(Arabic; "Rightly Guided")First four caliphs of the Islamic community: Abū Bakr, Umar ibn al-Khattāb, Uthmān ibn Affān, and Alī.As Islam's first rulers after Muhammad, they assumed all his duties except prophecy: they led the congregation in prayer, delivered the Friday sermons, and commanded the army. The caliphate of the Rashīdūn expanded the Islamic state beyond Arabia into Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Iran, and Armenia. They were also responsible for the adoption of the Islamic calendar and the establishment of an authoritative reading of the Qurān.
* * *▪ caliphs(Arabic: “Rightly Guided,” or “Perfect”), the first four caliphs (caliph) of the Islāmic (Islāmic world) community, known in Muslim history as the orthodox or patriarchal caliphs: Abū Bakr (reigned 632–634), ʿUmar (Umar Iʿ) (reigned 634–644), ʿUthmān (Uthmān ibn ʿAffānʿ) (reigned 644–656), and Alīʿ (reigned 656–661).The 29-year rule of the Rashidun was Islām's first experience without the leadership of the Prophet Muḥammad. His example, however, in both private and public life, came to be regarded as the norm (sunnah (sunna)) for his successors, and a large and influential body of anṣār (companions of the Prophet) kept close watch on the caliphs to insure their strict adherence to divine revelation (the Qurʾān) and the sunnah. The Rashidun thus assumed all of Muḥammad's duties except the prophetic: as imams, they led the congregation in prayer at the mosque; as khaṭībs, they delivered the Friday sermons; and as umarāʾ al-muʾminīn (“commanders of the faithful”), they commanded the army.The caliphate of the Rashidun, in which virtually all actions had religious import, began with the wars of the riddah (“apostasy”; 632–633), tribal uprisings in Arabia, and ended with the first Muslim civil war (fitnah; (fitnah) 656–661). It effected the expansion of the Islāmic state beyond Arabia into Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Iran, and Armenia and, with it, the development of an elite class of Arab soldiers. The Rashidun were also responsible for the adoption of an Islāmic calendar (Muslim calendar), dating from Muḥammad's emigration (hijrah) from Mecca to Medina (622), and the establishment of an authoritative reading of the Qurʾān, which strengthened the Muslim community and encouraged religious scholarship. It was also a controversy over ʿAlī's succession that split Islām into two sects, the Sunnite (traditionalists) and the Shīʿite (shīʿat ʿAlī, “party of ʿAlī”), which have survived to modern times.The religious and very traditionalist strictures on the Rashidun were somewhat relaxed as Muḥammad's contemporaries, especially the anṣār, began to die off, and the conquered territories became too vast to rule along theocratic lines; thus the Umayyads, who followed the Rashidun as caliphs, were able to secularize the operations of the state.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Rashidun — Part of a series on S … Wikipedia
Rashidun — Califes biens guidés (Rashidun) خلفاء راشدون (al Khulafā’u r Rāshidūn) (ar) 632 – 661 Expansion des différents califats … Wikipédia en Français
rashidun — (árabe: bien guiados). Los primeros cuatro califas de la comunidad islámica: Abu Bakr, Umar ibn al Jattab, Uthman ibn Affan y Ali. Como los cuatro primeros gobernantes del Islam después de Mahoma, asumieron todas sus obligaciones excepto la… … Enciclopedia Universal
Rashidun Caliphate — Infobox Former Country native name = الخلافة الراشدية conventional long name = Rashidun Caliphate common name = Rashidun continent = Afroasia region = Middle East status = Empire government type = Caliphate event start = year start = 632 event… … Wikipedia
Rashidun army — Infobox War Faction name= Rashidun Army war= Wars of the Rashidun Caliphate caption= active= 632 661 AD ideology= leaders= Caliph ( Amir al Mu minin , The Commander of the Faithful ) headquarters=Madinah, Kufa area= Middle East, North Africa,… … Wikipedia
Caliphate — Khilafat and Khilafah redirect here. For the South Asian movement, see Khilafat Movement. For the Khilafat in Ahmadiyya Islam, see Khalifatul Masih. For specific Islamic or Arab dynasties, see Islamic empire. The last Caliph of Islam, Abdülmecid… … Wikipedia
Uthman Ibn Affan — ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān (Arabic: ar. عثمان بن عفان) (c. 579 July 17 656) was one of the sahaba (companions). An early convert to Islam, he played a major role in early Islamic history, most notably as the third Caliph of the Rashidun Empire (644 to… … Wikipedia
Ali — See also: Nahj al Balagha For other persons named Ali, see Ali (name). For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). Ali ibn Abu Talib … Wikipedia
Uthman ibn Affan — For other uses of the name, see Uthman. Uthman ibn Affan Caliph Uthman s empire at its peak, 655. Thu Al Nurayn Reign … Wikipedia
Muslim conquest of Egypt — Part of the Muslim conquests and Byzantine Arab Wars … Wikipedia