San Marino


San Marino
San Marinese /mar'euh neez", -nees"/.
/san' meuh ree"noh/; for 1, 2 also It. /sahn' mah rddee"naw/
1. a small republic in E Italy: the oldest independent country in Europe. 24,714; 38 sq. mi. (98 sq. km). Cap.: San Marino.
2. a town in and the capital of this republic. 4189.
3. a city in SW California. 13,307.

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San Marino

Introduction San Marino -
Background: The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco) also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in 301 A.D. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy. Social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor. Geography San Marino
Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 61.2 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 61.2 sq km
Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: total: 39 km border countries: Italy 39 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrain: rugged mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resources: building stone
Land use: arable land: 16.67% permanent crops: 0% other: 83.33% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: NA Environment - current issues: NA Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
Geography - note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines People San Marino -
Population: 27,730 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.1% (male 2,300; female 2,161) 15-64 years: 67.5% (male 9,102; female 9,625) 65 years and over: 16.4% (male 1,956; female 2,586) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.41% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 10.64 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 7.79 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate: 11.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/ female total population: 0.93 male(s)/ female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 6.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.33 years female: 85.18 years (2002 est.) male: 77.79 years
Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA% HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural) adjective: Sammarinese
Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian
Religions: Roman Catholic
Languages: Italian
Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write total population: 96% male: 97% female: 95% (1976 est.) Government San Marino -
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of San Marino conventional short form: San Marino local short form: San Marino local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
Government type: independent republic
Capital: San Marino Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle
Independence: 3 September 301
National holiday: Founding of the Republic, 3 September (301)
Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: cochiefs of state Captain Regent Antonio Lazzaro VOLPINARI and Captain Regent Giovanni Francesco UGOLINI (for the period 1 April-31 October 2002) elections: cochiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six- month term; election last held 1 April 2002 (next to be held NA September 2002); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held 10 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2006) note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (cochiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which has ten other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are ten secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some of the prerogatives of a prime minister election results: Antonio Lazzaro VOLPINARI and Giovanni Francesco UGOLINI reelected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA%; Gabriele GATTI reelected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA% cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Gabriele GATTI (since 26 July 1986)
Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five- year terms) elections: last held 10 June 2001 (next to be held by June 2006) election results: percent of vote by party - PDCS 41.4%, PSS 24.2%, PD 20.8%, APDS 8.2%, RC 3.4%, AN 1.9%; seats by party - PDCS 25, PSS 15, PD 12, APDS 5, RC 2, AN 1
Judicial branch: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII Political parties and leaders: Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Ideas in Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; National Alliance or AN [leader NA]; Party of Democrats or PD [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Romeo RIORRI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or APDS [Roberto GIORGETTI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Augusto CASALI]; Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI] Political pressure groups and NA
leaders: International organization CE, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
participation: ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO Diplomatic representation in the US: San Marino does not have an embassy in the US honorary consulate(s) general: Washington, DC, and New York honorary consulate(s): Detroit Diplomatic representation from the the US does not have an embassy in
US: San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty) Economy San Marino
Economy - overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 2000 more than 3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $940 million (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $34,600 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA% Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (2001)
Labor force: 18,500 (1999) Labor force - by occupation: services 57%, industry 42%, agriculture 1% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.6% (2001)
Budget: revenues: $400 million expenditures: $400 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Industries: tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.) Electricity - production: 0 kWh Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA% other: NA% nuclear: NA% hydro: NA% Electricity - consumption: 184.5 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh note: electric power supplied by Italy (1999)
Electricity - imports: 184.5 kWh note: electricity supplied by Italy (2000)
Agriculture - products: wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy
Exports - commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
Imports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy
Imports - commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food
Debt - external: $NA Economic aid - recipient: $NA
Currency: euro (EUR); Italian lira (ITL)
Currency code: EUR; ITL
Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.08540 (2000), 0.93863 (1999); Italian lire per US dollar - 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997)
Fiscal year: calendar year Communications San Marino - Telephones - main lines in use: 18,000 (1998) Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,010 (1998)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate connections domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system international: connected to Italian international network Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 16,000 (1997) Television broadcast stations: 1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)
Televisions: 9,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .sm Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: NA Transportation San Marino -
Railways: 0 km; note - there is a 1.5-km cable railway connecting the city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore
Highways: total: 220 km paved: 220 km unpaved: 0 km (2001)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: none
Airports: none (2001) Military San Marino -
Military branches: Voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari Voluntar), Gendarmerie; note - the Voluntary Military Force performs ceremonial duties and limited police assistance Military expenditures - dollar $700,000 (FY00/01)
figure: Military expenditures - percent of NA%
GDP: Transnational Issues San Marino - Disputes - international: none

