Plymouth


Plymouth
/plim"euhth/, n.
1. a seaport in SW Devonshire, in SW England, on the English Channel: naval base; the departing point of the Mayflower 1620. 257,900.
2. a city in SE Massachusetts: the oldest town in New England, founded by the Pilgrims 1620. 35,913.
3. a town in SE Minnesota. 31,615.
4. a town in NW Connecticut. 10,732.
5. a town in and the capital of Montserrat, West Indies. 3200.

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I
City (pop., 1999 est.: 255,800) in Devon, southwestern England.

Located on Plymouth Sound southwest of London, the city was named Sudstone in Domesday Book (1086); its harbour is called Sutton Harbour. It was the port from which the English fleet sailed against the Spanish Armada in 1588. In 1690 its dockyard was built on the western bank of the River Tamar. During World War II Plymouth suffered bomb damage from air raids. The rebuilt city has some of the finest commercial, shopping, and civic centres in Britain and new bridges over the Rivers Plym and Tamar.
II
City (pop., 2000: 51,701), southeastern Massachusetts, U.S. Located on Plymouth Bay, it was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New England, the Colony of New Plymouth, founded by the Pilgrims in 1620 and governed under the Mayflower Compact until 1691, when it became part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Its seaside location and historic associations make Plymouth an outstanding summer resort. A tourist-based economy is supplemented by light industry, fishing, and cranberry growing. Historical attractions include Plimoth Plantation (a recreation of the original Pilgrim village) and many restored early colonial houses.

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      city, seat (1836) of Marshall county, northern Indiana, U.S., 23 miles (37 km) south of South Bend. Platted in 1834 and apparently named for Plymouth, Mass., it is near the site of the area's last Potawatomi village, from where in 1838 more than 850 Native Americans were dispossessed and moved to a reservation on the Osage River in Kansas. Many of them died of malaria and typhoid before reaching their destination; a monument southwest of the city commemorates the removal of the tribe and the death of its leader, Chief Menominee, during the forced march. Plymouth is now the trade centre for an extensive agricultural area (livestock, dairy products, soybeans, and grain) and has acquired some industry. Manufactures include automotive components, packaging products, food, and bathroom fixtures. Marshall County Historical Museum exhibits Native American artifacts and pioneer farm equipment. Culver Military Academy (1894) and Culver Girls Academy (1971) are 15 miles (24 km) southwest, and Ancilla College (1937) is in nearby Donaldson. Inc. town, 1851; city, 1873. Pop. (2000) 9,840; (2005 est.) 10,876.

 town (township), Plymouth county, southeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies on Plymouth Bay, 37 miles (60 km) southeast of Boston. It was the site of the first permanent settlement by Europeans in New England, Plymouth colony, known formally as the colony of New Plymouth. The town was founded by Pilgrims (Pilgrim Fathers) (separatists from the Church of England) who, in their search for religious toleration, had immigrated first to the Netherlands and then to North America. Sailing in the Mayflower from Plymouth, England, the settlers reached the shores of Cape Cod (Cod, Cape) in November 1620, and an exploring party arrived in the Plymouth area on December 21 (now celebrated as Forefathers' Day). According to tradition, the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock on December 26 and built their first fort and watchtower on Burial Hill (so called because it contains the graves of Governor William Bradford (Bradford, William) and others of the original group). Half their number died that first winter and were buried on Cole's Hill, which was later leveled and planted in grain so that the Native Americans could not judge the extent of the colony's depletion. Although never officially incorporated, the town was recognized in 1633 as the seat of Plymouth colony, which was absorbed into Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691.

      Its seaside location and historic associations make Plymouth an outstanding summer resort. A tourist-based economy is supplemented by light manufacturing, the production of computer software, fishing, and various services. Seafaring was the heart of the early economy of the community, and active wharves and boatyards remain. Numerous historic attractions include Plimoth Plantation (a re-creation of the original Pilgrim village), Pilgrim Hall Museum (built in 1824), Harlow Old Fort House (a building depicting 17th-century household occupations of Plymouth women), and Mayflower II, a goodwill ship built at Brixham, England, that sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in 53 days in 1957. Many early colonial houses in the town have been restored, including the Richard Sparrow House (1640), the Edward Winslow (Winslow, Edward) House (1699), and the Jabez Howland House. Plymouth Rock, first identified in 1741, became a symbol of freedom in 1774 when it was split by being dragged to Liberty Pole Square in pre-Revolutionary agitation. It now rests on its original waterfront site under a portico of granite. On a hill behind the town is the 81-foot (25-metre) National Monument to the Forefathers (Pilgrim Monument), dedicated in 1889. Plymouth includes most of the 17-square-mile (44-square-km) Myles Standish State Forest. Area 96 square miles (248 square km). Pop. (1990) 45,608; (2000) 51,701; (2005 est.) 54,923.

