Hargobind


Hargobind
born 1595, Wadali, India
died 1644, Kiratpur, near the Himalayas

Sixth Sikh Guru (1606–44).

He became Guru after the execution of his father, Guru Arjan, by the Mughal rulers of India. Until his time, Sikhism had been a passive and peace-loving religion, but Hargobind gave it a strong military character in response to the enmity of the Mughals. He created an army, fortified cities, and built a defensive encampment near the holy city of Amritsar. For this he was jailed for 12 years by the emperor. After his release he defeated the armies of Shah Jahan, ending the notion of Mughal invincibility. He was succeeded by his grandson, Hari Rai.

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▪ Sikh Gurū
born 1595, Wadali, India
died 1644, Kiratpur, near the Himalayas

      sixth Sikh (Sikhism) Guru, who developed a strong Sikh army and gave the Sikh religion its military character, in accord with the instructions of his father, Guru Arjan (1563–1606), the first Sikh martyr, who had been executed on the order of the Mughal (Mughal Dynasty) emperor Jahāngīr.

 Up to the time of Hargobind, the Sikh religion had been passive. At his succession ceremony Hargobind is believed to have defiantly borne two swords, symbolizing his twin authority as temporal (miri) and spiritual (piri) head of the community. He also devoted much time to military training and the martial arts, becoming an expert swordsman, wrestler, and rider. Despite opposition, Hargobind built up his army and fortified his cities. In 1609 he built at Amritsar the Akal Takht (Akāl Takht) (“Throne of God”), a temple and assembly hall combined, where both spiritual and temporal matters pertaining to the Sikh nation could be resolved. He built a fort near Amritsar and named it Lohgarh. Deftly he instilled the will to fight and established high morale in his followers. The Mughal emperor Jahāngīr viewed the buildup of Sikh power as a threat and had Guru Hargobind jailed in the fortress of Gwalior. For 12 years Guru Hargobind remained a prisoner, but Sikh devotion to him only intensified. Finally, the emperor, apparently seeking the favour of the Sikhs as possible allies against the Indian states still defying Mughal rule, relented and set the Guru free. Hargobind followed his former militant course, recognizing that a clash with Mughal power was coming.

      After Jahāngīr's death (1627) the new Mughal emperor, Shāh Jahān, persecuted the Sikh community in earnest. The Sikhs under Hargobind defeated Shāh Jahān's armies four times, crushing the myth of Mughal invincibility. To the Sikh ideals of his predecessor, Guru Hargobind thus added another: the right and duty of the Sikhs to defend their faith by the sword if necessary. Shortly before his death, Guru Hargobind appointed his grandson, Har Rai, his successor.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Sikhism — /see kiz euhm/, n. the religion and practices of the Sikhs. [SIKH + ISM] * * * Indian monotheistic religion founded in the late 15th century by Guru Nanak. Most of its 18 million members, called Sikhs, live in the Punjab, the site of their… …   Universalium

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