- Nicephorus II Phocas
born 912, Cappadociadied Dec. 10/11, 969, ConstantinopleByzantine emperor (963–969).A powerful military commander, he fought the Arabs in the east, liberated Crete from its Arab rulers (961), and gained control of the eastern Mediterranean. After the death of Romanus II, Nicephorus cooperated in a plot to seize the throne, accepting the crown (963) and marrying Theophano, the regent of the two legitimate heirs. He continued his exploits against the Arabs but was surrounded by discontent and intrigue at home; he retired to a fortified palace, where he was killed by former friends guided by his wife and his chief lieutenant.
* * *▪ Byzantine emperorIntroductionborn 912, Cappadociadied Dec. 10/11, 969, ConstantinopleByzantine emperor (963–969), whose military achievements against the Muslim Arabs contributed to the resurgence of Byzantine power in the 10th century.Early life.Nicephorus Phocas was the son of Bardas Phocas, an important Byzantine general in Anatolia, on the borders of the empire. He quickly embraced a military career of arms and as a young patrician distinguished himself at his father's side in a war against the Ḥamdānid Arabs in the East. In 954–955 the emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus named him commander in chief of the armies of the East, to replace the aging Bardas. Nicephorus proceeded to restructure the army to reinforce discipline and improve recruiting. At this point he probably wrote the treatises on military tactics that are attributed to him, although proof is lacking.The emperor Romanus II named him commander of a wartime expedition to liberate Crete (which had been controlled by the Arabs ever since 826), at great cost to Aegean populations and international commerce. This enterprise mobilized the entire Byzantine fleet and close to 24,000 men. Nicephorus gained the island with the capture of Chandax, now Iráklion, on March 7, 961. In a general massacre, the inhumanity of which revealed his fierce nature, he broke all Arab resistance. Aided by the monks, among whom was Athanasius, his spiritual director and founder of the Greek Orthodox monastery on Mt. Athos, Nicephorus achieved the reconsolidation of Christianity. He then returned to Constantinople with ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, the last amīr of Crete, as his captive. This exploit, sung by the poet Theodosius the Deacon, realized the Byzantine dream (after dozens had failed to liberate Crete) of imperial mastery of the eastern Mediterranean. Later, as emperor, Nicephorus could state proudly that he controlled the seas. By that time, however, he had recovered Cilicia and the island of Cyprus and had captured other Muslim naval bases.At the beginning of 962, Nicephorus attacked the Arabs of Cilicia and Syria, capturing more than 60 fortresses. After the death of Romanus II on March 15, 963, the situation in the capital changed. The Emperor's will had left a eunuch, Joseph Bringas, in charge of the affairs of state and the 20-year-old empress, Theophano, as acting regent for the legitimate emperors, Basil and Constantine, aged six and three, respectively. These circumstances do not seem to have tempted Nicephorus.Rise to power.In spite of his great popularity, there was no indication that Nicephorus—whose physical appearance was reportedly not very agreeable and who seemed destined under the influence of Athanasius the Athonite to embrace the monastic life—would end up seducing and being seduced by the young and beautiful empress. If such a plan existed at the time (and there is reason to believe it did) it was probably the brainchild of the ambitious Theophano, who was unhappy with Bringas' government. The people of Constantinople, aroused by Basil The Chamberlain, revolted against Bringas, and the imperial army, through the intermediation of John Tzimisces (John I Tzimisces), Nicephorus' faithful lieutenant, “obliged” the soldier to accept the crown at Caesarea on July 3, 963, and to march against Constantinople. On Aug. 16, 963, Nicephorus was crowned in the Hagia Sophia by the patriarch Polyeuctus, and on September 20 he celebrated his marriage to Theophano.Smitten with the young woman and influenced by his brother Leo Phocas, whose self-interested machinations (he was accused of speculating on the price of wheat) stirred up the discontent of the people of Constantinople, Nicephorus gradually became taciturn and suspicious even of his best advisers, who, one after another, were removed from office. As emperor, Nicephorus continued his exploits against the Arabs until finally, abandoned by all, he retired to the fortified palace of Boukoleion, which he had built for his personal safety. During a night in December 969, he was killed there by former friends, guided by Tzimisces and advised by Theophano.The contradictions in Nicephorus' life and character also marked his domestic politics. His government evoked unanimous discontent: the hostility of the people to the new fiscal charges and coinage debasement required by military needs; the exasperation of ecclesiastical authorities over decisions against enrichment of the monasteries; the remonstrances of his spiritual director, Athanasius, against his private life; and the apprehensions of Theophano that her children would be ousted through the machinations of Leo Phocas. These all created a climate of intrigue, which resulted in Nicephorus' assassination and brought John Tzimisces to the throne.Military achievements.The failure of Nicephorus' domestic policies did not cast a shadow on his military achievement, which made his reign one of the Byzantine Empire's most glorious. In the words of C. Schlumberger, his most exhaustive biographer, he inaugurated the Byzantine era in the East. In fact, though known primarily for his exploits against the infidel, Nicephorus also carried the imperial frontier beyond the Euphrates to Syria. Nor did he neglect the other imperial frontiers in the conception of Byzantine grandeur. To counteract the Bulgar menace he spurred Russian intervention in the Danubian area, a policy that was not without danger for Byzantium, especially after his death. Also, to stop expansionist plans of the Germanic sovereign Otto I, who was re-creating the Carolingian heritage, Nicephorus opposed Otto's title of emperor, while trying with more or less success to consolidate the Byzantine presence in Italy. Nicephorus II's policies, seen in their entirety, indicate that his purpose was to assure Byzantium of its place as international arbiter, which he accomplished through the use of arms.Reputation.Phocas was indeed a Nicephorus (Bringer of Victory) for the empire. The Byzantines surnamed him Kallinikos, artisan of good victories; the Arabs called him Nikfour, the Saracen hammer. His death caused joy in the Muslim world and shook Christianity. His legend was quickly nourished with stories of his exploits and tragic death. Byzantine and even Bulgar poets were inspired by his exploits, and posterity has kept his memory alive: he is celebrated in the epic poetry of the frontier; the church beatified him (an acolouthie was composed in his honour); and the monks of Mt. Athos still venerate as their benefactor and founder Nicephorus, emperor and martyr. His life was summed up in the phrase inscribed on his sarcophagus: “You conquered all but a woman.”Hélène AhrweilerAdditional ReadingC. Schlumberger, Un Empereur byzantin au Xe siècle: Nicéphore Phocas (1890), is a comprehensive biography. The same author's L'Épopée byzantine à la fin du Xe siècle, 3 vol. (1896–1905); and A.A. Vasiliev, Byzance et les Arabes, vol. 2, La Dynastie macédonienne (1968), are useful for Nicephorus Phocas' career in the East. Also of interest is H. Gregoire, “The Amorians and the Macedonians, 842–1025,” in The Cambridge Medieval History, new ed., vol. 4, pt. 1, pp. 147–156 (1966).
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