tooth


tooth
toothlike, adj.
/toohth/, n., pl. teeth, v., toothed /toohtht, toohdhd/, toothing /tooh"thing, -dhing/.
n.
1. (in most vertebrates) one of the hard bodies or processes usually attached in a row to each jaw, serving for the prehension and mastication of food, as weapons of attack or defense, etc., and in mammals typically composed chiefly of dentin surrounding a sensitive pulp and covered on the crown with enamel.
2. (in invertebrates) any of various similar or analogous processes occurring in the mouth or alimentary canal, or on a shell.
3. any projection resembling or suggesting a tooth.
4. one of the projections of a comb, rake, saw, etc.
5. Mach.
a. any of the uniform projections on a gear or rack by which it drives, or is driven by, a gear, rack, or worm.
b. any of the uniform projections on a sprocket by which it drives or is driven by a chain.
6. Bot.
a. any small, toothlike marginal lobe.
b. one of the toothlike divisions of the peristome of mosses.
7. a sharp, distressing, or destructive attribute or agency.
8. taste, relish, or liking.
9. a surface, as on a grinding wheel or sharpening stone, slightly roughened so as to increase friction with another part.
10. a rough surface created on a paper made for charcoal drawing, watercolor, or the like, or on canvas for oil painting.
11. by the skin of one's teeth, barely: He got away by the skin of his teeth.
12. cast or throw in someone's teeth, to reproach someone for (an action): History will ever throw this blunder in his teeth.
13. cut one's teeth on, to do at the beginning of one's education, career, etc., or in one's youth: The hunter boasted of having cut his teeth on tigers.
14. in the teeth of,
a. so as to face or confront; straight into or against: in the teeth of the wind.
b. in defiance of; in opposition to: She maintained her stand in the teeth of public opinion.
15. long in the tooth, old; elderly.
16. put teeth in or into, to establish or increase the effectiveness of: to put teeth into the law.
17. set one's teeth, to become resolute; prepare for difficulty: He set his teeth and separated the combatants.
18. set or put one's teeth on edge,
a. to induce an unpleasant sensation.
b. to repel; irritate: The noise of the machines sets my teeth on edge.
19. show one's teeth, to become hostile or threatening; exhibit anger: Usually friendly, she suddenly began to show her teeth.
20. to the teeth, entirely; fully: armed to the teeth; dressed to the teeth in furs.
v.t.
21. to furnish with teeth.
22. to cut teeth upon.
v.i.
23. to interlock, as cogwheels.
[bef. 900; ME; OE toth; c. D tand, G Zahn, ON tonn; akin to Goth tunthus, L dens, Gk odoús (Ionic odón), Skt dánta]
Syn. 8. fondness, partiality, predilection.

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Any of the hard structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing and in speech.

Each consists of a crown above the gum and one or more roots below it, embedded in the jaw. Its inner pulp contains the blood and nerve supply for the bonelike dentin, covered in the crown by enamel, the hardest tissue in the body. Twenty primary (baby) teeth come in by age 2 1/2 and fall out between ages 5 and 13 to be replaced by 32 permanent teeth. The incisors, in front, are shaped mostly for biting, the pointed canines for tearing, and the premolars and molars for grinding food. The teeth are subject to caries (decay), caused by acid from bacteria in plaque, a yellowish film that builds up on teeth. Misalignment of teeth between the upper and lower jaws can grind down the teeth and cause problems in chewing. Elsewhere, it is a cosmetic problem. Both can be treated with braces. See also dentistry.

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Introduction
 any of the hard, resistant structures occurring on the jaws and in or around the mouth and pharynx areas of vertebrates. Teeth are used for catching and masticating food, for defense, and for other specialized purposes.

      The teeth of vertebrates represent the modified descendants of bony dermal (skin) plates that armoured ancestral fishes. A tooth consists of a crown and one or more roots. The crown is the functional part that is visible above the gum. The root is the unseen portion that supports and fastens the tooth in the jawbone. The root is attached to the tooth-bearing bone—the alveolar processes—of the jaws by a fibrous ligament called the periodontal ligament or membrane. The “neck” of the root is embraced by the fleshy gum tissue (a specialized area of connective tissue covered with mucous membrane that lines the mouth cavity). The shape of the crown and root vary among different teeth and among different species of animals.

