1873, New York, N.Y. U.S. antislavery leader and sixth chief justice of the U.S. (1864–73). He practiced law in Cincinnati from 1830, defending runaway slaves and white abolitionists.… …   Universalium

  • Chase, Salmon P(ortland) — (13 ene. 1808, Cornish Township, N.H., EE.UU.–7 may. 1873, Nueva York, N.Y.) Dirigente antiesclavista estadounidense y sexto presidente de la Corte Suprema de EE.UU. (1864–73). Ejerció como abogado en Cincinnati a partir de 1830, donde defendió a …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • CHASE, SALMON PORTLAND —    Chief Justice of the United States; a great anti slavery advocate and leader of the Free Soil party; aimed at the Presidency, but failed (1773 1808) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Salmon P. Chase — Salmon Portland Chase 6th Chief Justice of the United States …   Wikipedia

  • Salmon Chase — Salmon P. Chase als Chief Justice. Salmon Portland Chase (* 13. Januar 1808 in Cornish, Sullivan County, New Hampshire; † 7. Mai 1873 in New York City) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Jurist während des Sezession …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Salmon Portland Chase — Salmon P. Chase als Chief Justice. Salmon Portland Chase (* 13. Januar 1808 in Cornish, Sullivan County, New Hampshire; † 7. Mai 1873 in New York City) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Jurist während des Sezession …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Salmon Chase — Salmon Portland Chase Pour les articles homonymes, voir Chase. Salmon Portland Chase Salmon Portland Chase (13 janvier  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Salmon P. Chase — Salmon Portland Chase Pour les articles homonymes, voir Chase. Salmon Portland Chase Salmon Portland Chase (13 janvier  …   Wikipédia en Français