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I
City (pop., 2000: 12,945), southwestern California, U.S. It is east of Los Angeles and south of Pasadena.

In 1903 railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington (1850–1927) purchased the San Marino Ranch and founded the community, which was incorporated in 1913. His estate, deeded to the public, includes the Huntington Library (with rare English and American books and manuscripts), Art Gallery (where Thomas Gainsborough's Blue Boy is displayed), and Botanical Gardens.
II
officially Republic of San Marino

Country, central Italian peninsula, southern Europe.

It is located near the Adriatic Sea and is surrounded by Italy. Area: 24 sq mi (62 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 27,700. Capital: San Marino. Most of the people are Italian. Language: Italian (official). Religion: Roman Catholicism. Currency: Italian lira. The territory has an irregular rectangular form with a maximum length of 8 mi (13 km). It is crossed by streams that flow into the Adriatic Sea. It is dominated by Mount Titano, 2,424 ft (739 m) high, on which the capital, the town of San Marino, is located, surrounded by triple walls. The economy is based on private enterprise and includes tourism, commerce, agriculture, crafts, and fine printing, particularly of postage stamps. San Marino is a republic with one legislative house; its heads of state and government are two captains-regent. According to tradition, it was founded in the early 4th century AD by St. Marinus. By the 12th century it had developed into a commune and remained independent despite challenges from neighbouring rulers, including the Malatesta family in nearby Rimini. San Marino survived the Renaissance as a relic of the self-governing Italian city-state and remained an independent republic after the unification of Italy in 1861–70. It is one of the smallest republics in the world and may be the oldest one in Europe. At the beginning of the 21st century its citizens enjoyed a high standard of living.

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▪ 2009

Area:
61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)
Population
(2008 est.): 31,000
Capital:
San Marino
Heads of state and government:
The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      There was mixed news in 2008 about San Marino's full compliance with stringent legislation on money laundering. During recent years San Marino had sought to apply European Union standards of transparency and equivalent United Nations requirements. The country also adhered to the relevant Council of Europe conventions, with good results. A report in May, however, by the European Committee on Crime Problems, was not entirely favourable in its assessment.

      The financial markets' good bill of health was matched by continued economic growth. GDP increased by more than 6% in one year, an extraordinary result, considering the sluggish economy of European countries in general. San Marino's robust economic performance translated into high levels of remuneration and solid employment rates, with fewer than 300 workers reported unemployed. This excellent short-term performance was accompanied by concerns regarding the future of pensions in a country with a high percentage of elderly residents. To ensure long-term sustainability, government authorities envisioned reforms that would provide more room for private retirement funds.

      The ruling coalition collapsed in June, and a snap election for the 60-seat Grand and General Council was held on November 9. The Pact for San Marino—a coalition of former opposition parties, including the new progressive party Arengo and Freedom—won 54.22% of the vote and 35 seats.

Gregory O. Smith

▪ 2008

Area:
61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)
Population
(2007 est.): 30,500
Capital:
San Marino
Heads of state and government:
The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      In 2007 the Republic of San Marino once again captured the attention of the regional press owing to claims that the country's financial institutions were being used to launder funds involving criminal activities in surrounding Italy. The allegation was serious enough that the Italian high commissioner for corruption in public administration met with San Marino's chief foreign affairs officer to review the matter. In late October the Great and General Council resigned, but the parliamentary crisis was averted, and on November 28 a new cabinet was installed.