The structure of teeth
      All true teeth have the same general structure and consist of three layers. In mammals an outer layer of enamel, which is wholly inorganic and is the hardest tissue in the body, covers part or all of the crown of the tooth. The middle layer of the tooth is composed of dentine, which is less hard than enamel and similar in composition to bone. The dentine forms the main bulk, or core, of each tooth and extends almost the entire length of the tooth, being covered by enamel on the crown portion and by cementum on the roots. Dentine is nourished by the pulp, which is the innermost portion of the tooth. The pulp consists of cells, tiny blood vessels, and a nerve and occupies a cavity located in the centre of the tooth. The pulp canal is long and narrow with an enlargement, called the pulp chamber, in the coronal end. The pulp canal extends almost the whole length of the tooth and communicates with the body's general nutritional and nervous systems through the apical foramina (holes) at the end of the roots. Below the gumline extends the root of the tooth, which is covered at least partially by cementum. The latter is similar in structure to bone but is less hard than dentine. Cementum affords a thin covering to the root and serves as a medium for attachment of the fibres that hold the tooth to the surrounding tissue (periodontal membrane). gum is attached to the adjacent alveolar bone and to the cementum of each tooth by fibre bundles.

Tooth form and function
      Like most other mammals, humans have two successive sets of teeth during life. The first set of teeth are called primary, or deciduous, ones, and the second set are called permanent ones. Humans have 20 primary and 32 permanent teeth.

      Primary teeth differ from permanent teeth in being smaller, having more pointed cusps, being whiter and more prone to wear, and having relatively large pulp chambers and small, delicate roots. The primary teeth begin to appear about six months after birth, and the primary dentition is complete by age 2 1/2; shedding begins about age 5 or 6 and is finished by age 13. The primary teeth are shed when their roots are resorbed as the permanent teeth push toward the mouth cavity in the course of their growth.

      In humans the primary dentition consists of 20 teeth— four incisors, two canines (canine tooth), and four molars in each jaw. The primary molars are replaced in the adult dentition by the premolars, or bicuspid teeth. The 12 adult molars of the permanent dentition erupt (emerge from the gums) behind the primary teeth and do not replace any of these, giving a total of 32 teeth in the permanent dentition. The permanent dentition is thus made up of four incisors, two canines, four premolars, and six molars in each jaw.

      Incisor teeth are the teeth at the front of the mouth, and they are adapted for plucking, cutting, tearing, and holding. The biting portion of an incisor is wide and thin, making a chisel-shaped cutting edge. The upper incisors have a delicate tactile sense that enables them to be used for identifying objects in the mouth by nibbling. Next to the incisors on each side is a canine, or cuspid tooth. It frequently is pointed and rather peglike in shape and, like the incisors, has the function of cutting and tearing food.

      Premolars and molars have a series of elevations, or cusps, that are used for breaking up particles of food. Behind each canine are two premolars, which can both cut and grind food. Each premolar has two cusps (hence the name bicuspid). The molars, by contrast, are used exclusively for crushing and grinding. They are the teeth farthest back in the mouth. Each molar typically has four or five cusps. The third molar in humans tends to be variable in size, number of roots, cusp pattern, and eruption. The number of roots for each type of tooth varies from one for incisors, canines, and premolars to two or three for molars.

Teeth in other animals
 The teeth of many vertebrates have been adapted for special uses. Rodents have curved incisors that are set deep in the jaws and which grow continually throughout life; hares and rabbits have similar teeth. The tusks of elephants are enlarged upper incisors. The tusks of the walrus are enlarged canines, as are those of the wild boar. In the pig the lower incisors lie close together and project forward to form a digging instrument. Baboons have enlarged canines for defense and display. Certain snakes have hollow teeth that function as needles to insert venom. The sawfish, the only animal with true teeth outside its mouth (see photograph—>), uses the teeth on both sides of its snout to slash its prey. The forms, patterns, and arrangements of teeth in different species of animals are of great importance in determining their phylogenetic (taxonomic) relationships.