      town (township), Grafton county, central New Hampshire, U.S. It lies on the Pemigewasset River north-northwest of Laconia, west of Squam Lake, and overlooked (southwest) by Plymouth Mountain (2,187 feet [667 metres]). The town includes the communities of Plymouth and West Plymouth. Chartered in 1763, it annexed parts of Hebron and Campton in 1845 and 1860. Agriculture, lumbering, and light manufacturing are local economic activities, and since the mid-19th century the town has been a popular resort centre. The Plymouth State Fair is an annual (August) event. Plymouth State College originated in 1871 as a state normal (teacher-training) school. The Tenney Mountain Ski Area and Polar Caves Park are nearby. Area 28 square miles (73 square km). Pop. (1990) 5,811; (2000) 5,892.

      town (township), Windsor county, south-central Vermont, U.S. The town includes the villages of Plymouth, Plymouth Union, and Tyson. It was chartered in 1761 as Saltash and renamed in 1797. Calvin Coolidge (Coolidge, Calvin), 30th president of the United States, was born (July 4, 1872) in Plymouth in a small house behind the crossroads village store. The homestead in Plymouth Notch where he took the presidential oath of office on August 3, 1923, and six other buildings are preserved as a state historic district. Coolidge's grave is in a local church cemetery. The Calvin Coolidge State Forest is nearby. Area 48 square miles (125 square km). Pop. (1990) 440; (2000) 555.

▪ city and unitary authority, England, United Kingdom
      city, seaport, and unitary authority, geographic and historic county of Devon, southwestern England. It lies between the Rivers Plym and Tamar, which flow into Plymouth Sound, providing an extensive anchorage used principally by the Royal Navy.

      Named Sudtone in Domesday Book (1086), Plymouth's original harbour is still called Sutton Harbour. A developing trade and the shipment of armies to France led to its early growth. In the 16th century the attempts of Sir Walter Raleigh to colonize Virginia were made from Plymouth; it was the home port of other famous Elizabethan adventurers, and the English fleet sailed from there to attack the Spanish Armada (1588). The Hoe (the southern waterfront) is dominated by the Citadel, built by Charles II (reigned 1660–85) to replace a Tudor castle. In 1690 the Royal Dockyard was begun on the eastern bank of the Tamar, and the town of Plymouth Dock (renamed Devonport in 1824) was founded. A third town, Stonehouse, developed between Devonport and Plymouth, and all were amalgamated in 1914.

      During World War II Plymouth suffered severe bomb damage from air raids. The new Plymouth has some of the finest commercial, shopping, and civic centres in Britain. New approach roads link the city with new bridges over the Plym and Tamar. The reconstruction included the building of several satellite communities in which light industries were introduced. Other industries include the manufacture of machine tools, precision instruments, lubrication equipment, chemicals, and engineering products. Area 30 square miles (79 square km). Pop. (2005 est.) 246,100.

      county, southeastern Massachusetts, U.S., bordered by Massachusetts Bay (northeast), Cape Cod Bay (east), and Buzzards Bay (south). It consists mainly of an upland region with pockets of bogs, especially in the coastal lowlands of the southeast. The primary watercourses are the Taunton, Weweantic, North, and South rivers and Assawompset, Long, Great Quittacas, and Snipatuit ponds. Parklands include Myles Standish State Forest and Wompatuck and Ames Nowell state parks.

 The county seat is the town of Plymouth, the site of the first permanent European settlement in New England (1620); Plymouth Rock State Park commemorates the landing of the Mayflower. The county was created from Plymouth colony in June 1685. Whaling and shipbuilding were important industries until the mid-19th century.

      Plymouth county is one of the leading agricultural counties in the state. The town of Carver is considered to be the cranberry capital of the United States, and the city of Brockton is known as a major centre for shoe manufacturing. The historic and recreational value of the shore communities, such as Marshfield, Hingham, Duxbury, and Scituate, support the tourist industry. Area 661 square miles (1,711 square km). Pop. (1990) 435,276; (2000) 472,822; (2005 est.) 492,409.

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Universalium. 2010.

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