      The economy was strong overall; the IMF reported in April that GDP growth in 2006 was about 5%, with unemployment hovering at about 2%. San Marino assembled a team of experts to discuss prospects for future growth. The surprising findings showed that the country's strongest sector was not finance but rather industry, which accounted for about half of the country's wealth and involved more than 3,000 firms. Finance followed, strengthened by new legislation to ensure transparency and security for investors. The third sector of economic relevance was tourism, which, however, would require new investment in order to remain competitive. Some experts suggested that San Marino would make an attractive location for the head offices of multinational enterprises, which could be enticed to relocate through tax incentives and improved financial services.

Gregory O. Smith

▪ 2007

Area:
61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)
Population
(2006 est.): 30,200
Capital:
San Marino
Heads of state and government:
The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      Increasing San Marino's interactions with the world economy was a top priority in 2006. In response to claims by some critics that the country's economic structure invited abuse by foreign nationals, and in order to ensure transparency, the republic undertook various initiatives during the year. Among these was an application to join Interpol, which officially granted San Marino membership on September 19.

      The republic pursued its historic foreign policy of active neutrality, providing, among other things, humanitarian aid to conflict victims in Lebanon. San Marino also embraced the UN-sponsored Peace Day initiative. Consistent with its foreign policy, the new coalition government, which featured many progressive parties, launched a campaign of domestic reform and innovation.

      The country's desire to become fully integrated in the global economy also was evident in the impressive San Marino World Trade Center (2004), designed by British architect Norman Foster. The centre's first trade fair focused on the high-tech sector, notably economic alliances in East Asia. Even outside government, innovation was evident, such as in the installation of a new skateboard park.

Gregory O. Smith

▪ 2006

Area:
61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)
Population
(2005 est.): 30,100
Capital:
San Marino
Heads of state and government:
The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      In 2005 San Marino proposed reforms in response to economic difficulties evident in the relative decline in the purchasing power of the average Sammarinese family, but these reform efforts were often met with hostility. The rationalization of state-delivered heath care services was criticized as an attack on the welfare state. The liberalization of labour markets, which was intended to stimulate economic growth through labour flexibility, was met with stern union opposition. There was also debate on the prospects of liberalizing retail activities. One modern trend that met with determined resistance was the secularization of public life, and a drive to abolish the display of crucifixes in public places was ruled out by the majority Christian Democratic Party.

      Reform on the domestic front was matched by a range of international initiatives. New commercial prospects were explored in China and the Middle East, and an important collaborative agreement was signed with Serbia and Montenegro. In August San Marino established diplomatic relations with Nepal. Meanwhile, there was deliberation on the possibility of seeking membership in the European Union, but it was not clear that such membership would bring unqualified advantages. San Marino also expressed the hope that its territory would be declared part of the UNESCO World Heritage program.

Gregory O. Smith

▪ 2005

Area:
61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)
Population
(2004 est.): 29,400
Capital:
San Marino
Heads of state and government:
The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      In October 2004 a congress was held that brought together delegates from the 24 San Marino “communities” abroad. The congress was intended to forge stronger links between the republic and the extensive expatriate community, distributed among such wide-ranging locations as Argentina and the U.S. Not only were citizens who lived abroad pressing for a greater voice in domestic political affairs, but so were women. Only 10 women sat on San Marino's 60-seat legislative assembly, the Great and General Council, and various calls were made for incentives to be given to political parties that were successful in promoting women candidates.

      Delegates from San Marino attended the meeting of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, held September 28–October 1 in Geneva. The IPU brought together 112 sovereign states in order to press for worldwide advocacy of such issues as biodiversity and multilateral disarmament.

