Taino


Taino
/tuy"noh/, n., pl. Tainos, (esp. collectively) Taino for 1.
1. a member of an extinct Arawakan Indian tribe of the West Indies.
2. the language of the Taino.

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Extinct Arawak Indian group of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea.

They also inhabited Puerto Rico and the eastern tip of Cuba. They grew cassava and corn (maize), hunted birds and small animals, and fished. They were skillful at working stone and wood. Their society consisted of three tiers
nobles, commoners, and slaves
and they were ruled by hereditary chiefs and subchiefs; religious beliefs centred on a hierarchy of nature spirits and ancestors. They became extinct within 100 years of the Spanish conquest.

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people
      Arawakan (Arawakan languages)-speaking people who at the time of Christopher Columbus's exploration inhabited what are now Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Once the most numerous indigenous people of the Caribbean, the Taino may have numbered one or two million at the time of the Spanish conquest in the late 15th century. They had long been on the defensive against the aggressive Carib people, who had conquered the Lesser Antilles to the east.

      When they were first encountered by Europeans, the Taino practiced a high-yielding form of shifting agriculture to grow their staple foods, cassava and yams. They would burn the forest or scrub and then heap the ashes and soil into mounds that could be easily planted, tended, and irrigated. Corn (maize), beans, squash, tobacco, peanuts (groundnuts), and peppers were also grown, and wild plants were gathered. Birds, lizards, and small animals were hunted for food, the only domesticated animals being dogs and, occasionally, parrots used to decoy wild birds within range of hunters. Fish and shellfish were another important food source.

      Traditional Taino settlements ranged from small family compounds to groups of 3,000 people; houses were built of logs and poles with thatched roofs. Men wore loincloths and women wore aprons of cotton or palm fibres. Both sexes painted themselves on special occasions, and they wore earrings, nose rings, and necklaces, which were sometimes made of gold. The Taino also made pottery, baskets, and implements of stone and wood. A favourite form of recreation was a ball game played on rectangular courts. The Taino had an elaborate system of religious beliefs and rituals that involved the worship of spirits (zemis) by means of carved representations. They also had a complex social order, with a government of hereditary chiefs and subchiefs and classes of nobles, commoners, and slaves.

      The Taino were easily conquered by the Spaniards beginning in 1493; enslavement, starvation, and disease had reduced them to a few thousand by 1520 and to near extinction by 1550. Although Taino culture was largely wiped out, groups of Taino survived colonization, notably in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. state of Florida. In 1998 the United Confederation of Taino People was created as an umbrella organization for the affirmation and restoration of Taino culture, language, and religion.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • TAÏNO — Indiens de langue arawak qui, au début du XVIe siècle, habitaient les Antilles: Porto Rico, Hispaniola et la région orientale de Cuba. Les Taïno ont disparu, victimes des maladies et du travail forcé introduits par la colonisation. L’économie… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Taino — Taino,   Indianervolk der Bahamas und Großen Antillen, das zwischen Christi Geburt und 120 n. Chr. aus Südamerika dort einwanderte und heute als eigenständige kulturelle Einheit erloschen ist; Nachkommen leben in einigen Randgebieten Kubas,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Taino — [tī′nō] n. pl. Tainos or Taino [< Taino nitayno, the first, the good] 1. a member of an aboriginal Indian people of the West Indies, extinct since the 16th cent. 2. the Arawakan language of this people …   English World dictionary

  • Taino — from Taino nitayno the first, the good …   Etymology dictionary

  • taino — s. m. Uma das línguas americanas …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • taíno — taíno, na adjetivo 1. De un antiguo pueblo amerindio, hoy extinguido, que habitaba en las Antillas cuando llegaron los españoles: Los taínos se extinguieron relativamente pronto después de la llegada de los españoles. sustantivo masculino 1. Área …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • taíno — taíno, na (De or. arahuaco). 1. adj. Se dice del individuo perteneciente a los pueblos amerindios del gran grupo lingüístico arahuaco que estaban establecidos en La Española y también en Cuba y Puerto Rico cuando se produjo el descubrimiento de… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Taíno — The Taínos were pre Columbian inhabitants of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. It is believed that the seafaring Taínos were relatives of the Arawakan people of South America. Their language is a member of the… …   Wikipedia

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  • Taino — Nachgebautes Dorf der Taino in Guamá auf Kuba Die Taíno waren ein zu den Arawak gehörendes Volk auf den Großen Antillen – vor der Ankunft der Kariben auch auf den Kleinen Antillen –, dessen Ursprünge im heutigen Venezuela lagen. Auf den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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