- Jacob, François
Ja·cob (zhä-kôbʹ), François. Born 1920.
French geneticist. He shared a 1965 Nobel Prize for the study of regulatory activity in body cells.
* * *French biologist.After receiving his doctorate, he went to work at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Beginning in 1958, he worked with Jacques Monod studying the regulation of bacterial enzyme synthesis. They discovered regulator genes, so called because they control the activities of other genes. Jacob and Monod also proposed the existence of an RNA messenger, a partial copy of DNA that carries genetic information to other parts of the cell. The two men shared a 1965 Nobel Prize with André Lwoff.
* * *▪ French biologistborn June 17, 1920, Nancy, FranceFrench biologist who, together with André Lwoff (Lwoff, André) and Jacques Monod (Monod, Jacques), was awarded the 1965 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discoveries concerning regulatory activities in bacteria.Jacob received his M.D. degree (1947) and a doctorate in science (1954) from the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Science, respectively, in Paris. Most of the work of Jacob, Lwoff, and Monod was carried out at the Pasteur Institute (Paris), which Jacob had joined as a research assistant in 1950. In 1960 he became head of the department of cellular genetics at the institute, and from 1965 he was also professor of cellular genetics at the Collège de France. In 1977 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences.With a coworker at the Pasteur Institute, Jacob discovered that the genes (gene) of a bacterium are arranged linearly in a ring and that the ring can be broken at almost any point. In 1958 Monod and Jacob began to collaborate in studies of the regulation of bacterial enzyme synthesis. One of their first major contributions was the discovery of regulator genes, so called because they control the activities of structural genes. The latter, in turn, not only transmit hereditary characteristics but also serve in the production of enzymes, other proteins, and ribonucleic acid (RNA). (See operon.)Jacob and Monod also proposed the existence of an RNA messenger, a partial copy of the gene substance deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), that carries genetic information to other parts of the cell. They also found that in a normal cell the balance between regulator and structural genes enables the cell to adapt to varying conditions. An interruption in this balance, however, can stimulate the production of new enzymes that can prove either beneficial or destructive to the cell. In addition to his research activities, Jacob has also written important books in the history and philosophy of the life sciences, including The Logic of Life (French edition 1970; English translation 1973).
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JACOB, FRANÇOIS — (1920– ), French molecular biologist and Nobel laureate. Jacob was born in Nancy, attended the Lycée Carnot, and started his medical studies in Paris. With the German invasion of France in 1940 he joined the Free French Forces in exile and fought … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Jacob, François — Biólogo molecular francés nacido en 1920. Le otorgaron el Premio Nobel en Medicina y Fisiología en 1965, junto a Jaques Monod y André Lwoff, a raíz de los trabajos y descubrimientos realizados sobre los genes reguladores. Medical Dictionary. 2011 … Diccionario médico
Jacob , François — (1920–) French biologist Born at Nancy in France, Jacob served with the Free French forces during World War II. Although badly wounded, he resumed his medical studies in 1945, obtaining his MD from the University of Paris in 1947. In 1950 he… … Scientists
Jacob, François — ► (n. 1920) Fisiólogo francés del instituto Pasteur. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1965, compartido con A. Lwoff y J. Monod, por sus investigaciones sobre el cáncer. * * * (n. 17 jun. 1920, Nancy, Francia). Biólogo francés. Después … Enciclopedia Universal
Jacob, François — (b. 1920) French biologist and Nobel laureate, 1965. After a distinguished war record in the Free French Forces, Jacob worked at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In 1965 he shared in the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for work on… … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Jacob, Francois — (b. 1920) French biologist. He worked at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In 1965 he shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physics for work on cellular genetic function and the influence of viruses … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
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