      San Marino continued to be an economic oasis in the turbulent Italian peninsula, although its unemployment rate, while still half the EU average, had increased since 2001. Part of this rise was ascribed to setbacks in the crucial banking sector, prompted by increasing competition and a recent tax amnesty that encouraged Italians to withdraw their savings from San Marino banks.

Gregory O. Smith

▪ 2004

Area:
61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)
Population
(2003 est.): 29,200
Capital:
San Marino
Heads of state and government:
The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      On July 3–4, 2003, Walter Schwimmer, secretary-general of the Council of Europe, made an official visit to San Marino. He met with the two coregents, as well as Fiorenzo Stolfi, secretary of state for foreign and political affairs, and addressed the Great and General Council. In keeping with a Council of Europe conference on gender equality in January, San Marino had signed international agreements requiring respect for the principle of gender equality, and the country was moving ahead in order to turn the principle into a reality. One area of concern was the fact that Sammarinese men automatically transmitted citizenship to their lawful offspring, but there still were restrictions on children of women nationals married to foreigners.

      San Marino made headlines when it appointed German Formula One driver Michael Schumacher as “ambassador of the republic.” This followed Schumacher's victory at the San Marino Grand Prix and was intended not only to help him in his many humanitarian activities but also to gain international visibility for San Marino in a period of declining tourism revenues. It was hoped that a racy new image might help bolster a segment of the economy that accounted for 30% of GDP.

Gregory O. Smith

▪ 2003

Area:
61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)
Population
(2002 est.): 27,700
Capital:
San Marino
Heads of state and government:
The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      In 2002 San Marino continued to redefine its role in the world economy. Concern focused in particular on pressure from international agencies to bring its banking practices into alignment with those of major industrialized nations. San Marino, along with about a dozen other microstates, had come under close scrutiny as a suspected fiscal haven. Thousands of Italians responded to the banking inspections by withdrawing their hidden savings from San Marino.

      The small republic also attempted to ensure its future security by aligning itself with other European nations. The government took steps to explore eventual membership in the European Union. San Marino, although landlocked, also became a member of the International Maritime Organization, a group of countries dedicated to maritime safety and pollution regulation.

Gregory O. Smith

▪ 2002

Area:
61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)
Population
(2001 est.): 27,200
Capital:
San Marino
Heads of state and government:
The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      The major focus in San Marino in 2001 was debate by opposition parties over the government's proposal to privatize the country's public utilities company, which was founded in 1981 to furnish electricity, gas, and drinking water. The opposition was concerned about the impact the action might have on San Marino's poorer population.

      In June parliamentary elections the ruling Christian Democratic-Socialist coalition stayed in power, winning 40 of the 60 Great General Council seats.

      Another sensitive area involved European Union plans to close up loopholes in European tax law to make it impossible for EU citizens to utilize San Marino as a tax haven for investments. San Marino believed that the new tax laws would unfairly penalize the 5,000 Italians who worked there. San Marino and Italy were both preparing to adopt the new euro, which would replace the Italian lira as the domestic currency in 2002.

      On another front San Marino took measures to thwart a possible terrorist attack and created a special team to safeguard its mail system.

Gregory O. Smith

▪ 2001

Area:
61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)
Population
(2000 est.): 26,800
Capital:
San Marino
Heads of state and government:
The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      San Marino in 2000 continued to maintain an enviable quality of life, as testified by international studies showing that it had one of the most effective medical health care systems in the world. The government wished to preserve this high quality and pursued this aim through an economic growth plan that mandated support for traditional artisan and agricultural activities as well as for high-tech investments. One of the staples of the economy was tourism, the importance of which was reflected in San Marino's formal membership in the World Tourism Organization.

      Famous for its stamps and its mint, San Marino could not afford to miss the occasion of the Roman Catholic Church's Jubilee 2000 to strike a commemorative medallion that was presented to Pope John Paul II in May by the nation's ambassador to the Vatican. Special Jubilee activities were organized in May to celebrate the nation's patron, Saint Marino.