Diseases of teeth and gums
       caries, or tooth decay, is the most common disease of the teeth among humans. Apart from the common cold, it is perhaps the most frequent disease in contemporary society. Tooth decay originates in the buildup of a yellowish film called plaque on teeth, which tends to harbour bacteria. The bacteria that live on plaque ferment the sugar and starchy-food debris found there into acids that destroy the tooth's enamel and dentine by removing the calcium and other minerals from them. Caries usually commences on surface enamel, especially in pits and fissures and between adjacent teeth. From the enamel the process of decay spreads to the underlying dentine, and may finally involve the tooth pulp. Aside from keeping the teeth clean through regular brushing and flossing, tooth decay can be greatly reduced by the addition of fluorides to drinking water. Caries is treated by removing decayed dental tissue and replacing it with inert filling substances.

      The teeth may be subject to certain irregularities in their alignment, such as an abnormality in the relationship between the teeth in opposing jaws (malocclusion). In a less-severe irregularity, one or more teeth may be out of alignment. Both types of problems are best treated early in life through the use of special fixed or removable appliances (i.e., braces).

      Another common dental disorder is inflammation of the gum, or gingivitis. It usually commences at or close to the gum margin, often between adjacent teeth. Pockets form between the gum and the adjacent teeth, sometimes penetrating deeply into the tissues. This leads to further infection, with inflammation and bleeding from the infected gums. A principal cause of gingivitis is the buildup of plaque on teeth, which causes irritation of the gums and thus leads to their inflammation and infection.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tooth — (t[=oo]th), n.; pl. {Teeth} (t[=e]th). [OE. toth,tooth, AS. t[=o][eth]; akin to OFries. t[=o]th, OS. & D. tand, OHG. zang, zan, G. zahn, Icel. t[ o]nn, Sw. & Dan. tand, Goth. tumpus, Lith. dantis, W. dant, L. dens, dentis, Gr. odoy s, odo ntos,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • tooth — tooth; tooth·er; tooth·ful; tooth·i·ly; tooth·ing; tooth·less; tooth·let; tooth·pick·er; tooth·some; tooth·some·ly; tooth·some·ness; un·tooth; tooth·less·ly; tooth·less·ness; …   English syllables

  • tooth — W2S2 [tu:θ] n plural teeth [ti:θ] ↑ear, ↑nose, ↑tooth, ↑eye ▬▬▬▬▬▬▬ 1¦(in mouth)¦ 2¦(on a tool etc)¦ 3¦(power)¦ 4 fight tooth and nail 5 get your teeth into something …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • tooth — [to͞oth; ] for v., also [ to͞oth] n. pl. teeth [tēth] [ME < OE toth (< * tanth), akin to Ger zahn < IE * edont (< base * ed , to eat) > L dens (gen. dentis), Gr odous (gen. odontos)] 1. a) any of a set of hard, bonelike structures… …   English World dictionary

  • tooth — [ tuθ ] (plural teeth [ tiθ ] ) noun count *** 1. ) any of the hard white objects inside your mouth that you use for biting and for CHEWING food: front/back teeth a loose/missing/broken tooth brush/clean your teeth: It s important to brush your… …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • Tooth — Tooth, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Toothed}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Toothing}.] 1. To furnish with teeth. [1913 Webster] The twin cards toothed with glittering wire. Wordsworth. [1913 Webster] 2. To indent; to jag; as, to tooth a saw. [1913 Webster] 3. To… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • tooth´i|ly — tooth|y «TOO thee», adjective, tooth|i|er, tooth|i|est. 1. showing many teeth prominently: »a toothy smile. 2. having teeth. –tooth´i|ly …   Useful english dictionary

  • tooth|y — «TOO thee», adjective, tooth|i|er, tooth|i|est. 1. showing many teeth prominently: »a toothy smile. 2. having teeth. –tooth´i|ly …   Useful english dictionary

  • tooth — (n.) O.E. toð (plural teð), from P.Gmc. *tanth, *tunth (Cf. O.S., Dan., Swed., Du. tand, O.N. tönn, O.Fris. toth, O.H.G. zand, Ger. Zahn, Goth. tunþus), from PIE *dont /*dent tooth (Cf. Skt. danta, Gk. odontos …   Etymology dictionary

  • tooth — ► NOUN (pl. teeth) 1) each of a set of hard, bony enamel coated structures in the jaws, used for biting and chewing. 2) a projecting part, especially a cog on a gearwheel or a point on a saw or comb. 3) (teeth) genuine force or effectiveness. ●… …   English terms dictionary

  • Tooth — Tooth. См. Зубец. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов


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