ENIAC

ENIAC
in full Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer.

Early electronic digital computer built in the U.S. in 1945 by J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly.

The massive ENIAC, which weighed 30 tons and filled an entire room, used some 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, and 10,000 capacitors. In December 1945 it solved its first problem, calculations for the hydrogen bomb. After its official unveiling in 1946, it was used to prepare artillery-shell trajectory tables and perform other military and scientific calculations.

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in full  Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer 
 the first programmable general-purpose electronic digital computer, built during World War II by the United States. In the United States, government funding during the war went to a project led by John Mauchly (Mauchly, John W.), J. Presper Eckert, Jr. (Eckert, J. Presper, Jr.), and their colleagues at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, University of); their objective was an all-electronic computer. Under contract to the army and under the direction of Herman Goldstine, work began in early 1943 on ENIAC. The next year, mathematician John von Neumann (von Neumann, John)—already on full-time leave from the Institute for Advanced Studies (IAS), in Princeton, N.J., for various government research projects (including the Manhattan Project)—began frequent consultations with the group.

      ENIAC was something less than the dream of a universal computer. Designed for the specific purpose of computing values for artillery range tables, it lacked some features that would have made it a more generally useful machine. It used plugboards for communicating instructions to the machine; this had the advantage that, once the instructions were thus “programmed,” the machine ran at electronic speed. Instructions read from a card reader or other slow mechanical device would not have been able to keep up with the all-electronic ENIAC. The disadvantage was that it took days to rewire the machine for each new problem. This was such a liability that only with some generosity could it be called programmable.

      Nevertheless, ENIAC was the most powerful calculating device built to date. It was the first programmable general-purpose electronic digital computer. Like Charles Babbage (Babbage, Charles)'s Analytical Engine (from the 19th century) and the British World War II computer colossus, it had conditional branching—that is, it had the ability to execute different instructions or to alter the order of execution of instructions based on the value of some data. (For instance, IF X>5 THEN GO TO LINE 23.) This gave ENIAC a lot of flexibility and meant that, while it was built for a specific purpose, it could be used for a wider range of problems.

      ENIAC was enormous. It occupied the 50-by-30-foot (15-by-9-metre) basement of the Moore School, where its 40 panels were arranged, U-shaped, along three walls. Each of the units was about 2 feet wide by 2 feet deep by 8 feet high (0.6 metre by 0.6 metre by 2.4 metres). With approximately 18,000 vacuum tubes (electron tube), 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 6,000 switches, and 1,500 relays, it was easily the most complex electronic system theretofore built. ENIAC ran continuously (in part to extend tube life), generating 150 kilowatts of heat, and could execute up to 5,000 additions per second, several orders of magnitude faster than its electromechanical predecessors. It and subsequent computers employing vacuum tubes are known as first-generation computers. (With 1,500 mechanical relays, ENIAC was still transitional to later, fully electronic computers.)

      Completed by February 1946, ENIAC had cost the government $400,000, and the war it was designed to help win was over. Its first task was doing calculations for the construction of a hydrogen bomb (thermonuclear bomb). A portion of the machine is on exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

Paul A. Freiberger Michael R. Swaine
 

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Eniac — auf einem Bild der US Armee Der Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) war der erste rein elektronische digitale Universalrechner. Im Auftrag der US Armee wurde er ab 1942 von J. Presper Eckert und John W. Mauchly an der University… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • ENIAC — auf einem Bild der US Armee, im Vordergrund Betty Snyder, im Hintergrund Glen Beck …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • ENIAC — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda ENIAC ENIAC es un acrónimo de Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (Computador e Integrador Numérico Electrónico), utilizada por el Laboratorio de Investigación Balística del Ejército de los Estados Unidos …   Wikipedia Español

  • ENIAC —   [Abk. für Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, dt. »elektronischer numerischer Integrierer und Rechner«], offiziell am 14. Februar 1946 in Betrieb genommener, erster vollelektronische Computer der Welt. Andere zu dieser Zeit gebau …   Universal-Lexikon

  • ENIAC — es un acrónimo inglés de Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (Computador e Integrador Numérico Electrónico), utilizada por el Balistic Research Laboratory de la Armada de los Estados Unidos. Máquina gigantesca que ha sido la primera… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • ENIAC — (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) var den første amerikanske computer. Den blev designet af John William Mauchly og John Presper Eckert …   Danske encyklopædi

  • ENIAC — sigla ES ingl. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, integratore ed elaboratore numerico elettronico …   Dizionario italiano

  • ENIAC — [ e:ni̯ak] der; s, s Kurzw. aus engl. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator bzw. Computer »elektronischer numerischer Integrator u. (Be)rechner«> erster elektronischer Rechenautomat …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • ENIAC — acronym from electronic numeral integrator and computer, device built 1946 at University of Pennsylvania by John W. Mauchly Jr., J. Presper Eckert Jr., and J.G. Brainerd. It cost $400,000, used 18,000 radio tubes, and was housed in a 30 foot by… …   Etymology dictionary

  • ENIAC — (Electronic Numeral Integrator and Computer) n. one of the first and largest electronic computers …   English contemporary dictionary

  • eniac — /enˈi ak/ noun An early American electronic computer ORIGIN: electronic numerical integrator and calculator …   Useful english dictionary


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