Gregory O. Smith

▪ 2000

Area:
61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)
Population
(1999 est.): 26,500
Capital:
San Marino
Heads of state and government:
The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      Far from being a placid spectator to modern events in 1999, the Republic of San Marino, with its 17th-century system of government, continued to interweave modernity and tradition while maintaining a high profile—comparatively speaking—in world affairs. Indeed, the republic added membership in the Food and Agricultural Organization to its long list of affiliations.

      Domestic debate was dominated by the welfare system, a modern creation that had become a significant burden on the public treasury. The system included a state-funded pension plan and a public health care system, with the two kept separate in order to rationalize spending on a growing and aging population with increasing welfare needs. There were calls from industrial quarters for the welfare system to be dismantled entirely.

      Some critics observed that San Marino's economy was antiquated and little attuned to a world in which offering a modern range of financial services could bring distinct rewards. The education system too was criticized in this vein. Concern for economic enhancement is hardly a sign of difficult times, however, and the republic, with its 4% unemployment rate, was still something of an economic paradise.

Gregory O. Smith

▪ 1999

      Area: 61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi)

      Population (1998 est.): 26,100

      Capital: San Marino

      Heads of state and government: The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      Elections in May 1998 confirmed support for the Christian Democrat-Socialist alliance formed in 1992; it gained 64.1% of the vote, notwithstanding the claim by the opposition that the government was riddled with corruption. The government promised sweeping reforms during the next five years in order to streamline bureaucratic procedures and render the state more responsive to the needs of its citizens. Gabriele Gatti, the state secretary for foreign affairs, represented San Marino at a widely attended conference in Rome that sought to establish an international criminal court responsible for hearing war crimes and similar atrocities.

      Victory by the incumbent alliance came as no surprise, considering the nation's sustained growth and prosperity, marked by a continual influx of new citizens. A favourite spot for tourism, with more than three million visitors a year, San Marino reported an unemployment rate of slightly over 3% and a minimal crime rate.

GREGORY O. SMITH

▪ 1998

      Area: 61.1 sq km (23.6 sq mi)

      Population (1997 est.): 25,600

      Capital: San Marino

      Heads of state and government: The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council.

      During 1997 tiny San Marino continued to exercise a vigorous role in the conduct of both domestic affairs and international relations. The country boasted numerous visits from distinguished foreign representatives and itself launched an energetic diplomatic campaign to protect its role as a force to be reckoned with. The diplomatic high point was the official visit of the republic's longtime state secretary for foreign and political affairs, Gabriele Gatti, to Cuba, where he met with Fidel Castro and discussed investment opportunities for San Marino businesses. San Marino received a visit from Italy's foreign minister, who discussed opportunities for future collaboration with his nation within the context of a united Europe.

      San Marino inaugurated its Museum of the Emigrant, bearing witness to a trend that had recently been reversed as increasing numbers of immigrants sought citizenship there. Concern regarding the integrity of the people was echoed in the effort to preserve the republic's ancient democratic spirit through only slight modifications of the electoral system.

      The Great Council, however, also voted to throw out laws on the books that prohibited "libidinous acts with persons of the same sex," which had been punishable by prison terms, and approved the construction of skateboarding and in-line skating facilities, both actions sure indications that San Marino was fully part of the modern era.

GREGORY O. SMITH
      This article updates San Marino.

▪ 1997

      The republic of San Marino is a landlocked enclave in northeastern Italy. Area: 61 sq km (24 sq mi). Pop. (1996 est.): 25,300. Cap.: San Marino. Monetary unit: Italian lira, with (Oct. 11, 1996) a free rate of 1,523 lire to U.S. $1 (2,399 lire = £ 1 sterling). The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council. Executive power rests with the Congress of State, headed by the coregents and composed of three secretaries of state and seven ministers.

