- Ōkuma Shigenobu
died Jan. 10, 1922, TokyoJapanese politician of the Meiji period who twice served as prime minister.His initial contribution to the new government was to oversee the reorganization of Japan's fiscal system. Later, after making radical proposals for a new Japanese constitution and exposing corruption in proposed sales of government property, he was forced out of government. In 1882 he formed the Rikken Kaishintō ("Progressive Party"), which favoured English parliamentary government. With Itagaki Taisuke he created a new party in 1898, the Kenseitō ("Constitutional Party"). They formed a short-lived government with Ōkuma as prime minister. Ōkuma's second tenure as prime minister (1914–16) was more successful. He is also remembered as the founder of Waseda University (1882). See also Meiji Constitution.
* * *▪ prime minister of Japanborn March 11, 1838, Saga, Japandied Jan. 10, 1922, Tokyopolitician who twice served as prime minister of Japan (1898; 1914–16). He organized the Rikken Kaishintō (“Progressive Party”) and founded Waseda University.After receiving a conventional education, Ōkuma turned to Western studies and took the then-unusual step of learning English. Following the Meiji Restoration (1868), which reestablished the formal ruling authority of the emperor, leaders of the Meiji government broadened their base of support by adding representation from Ōkuma's Saga domain. His ability and courage soon brought him an important role in government, at first specializing in finance. From 1869 to 1881 he was chiefly responsible for modernizing and reorganizing Japan's fiscal system.When members of the government were asked to propose provisions of a new Japanese constitution, Ōkuma astounded his colleagues by making the radical suggestion that elections be held the next year, a parliament be convened, and the British system of a cabinet responsible to parliament be established. Later that year he exposed corruption in proposed sales of government property in Hokkaido, the northernmost of Japan's four main islands.Ōkuma's opinions and actions forced him out of the government, but the movement for a constitution gained great impetus. In response to popular pressure, the emperor promised that a constitution would be readied by 1890. The document was completed and promulgated a year earlier, on Feb. 1, 1889. Ōkuma formed a political party, the Kaishintō, that was oriented toward English parliamentary concepts.After rejoining the government in 1888, Ōkuma twice served as foreign minister. In 1898 he and Itagaki Taisuke (Itagaki Taisuke, Hakushaku), the founder of Japan's first political party, the Jiyūtō (“Liberal Party”), joined forces and formed the Kenseitō (“Constitutional Party”). They formed a government in 1898 with Ōkuma as prime minister, but it foundered a few months later over patronage disputes.Earlier, in 1882, Ōkuma had founded in Tokyo what soon after became known as Waseda University, one of the two leading private universities in Japan. He retired from politics in 1907 to devote all his time to Waseda, only to be recalled as prime minister in 1914. During that term Japan experienced a great economic boom, partly as a result of the increased trade brought by World War I. In addition, Japan increased its pressure on China (including issuing the so-called Twenty-one Demands), which led to deteriorating relations between the countries. In 1916 Ōkuma, by then in ill health, resigned and retired from politics.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Okuma Shigenobu — Ōkuma Shigenobu Ōkuma Shigenobu in seiner Jugend Markgraf Ōkuma Shigenobu (jap. 大隈 重信 Ōkuma Shigenobu; * … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ōkuma Shigenobu — in seiner Jugend … Deutsch Wikipedia
Okuma Shigenobu — Shigenobu Ōkuma Shigenobu Ōkuma Shigenobu Ōkuma (11 mars 1838 10 janvier 1922) était un homme politique japonais. Il fut le 8e Premier ministre du Japon entre le 30 juin 1898 et le … Wikipédia en Français
Okuma Shigenobu — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Okuma Shigenobu Okuma Shigenobu (11 de marzo de 1838, Saga 10 de enero de 1922, Tokio) fue un político japonés de la era Meiji … Wikipedia Español
Ōkuma Shigenobu — In this Japanese name, the family name is Ōkuma . Ōkuma Shigenobu 大隈 重信 5th Prime Minister of Japan In office 16 April 1914 – 9 … Wikipedia
Ōkuma Shigenobu — Este artículo está titulado de acuerdo a la onomástica japonesa, en que el apellido precede al nombre. Ōkuma Shigenobu 2.º primer ministro de Japón 30 de junio de 1898 … Wikipedia Español
Okuma Shigenobu — (11 mar. 1838, Saga, Japón–10 ene. 1922, Tokio). Político japonés de la era Meiji que en dos ocasiones llegó a ser primer ministro. Su contribución inicial fue supervisar la reorganización del sistema fiscal japonés. Sin embargo, más tarde, fue… … Enciclopedia Universal
Shigenobu Okuma — Ōkuma Shigenobu Ōkuma Shigenobu in seiner Jugend Markgraf Ōkuma Shigenobu (jap. 大隈 重信 Ōkuma Shigenobu; * … Deutsch Wikipedia
Shigenobu Ōkuma — Ōkuma Shigenobu Ōkuma Shigenobu in seiner Jugend Markgraf Ōkuma Shigenobu (jap. 大隈 重信 Ōkuma Shigenobu; * … Deutsch Wikipedia
Shigenobu Okuma — Shigenobu Ōkuma Shigenobu Ōkuma Shigenobu Ōkuma (11 mars 1838 10 janvier 1922) était un homme politique japonais. Il fut le 8e Premier ministre du Japon entre le 30 juin 1898 et le … Wikipédia en Français