Charles XIII


Charles XIII

born Nov. 8, 1622, Nyköping Castle, Swed.
died Feb. 13, 1660, Göteborg

King of Sweden (1809–18) and first king of the union of Sweden and Norway (1814–18).

Second son of King Adolf Frederick (1710–71), he served as admiral of the fleet in the Russo-Swedish war. On the death of his brother Gustav III (1792), Charles became regent for his nephew Gustav IV. After the latter's deposition in 1809, Charles was elected king. He was prematurely aged and childless. In 1810 Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (later Charles XIV John) was named heir apparent; from then on, Charles was eclipsed by the crown prince.

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▪ king of Sweden
Swedish  Karl , or  Carl 
born Oct. 7, 1748, Stockholm
died Feb. 5, 1818, Stockholm
 king of Sweden from 1809 and, from 1814 to 1818, first king of the union of Sweden and Norway (called Karl II in Norway). The second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden, he was created duke of Södermanland by his elder brother, King Gustav III, and later served as admiral of the fleet during the Russo-Swedish War (1788–90). In 1792, after the murder of his brother, he became regent for his nephew, the 13-year-old Gustav IV (Gustav IV Adolf). Charles was little gifted and lacked strength of character, so that real power passed to advisers until Gustav himself began to exert influence. The latter's unsuccessful policy during the Napoleonic Wars resulted in his deposition in March 1809. Charles, prematurely aged and childless, was elected king in his place, but by the end of 1809 he was in failing health. The Riksdag (parliament) provided for the succession by naming Duke Christian August (later Charles August) heir apparent, and, on his early death in 1810, one of Napoleon's marshals, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (Charles XIV John), whom Charles adopted as his son. From then until his death, Charles was eclipsed by the crown prince, even in his symbolic role.

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Universalium. 2010.

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