trumpet


trumpet
trumpetless, adj.trumpetlike, adj.
/trum"pit/, n.
1. Music.
a. any of a family of brass wind instruments with a powerful, penetrating tone, consisting of a tube commonly curved once or twice around on itself and having a cup-shaped mouthpiece at one end and a flaring bell at the other.
b. an organ stop having a tone resembling that of a trumpet.
c. a trumpeter.
2. something used as or resembling a trumpet, esp. in sound.
3. a sound like that of a trumpet.
4. the loud shrill cry of an animal, esp. an elephant.
5. See ear trumpet.
6. trumpets, any of several pitcher plants of the southeastern U.S.
v.i.
7. to blow a trumpet.
8. to emit a loud, trumpetlike cry, as an elephant.
v.t.
9. to sound on a trumpet.
10. to utter with a sound like that of a trumpet.
11. to proclaim loudly or widely.
[1300-50; ME trumpette, trompette < F, equiv. to trompe TRUMP2 + -ette -ET]

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Brass instrument with tubing twice-folded in an elongated shape.

(In its broad sense, trumpet may refer to any lip-vibrated instrument.) The modern trumpet has a mostly cylindrical bore, three valves, and a cup-shaped mouthpiece, and it is usually a B-flat or C instrument. The trumpet had taken its basic modern shape, with its ovoid loop, by с 1500. In the 17th–18th centuries it employed crooks (removable lengths of tubing) to enable playing in different keys. The valved trumpet was developed in the 1820s. The trumpet has been associated with ceremonial and military uses since the 16th century. It joined the standard orchestra by с 1700, though it was only selectively used, usually with the timpani. Its brilliant sound has since made it indispensable in a wide variety of ensembles. See also cornet; flügelhorn.

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      in zoology, any of certain snail species, including members of the conch (q.v.) and triton groups (see triton shell).

French  trompette,  German  Trompete  
 in music, brass (brass instrument) wind musical instrument (wind instrument) sounded by lip vibration against a cup mouthpiece. Ethnologists and ethnomusicologists use the word trumpet for any lip-vibrated instrument, whether of horn, conch, reed, or wood, with a horn or gourd bell, as well as for the Western brass instrument. The technical distinction between trumpet and horn is that one-third of the tube length of a trumpet is conical and two-thirds is cylindrical, while the horn's tube is the opposite. Both types are found throughout the world. For example, non-Western long trumpets are as dispersed as the kakaki of West Africa, the Persian and Arab nafīr, the laba of China, and the spectacular dung-chen of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.

      The metal trumpet dates from the 2nd millennium BC in Egypt, when it was a small ritual or military instrument sounding only one or two notes. Used in various forms as a military and sometimes civilian signal instrument—as the straight Greek salpinx, the similar Roman tuba, and the Roman lituus, straight with an upturned bell—it came into prominence as a musical instrument in the Middle Ages. Later forms included the natural trumpet of the 16th–18th centuries and, following the invention of valves about 1815, the modern valve trumpet. The valve trumpet, ordinarily built in B♭, maintains the traditional trumpet bore, cylindrical with a terminal bell flare, though usually the bore tapers toward the mouthpiece to provide additional flexibility of tone. The bend near the bell incorporates a tuning slide. The compass ranges from F♯ below the treble staff to well above the staff, depending on the player's skill. The music is notated a major second higher than the actual sound.

      Mouthpieces vary; orchestral (orchestra) players usually prefer a wider and deeper mouthpiece than dance-band and jazz players, who favour a narrower and shallower mouthpiece to produce a sustained forte in the high register. The tone quality may be changed by inserting a mute into the bell: either a conical straight mute of fibre or various aluminum mutes.

      Instruments in keys other than B♭ are frequently used. The “piccolo” trumpet in D, also known as the Bach trumpet, was invented in about 1890 by the Belgian instrument-maker Victor Mahillon (Mahillon, Victor-Charles) for use in the high trumpet parts of music by J.S. Bach (Bach, Johann Sebastian) and George Frideric Handel (Handel, George Frideric). Other forms include the older E♭ trumpet, the trumpet in C, piccolo trumpets in F and high B♭, and the bass trumpet in B♭.

