Sonora


Sonora
Sonoran /seuh nawr"euhn, -nohr"euhn/, adj.
/seuh nawr"euh, -nohr"euh/; Sp. /saw naw"rddah/, n.
a state in NW Mexico. 1,414,000; 70,484 sq. mi. (182,555 sq. km). Cap.: Hermosillo.

* * *

State (pop., 2000: 2,216,969), northwestern Mexico.

Bordering the U.S. and the Gulf of California, it covers 70,291 sq mi (182,052 sq km); its capital is Hermosillo. Explored by Spaniards in the 1530s, it became an important colonial mining district for copper, gold, and silver. It became a state in 1830, but the Yaqui Indian peoples were not finally subdued until the 20th century. It is generally arid and semiarid, and irrigation is used to grow winter vegetables, cereals, cotton, tobacco, and corn (maize).

* * *

  estado (state), northwestern Mexico. It is bounded by the United States ( Arizona and New Mexico) to the north, by the states of Chihuahua to the east and Sinaloa to the south, and by Baja California state and the Gulf of California (California, Gulf of) (Sea of Cortez) to the west. Hermosillo is the state capital.

      Eastern Sonora is a mountainous region with a mixed semiarid and subhumid climate. It encompasses the northwestern edge of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The Sonoran Desert dominates the western part of the state, which is covered by low, scattered mountains and wide plains. Despite its aridity, the Sonoran Desert has diverse plant and animal life.

      The state's population is clustered around Heroica Nogales (Nogales), at the Arizona border (which is contiguous with the city of Nogales); Hermosillo; Guaymas, a gulf port and deep-sea fishing resort; and Ciudad Obregón, in the Yaqui River valley. Since the 1940s these and other communities have flourished, their hinterlands developed by irrigation projects producing vegetables, cereals, cotton, tobacco, chickpeas, and corn (maize). Major highways and railroads from Mexicali (Baja California state) and Heroica Nogales to Mexico City traverse the state. Airports are situated in the major cities.

      Sonora produces nearly all of Mexico's copper and a large proportion of its fish and pork. Since the late 20th century the spread of maquiladoras (maquiladora) (export-oriented assembly plants), spurred by the North American Free Trade Agreement, has boosted the state's output of automobiles and other manufactures. Cross-border traffic has also increased owing to greater exports and migration to the United States; however, there have also been heightened concerns regarding drug trafficking (with attendant violence and corruption) and the risks taken by undocumented migrants attempting to cross the desert.

      Explored by Spaniards in the 1530s, Sonora became an important colonial copper-, gold-, and silver-mining district. It became a state in 1830 but lost part of its northern lands to the United States in the Gadsden Purchase of 1853. U.S. filibusterers brought further turmoil in subsequent decades, and the Yaqui Indian peoples fought until the 20th century to retain their independence. During the Mexican Revolution Sonora produced such national leaders as Adolfo de la Huerta (Huerta, Adolfo de la), Alvaro Obregón (Obregón, Álvaro), and Plutarco Elías Calles (Calles, Plutarco Elías).

      Sonora's state government is headed by a governor, who is elected to a single term of six years; the representatives in the unicameral legislature, the State Congress, are elected for three-year terms. The state can levy taxes, but in reality it depends on the federal government for most of its revenue. Like other Mexican states, Sonora is divided into local governmental units called municipios (municipalities), each of which may include a city or town and its hinterland or, alternatively, a group of villages.

      Several ecological reserves are located in Sonora, including the volcanic and desert region of El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve in the northwest and the Bay and Islands of San Jorge, a bird and marine habitat on the Gulf of California. The San Jorge area is part of a larger region of islands and coastal areas around the gulf collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2005. Hermosillo has a museum dedicated to the preservation of Sonoran culture and a state historical museum. Area 70,291 square miles (182,052 square km). Pop. (2000) 2,216,969; (2005) 2,394,861.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Sonora — • Republic of Mexico; suffragan of the Archdiocese of Durango Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Sonora     Diocese of Sonora     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Sonora — Sonora, CA U.S. city in California Population (2000): 4423 Housing Units (2000): 2197 Land area (2000): 3.037274 sq. miles (7.866502 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 3.037274 sq. miles (7.866502… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Sonora — er en stat i det nordvestlige Mexico. Mod øst deler den grænse med den mexicanske stat Chihuahua, mod syd Sinaloa og mod nordvest Baja California. Mod nord deler Sonora grænse Arizona i USA, mod vest ligger den Californiske Golf, også kendt som… …   Danske encyklopædi

  • Sonora, CA — U.S. city in California Population (2000): 4423 Housing Units (2000): 2197 Land area (2000): 3.037274 sq. miles (7.866502 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 3.037274 sq. miles (7.866502 sq. km) FIPS …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Sonora, KY — U.S. city in Kentucky Population (2000): 350 Housing Units (2000): 159 Land area (2000): 0.826888 sq. miles (2.141630 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.826888 sq. miles (2.141630 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Sonora, TX — U.S. city in Texas Population (2000): 2924 Housing Units (2000): 1264 Land area (2000): 1.964043 sq. miles (5.086848 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.964043 sq. miles (5.086848 sq. km) FIPS code …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Sonōra — Sonōra, 1) Staat (Departement) der nordamerikanischen Föderativrepublik Mexico, grenzt im Westen an den Meerbusen von Californien, im S. an den mexicanischen Staat Cinaloa, im Osten an den mexicanischen Staat Chihuahua, im Norden an das… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Sonōra — Sonōra, nordwestlichster und zweitgrößter Staat Mexikos (s. Karte »Mexiko«), zwischen Chihuahua, Sinaloa, dem Golf von Kalifornien und dem nordamerikanischen Territorium Arizona, 198,496 qkm mit (1900) 221,682 Einw. (nur 1,1 auf 1 qkm). Die Küste …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Sonora — es uno de los 31 estados de México y se ubica al noroeste del territorio. Colinda con los estados de Chihuahua al oriente, Sinaloa al sur y Baja California al noroeste. Al norte comparte una extensa frontera con el estado norteamericano de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Sonora — Sonōra, nordwestlichster Staat Mexikos, 198.496 qkm, (1900) 221.682 E.; Hauptstadt Hermosillo …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Sonora — Sonora, im weitern Sinne das Küstengebiet des kalifornischen Meerbusens von Mazatlan bis zur Mündung des Rio Colorado; die span. Intendanza S. bestand aus den 3 Provinzen: Cinaloa, Ostimury und Nueva Navarra oder S. im engern Sinne. Aus letzterm… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.