Jhelum River


Jhelum River
River, India and Pakistan.

The westernmost of the "Five Rivers" of the Punjab region, it rises in the Himalayas in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It meanders northwest in the Pakistani-administered sector of the Kashmir region. Bending southward, it joins the Chenab River, having traveled a course of 450 mi (725 km). It is believed to be the Hydaspes mentioned by Arrian, Alexander the Great's historian, and the Bidaspes mentioned by Ptolemy.

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river, Asia
 river, westernmost of the five rivers in the Punjab that ultimately drain into the Indus River in Pakistan.

      The Jhelum rises from a deep spring at Vernāg, in the Indian-held sector of Jammu and Kashmir state. The river meanders northwestward from the northern slope of the Pīr Panjāl Range through the Vale of Kashmir to Wular Lake, which controls its flow. Emerging from the lake, the Jhelum crosses the Pīr Panjāl in a 7,000-foot (2,100-metre) gorge with almost perpendicular sides. At Muzaffarābād, the capital of Azad Kashmir in the Pakistani-held (Pakistan) sector of Jammu and Kashmir, the Jhelum joins the Kishanganga River and then bends southward, forming part of the border between Azad Kashmir (east) and Northwest Frontier province, Pakistan (west). The river then flows southward into Pakistan proper. Near Mangla, the Jhelum breaks through the Siwālik Range into broad alluvial plains. At Jhelum town the river turns southwestward along the Salt Range to Khushāb, where it again bends south to join the Chenāb River near Trimmu. The total length of the Jhelum is about 450 miles (725 km).

      The lower course of the Jhelum has been developed for irrigation and the production of hydroelectric power. The Mangla Dam and Reservoir irrigates about 3,000,000 acres (1,200,000 hectares) and has an installed hydroelectric capacity of at least 300 megawatts. The Upper Jhelum Canal leaves the river at Mangla and runs eastward to the Chenāb River at Khānki, while the Lower Jhelum Canal starts at Rasūl. Both canals are used for irrigation. The Jhelum River is believed to be the Hydaspes mentioned by Arrian, Alexander the Great's historian, and the Bidaspes mentioned by Ptolemy.

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Universalium. 2010.

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