      San Marino in 1996 engaged in diplomatic exchanges with a host of other countries, including Cuba, Germany, Finland, and—not least—one of Europe's other tiny sovereign states, Malta. Though small, San Marino made its presence felt, as witnessed by funds made available for the construction of a school and a clinic in Bosnia and Herzegovina and by its involvement in the International Labour Organization conference in Geneva. (GREGORY O. SMITH)

      This article updates San Marino.

▪ 1996

      The republic of San Marino is a landlocked enclave in northeastern Italy. Area: 61 sq km (24 sq mi). Pop. (1995 est.): 24,900. Cap.: San Marino. Monetary unit: Italian lira, with (Oct. 6, 1995) a free rate of 1,617 lire to U.S. $1 (2,557 lire = £ 1 sterling). The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council. Executive power rests with the Congress of State, headed by the coregents and composed of three secretaries of state and seven ministers.

      The year 1995 was an eventful one for Europe's smallest republic. San Marino, which the Italian press liked to term a fiscal paradise, attracted major foreign investors interested in the neighbouring Italian economy. Such activities helped contribute not only to the wealth of this tiny nation but also to its troubles as high-ranking financial officials from Italy visited the country to investigate allegations that bribes paid in Italy's notorious illegal trading scandal had passed through some of San Marino's financial institutions. Domestic industry fared well, though, and one of San Marino's oldest manufacturing companies launched a new line of construction machinery into European markets.

      The year was also significant for its cultural activities, including an art exhibition that displayed spectacular findings from an Ostrogoth tomb. They provided an impressive view of life on the San Marino hills more than a thousand years ago. In October two new heads of state were sworn into office for their six-month term in a ceremony as old as modern Europe. (GREGORY O. SMITH)

      This updates the article San Marino.

▪ 1995

      The republic of San Marino is a landlocked enclave in northeastern Italy. Area: 61 sq km (24 sq mi). Pop. (1994 est.): 24,500. Cap.: San Marino. Monetary unit: Italian lira, with (Oct. 7, 1994) a free rate of 1,569 lire to U.S. $1 (2,495 lire = £ 1 sterling). The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council. Executive power rests with the Congress of State, headed by the coregents and composed of three secretaries of state and seven ministers.

      In April 1994 the Great and General Council elected a schoolteacher and a state functionary as the new state leaders. Both coregents identified the family and the environment as the focal issues of 1994, the latter having been the subject of a recent treaty with Italy in which San Marino, landlocked though it was, expressed its commitment to share in the effort to protect the Adriatic Sea.

      Earlier in the year Gabriele Gatti, the state secretary for foreign and political affairs, met with the Italian foreign minister to perfect legislative agreements intended to harmonize banking and financial procedures between the two countries while guarding against tax evasion and the illegal recycling of funds. Gatti also met in Brussels with the European Union (EU) commissioner for external economic affairs, Sir Leon Brittan, whose reassurances concerning trade between EU countries and San Marino induced Gatti to define the future economic prospects for the tiny republic as truly optimistic.

      In 1994 San Marino received the credentials of a Russian ambassador for the first time. It also engaged in activities to aid people in former Yugoslavia through the agency of the national Red Cross. Further evidence of San Marino's commitment to world harmony was provided when one of its representatives traveled to Israel to participate with various European statesmen in discussions on the Arab-Israeli peace process. (GREGORY O. SMITH)

      This updates the article San Marino.

▪ 1994

      The republic of San Marino is a landlocked enclave in northeastern Italy. Area: 61 sq km (24 sq mi). Pop. (1993 est.): 24,100. Cap.: San Marino. Monetary unit: Italian lira, with (Oct. 4, 1993) a free rate of 1,589 lire to U.S. $1 (2,407 lire = £ 1 sterling). The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed every six months by a popularly elected Great and General Council. Executive power rests with the Congress of State, headed by the coregents and composed of three secretaries of state and seven ministers.

      In 1993, during a historic first-ever visit, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali praised San Marino as an exemplary republic whose independence of national spirit was tempered by deep concern for the world community. This official visit to the world's second smallest republic culminated with the conferment on the secretary-general of the Collar of the Knights of San Marino.

