/tlahs kah"lah/, n.
a state in SE central Mexico. 498,000; 1554 sq. mi. (4025 sq. km). Cap.: Tlaxcala.

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State (pop., 2000: 962,646), central Mexico.

The smallest Mexican state, it consists largely of plateau and covers 1,551 sq mi (4,016 sq km); the capital is Tlaxcala town. It occupies roughly the same area as the Indian principality of Tlaxcala, which was the main Indian ally of Hernán Cortés in his conquest of Mexico. Almost exclusively agricultural, it produces cereals, raises both dairy cows and fighting bulls, and has numerous handicrafts, notably the weaving of serapes and woolen cloth.
in full Tlaxcala de Xicohténcatl

Town (pop., 2000: 73,213), capital of Tlaxcala state, Mexico.

It is located in a mountainous region at the foot of La Malinche volcano. Settled by a Nahua people around the 14th century, it vied for power in the 15th–16th century with the Aztec city of Tenochtitlán (modern Mexico City). Though the inhabitants initially opposed Hernán Cortés, they later became his allies and aided him in his defeat of Azetec leader Montezuma II. It was a refuge for the Spaniards when they were driven out of Tenochtitlán in 1520. Cortés established the first Christian church (San Francisco) in the Americas there in 1521. The sanctuary of Our Lady of Ocotlán and archaeological ruins are nearby.

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in full  Tlaxcala de Xicohténcatl 
 city, capital of Tlaxcala estado (state), east-central Mexico. About 55 miles (90 km) east of Mexico City, it is located along the Zahuapan River at the northwestern foot of La Malinche volcano, some 7,400 feet (2,300 metres) above sea level. The city lies in a region long inhabited by Tlaxcala Indians, and the designation “de Xicohténcatl” commemorates a Tlaxcala chieftain who vigorously opposed his people's aid to the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés (Cortés, Hernán, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca). In 1519 Cortés conquered the city, where two years later he established the first Christian church (San Francisco) in the Americas. It was near Tlaxcala that Cortés built the brigantines which he transported in pieces to the Lake of Mexico for his final onslaught on the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán (now Mexico City).

      Tlaxcala is a regional commercial and manufacturing centre, largely producing cotton, wool, and synthetic textiles. Highways link it with Mexico City and with Puebla to the south. The surrounding region is naturally forested, but large areas have been cleared to be used for grazing and cultivation; the chief crops are corn (maize) and beans. The Autonomous University of Tlaxcala was founded in 1976. San Francisco Church (constructed 1537–40) includes in its compound the 16th-century Convent of the Assumption. Among other local attractions are the Sanctuary of the Virgin of Ocotlán, and the Tlaxcalan ruins at Tizatlán. The city is also a gateway to nearby resorts, La Malinche National Park (southeast), and Cacaxtla (southwest), which is famed for its pre-Columbian murals. Pop. (2000) city, 73,213; urban agglom., 194,157.

 estado (state), central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Puebla to the northeast, east, and south, México to the west, and Hidalgo to the northwest. The capital is the city of Tlaxcala (Tlaxcala de Xicohténcatl).

      Tlaxcala is situated on the cool, semiarid Mesa Central at a mean elevation of 7,000 feet (2,100 metres) against the backdrop of La Malinche (Matlalcueyetl) volcano, which rises to an elevation 14,636 feet (4,461 metres) within a national park southeast of the capital. The state occupies roughly the same area as did a pre-Hispanic federation that refused to surrender to the Aztecs. Many Indians in the region allied themselves with the conquistador Hernán Cortés (Cortés, Hernán, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca) in his conquest of Mexico. Continued loyalty to Spain brought the Tlaxcala many privileges, including exemptions from tribute. They helped conquer northern Chichimec tribes during the 1700s, supported Spain during the wars of independence, and fought against U.S. forces in the Mexican-American War.

      The smallest Mexican state, Tlaxcala is densely populated. Its economy depends largely on agriculture, including corn (maize) and barley, and the raising of dairy cattle and fighting bulls. Also of note are the production of woolen cloths and handicrafts, including woven serapes. Railways and highway networks traverse the state, linking Tlaxcala city with Mexico City and Puebla.

      State government is headed by a governor, who is elected to a single six-year term. Members of the unicameral legislature, the State Congress, are elected to three-year terms. Tlaxcala is divided into local governmental units called municipios (municipalities), each of which is headquartered in a prominent city, town, or village. The capital city is the site of the Autonomous University of Tlaxcala (founded 1976). Area 1,551 square miles (4,016 square km). Pop. (2000) 962,646; (2005) 1,068,207.

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Universalium. 2010.

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