      On a natural (valveless) trumpet the possible notes (i.e., the harmonic series) include (c′ = middle C):

      The 2nd harmonic is not producible; the 7th is badly out of tune with the musical scale; the 11th, 13th, and 14th, also out of tune, can with skill be sounded as F or F♯ and A or G♯, respectively. Modern valve trumpets generally use notes 2–12 of this series but pitched an octave lower; depression of the valves lengthens the tubing and allows the production of the intervening notes of the chromatic (12-note) scale.

      The most ancient trumpets had straight tubes barely 2 feet (60 centimetres) long, but the medieval buisine, a straight instrument retaining the trumpet's traditional association with royalty and pomp, reached a length of about 6 feet (almost 2 metres). Increased length allows a correspondingly greater number of natural harmonics, though the range is also determined by the nature of the player's lips. By approximately 1400 the tube had been lengthened to the extent that the trumpet was bent in an S-shape for manageability. By roughly 1500 it had acquired the elongated loop now associated with the instrument. By 1600 court and guild trumpeters, accompanied by kettledrums (kettledrum), were able to play melodies in the higher, or clarino, register, where the natural notes form approximately a major scale.

      The tonality, or key, of the instrument could be changed by the use of a crook, an extra coil of tubing inserted next to the mouthpiece. The commonest orchestral crook in Bach's era produced the trumpet in D, but in approximately 1800 trumpets were crooked from F down to low B♭ as specified by the composer. Social and musical changes brought a decline in clarino playing, and trumpet parts were written mainly in the easier lower registers.

      In order to play notes outside the natural series, trumpets with a sliding section of the tube appeared from the Renaissance onward, the most important being the trombone. A German trumpet with a sliding mouthpipe, the tromba da tirarsi, was sometimes used in the music of Bach. The English flat trumpet (c. 1695), which had a sliding upper bend near the mouthpiece, reappeared as the slide trumpet found in many 19th-century English orchestras. In Austria and Italy after 1801 there was a vogue for the keyed trumpet, with side holes covered by padded keys.

      The valved trumpet appeared in Germany in about 1828, usually pitched in F; its acceptance was delayed in the United States and Great Britain because players preferred the cornet in orchestral trumpet parts. In the 20th century, use of the smaller B♭ trumpet became almost universal.

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Universalium. 2010.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Trumpet — Trump et, n. [F. trompette, dim. of trompe. See {Trump} a trumpet.] 1. (Mus.) A wind instrument of great antiquity, much used in war and military exercises, and of great value in the orchestra. In consists of a long metallic tube, curved (once or …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • trumpet — [trum′pit] n. [ME trompette < MFr, dim. of trompe: see TRUMP2] 1. a brass instrument with a bright tone, consisting of a tube in an oblong loop or loops, with a flared bell and, in the modern instrument, three valves for producing changes in… …   English World dictionary

  • trumpet — ► NOUN 1) a brass musical instrument with a flared bell and a bright, penetrating tone. 2) something shaped like a trumpet, especially the tubular central part of a daffodil flower. 3) the loud cry of an elephant. ► VERB (trumpeted, trumpeting)… …   English terms dictionary

  • Trumpet — Trump et, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Trumpeted}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Trumpeting}.] [Cf. F. trompeter.] To publish by, or as by, sound of trumpet; to noise abroad; to proclaim; as, to trumpet good tidings. [1913 Webster] They did nothing but publish and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Trumpet — Trump et, v. i. To sound loudly, or with a tone like a trumpet; to utter a trumplike cry. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • trumpet — (n.) c.1300, from O.Fr. trompette trumpet, dim. of trompe (see TRUMP (Cf. trump) (n.2)). The verb is recorded from 1520s; figurative sense of to proclaim, extol is attested from 1580s …   Etymology dictionary

  • trumpet — index circulate, herald, inform (notify), proclaim, propagate (spread), publish Burton s Legal Thesaurus …   Law dictionary

  • Trumpet —   [englisch, trʌmpɪt], Trompete …   Universal-Lexikon

  • trumpet — The verb has inflected forms trumpeted, trumpeting …   Modern English usage

  • Trumpet — Infobox Instrument color1=#FFD700 color2=#FFEC8B name=Trumpet classification= *Wind *Brass *Aerophone range=Written range: related=Flugelhorn, Cornet, Bugle, Natural trumpet, Bass trumpet, Post horn, Roman tuba, Bucina, Shofar, Conch, Lur,… …   Wikipedia


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