      An important indication of national stability was furnished by the results of the spring elections. The Great and General Council, elected every five years, once more contained a majority of Christian Democrats and Socialists. However, following the balloting, controversy arose over a 1982 law that allowed nonresident voters to be reimbursed for travel to San Marino to cast their vote. Disappointed opposition parties called for the repeal of the law, which, they claimed, not only favoured government parties but also discriminated against women.

      The University of San Marino launched a new master course in science and technology as part of a plan to enrich the activities of the five-year-old institution. Its programs in the humanities had already achieved international renown. The country also witnessed the live broadcast by national television of its own inaugural celebration.

      (GREGORY O. SMITH)

      This updates the article San Marino.

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      residential city, Los Angeles county, southern California, U.S. The affluent city lies southeast of Pasadena. In 1903 the American railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington (Huntington, Henry E.) purchased the San Marino Ranch and founded the community. His estate, deeded to the public, includes the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. The library houses rare English and American literary and historical collections, including a Gutenberg Bible; the art gallery displays Thomas Gainsborough (Gainsborough, Thomas)'s Blue Boy and Sir Thomas Lawrence (Lawrence, Sir Thomas)'s Pinkie, among other works; and the gardens contain specimens of unusual flora. El Molino Viejo (1812), a grist mill and San Marino's oldest building, is preserved as a state historic landmark. Another popular local attraction is Lacy Park, which contains extensive greenspace and hosts outdoor concerts. Inc. 1913. Pop. (1990) 12,959; (2000) 12,945.

Introduction
San Marino, flag of  small republic situated on the slopes of Mount Titano, on the Adriatic side of central Italy between the Emilia-Romagna and Marche regions and surrounded on all sides by the Republic of Italy. It is the smallest independent state in Europe after Vatican City and Monaco and, until the independence of Nauru (1968), the smallest republic in the world.

Geography
      San Marino has an irregular rectangular form with a maximum length of 8 miles (13 km), northeast to southwest. It is crossed by the Marano and Ausa (Aussa) streams, which flow into the Adriatic Sea, and by the stream of San Marino, which falls into the Marecchia River. The landscape is dominated by the huge, central limestone mass of Mount Titano (2,424 feet [739 metres]); hills spread out from it on the southwest, whereas the northeastern part gently slopes down toward the Romagna plain and the Adriatic coast. The silhouette of Mount Titano, with its three summits crowned by ancient triple fortifications, may be seen from many miles away. In 2008 Mount Titano and the historic centre of San Marino were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.

      The climate is mild and temperate, with maximum temperatures of 79 °F (26 °C) in summer and 19 °F (−7 °C) in winter. Annual rainfall ranges between about 22 inches (560 mm) and 32 inches (800 mm). Vegetation is typical of the Mediterranean zone, with variations due to elevation, and includes olive, pine, oak, ash, poplar, fir, and elm, as well as many kinds of grasses and flowers. Besides domestic and farmyard animals, moles, hedgehogs, foxes, badgers, martens, weasels, and hares are found. Indigenous birds and birds of passage are plentiful.

      Although traces of human presence from both prehistoric and Roman times exist in the territory, Mount Titano and its slopes are known to have been populated, with certainty, only after the arrival of St. Marinus and his followers. San Marino citizens, or Sammarinesi, make up more than four-fifths of the country's population, with Italians composing most of the remainder. Thousands of Sammarinesi reside abroad, principally in Italy, the United States, France, and Argentina. Nearly nine-tenths of San Marino's citizens are Roman Catholics, though there is no official religion. The official language is Italian. A widely spoken dialect has been defined as Celto-Gallic, akin to the Piedmont and Lombardy dialects as well as to that of Romagna.

      Because centuries-long quarrying has exhausted Mount Titano's stone and ended the craft that depended upon it, the territory is now without mineral resources. All electrical power is transferred via electrical grid from Italy, San Marino's main trading partner. The country's principal resources are industry, tourism, commerce, agriculture, and crafts. Manufactures include electronics, paint, cosmetics, ceramics, jewelry, and clothing. Ceramic and wrought-iron articles, as well as modern and reproduction furniture, are among San Marino's traditional craft products. Fine printing, particularly of postage stamps, is a consistent source of revenues. Banking is a vital industry. In 2002 San Marino replaced the Italian lira with the euro as its national currency.

      Tourism is the sector of greatest expansion, and it makes a major contribution to the inhabitants' income. Alongside traditional excursion tourism, there is convention-type tourism, based on modern hotel facilities, as well as residential tourism.

      Agriculture, although no longer the principal economic resource in San Marino, remains vital. Wheat, grapes, and barley are the chief crops; dairying and livestock also are important. About three-fourths of the land is given to permanent cultivation.

      The capital, San Marino city, is set high on the western side of Mount Titano, beneath the fortress crowning one of its summits, and is encircled by triple walls. Borgo Maggiore, farther down the slope, was for centuries San Marino's commercial centre, and Serravalle, beneath its castle of the Malatesta Family, is agricultural and industrial. Most of San Marino's landscape is agricultural in character, but industrial concerns have intruded on the centuries-old forms of agricultural life.

      The San Marino constitution, originating from the Statutes of 1600, provides for a parliamentary form of government. The Great and General Council (Parliament) has 60 members, elected every five years by all adult citizens. It has legislative and administrative powers and every six months nominates the two captains regent (capitani reggenti), who hold office for that period and may not be elected again until three years have elapsed. The Great and General Council is headed by the captains regent, who are heads of state and of the administration. The Congress of State, a council of ministers, is composed of 10 members, elected by the Great and General Council from among its members, and constitutes the central organ of executive power. Each member has charge of a ministerial department.

      Social programs for the citizens of San Marino are extensive. The state attempts to keep unemployment in check by seeking to provide employment for those who cannot find work with private concerns. All citizens (who make social security contributions) receive free, comprehensive, high-quality medical care and assistance in sickness, accident, and old age, as well as family allowances. The state aids home ownership through its buildings schemes. Education is free up to age 14. The University of San Marino was founded in 1985. A public security force of about 50 persons provides national defense.

      A network of roads connects San Marino with the surrounding regions of Italy. Motorcoach services connect San Marino city with Rimini, Italy, and, in summer, directly with the Adriatic coast. The main airport serving San Marino is the Federico Fellini International Airport in Rimini. There are no railroads, but the capital is reached from Borgo Maggiore by means of a cable railway.

History
      The Republic of San Marino traces its origin to the early 4th century AD when, according to tradition, St. Marinus and a group of Christians settled there to escape persecution. By the 12th century San Marino had developed into a commune ruled by its own statutes and consuls. The commune was able to remain independent despite encroachments by neighbouring bishops and lords, largely because of its isolation and its mountain fortresses. Against the attacks of the Malatesta family, who ruled the nearby seaport of Rimini, San Marino enjoyed the protection of the rival family of Montefeltro, who ruled Urbino. By the middle of the 15th century, it was a republic ruled by a Grand Council—60 men taken from the Arengo, or Assembly of Families. Warding off serious attacks in the 16th century (including an occupation by Cesare Borgia), San Marino survived the Renaissance as a relic of the self-governing Italian city-states. Rule by an oligarchy and attempts to annex it to the Papal States in the 18th century marked the decline of the republic.

      When Napoleon invaded Italy, he respected the independence of the republic and even offered to extend its territory (1797). The Congress of Vienna (1815), at the end of the Napoleonic Wars, also recognized its independent status. During the 19th-century movement for Italian unification, San Marino offered asylum to revolutionaries, among them Giuseppe Garibaldi. After Italy became a national state, a series of treaties (the first in 1862) confirmed San Marino's independence.

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Universalium. 2010.

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