jiva


jiva
/jee"veuh/, n.
1. Hinduism. the individual soul, regarded as a particular manifestation of Atman.
2. Jainism.
a. the individual soul or life monad, compared to a transparent crystal stained by karmic matter with colors, or lesyas, of varying hues.
b. all such monads collectively, regarded as the animating principle of the universe. Also called jivatma /jee vaht"meuh/.
[1800-10; < Skt: lit., living]

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In Jainism, the soul or living spirit.

Jivas are believed to be eternal and infinite in number. Many are bound to earthly existence by karma that requires them to move through the cycle of rebirth in successive bodies. Eventually a jiva may obtain release, whereupon a replacement is promoted from the lowest class of jivas, the tiny invisible souls called nigodas that fill the whole space of the world.

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Sanskrit“life essence”

      according to the philosophy of Jainism, “living sentient substance,” or “soul,” as opposed to ajiva, or “nonliving substance.”

      In the Jain tradition, souls are understood as being eternal and infinite in number and are not the same as the bodies that they inhabit. In a pure state (mukta-jiva), souls rise to the top of the universe, where they reside with other perfected beings and are never again reborn. Most souls are, however, bound to samsara (mundane earthly existence), because they are covered with a thin veil of good or bad karma, which is conceived as a kind of matter, accumulated by the emotions in the same way that oil accumulates dust particles.

      Jivas are categorized according to the number of sense organs that they possess. Humans, gods, and demons possess the five sense organs plus intellect. Minute clusters of invisible souls, called nigodas, belong to the lowest class of jiva and possess only the sense of touch, share common functions such as respiration and nutrition, and experience intense pain. The whole space of the world is packed with nigodas. They are the source of souls to take the place of the infinitesimally small number that have been able to attain moksha, release from the cycle of rebirth.

      Hindu (Hinduism) thinkers also employ the term jiva, using it to designate the soul or self that is subject to embodiment. Since many Hindu schools of thought do not regard selfhood as intrinsically plural, however, they typically understand these individual jivas as parts, aspects, or derivatives of the unifying ontological principle atman, which is in turn identified with brahma. In this usage, jiva is short for jiva-atman, an individual living being. Schools differ as to whether the relation between jivas and atman/brahma should be understood as nondual ( Advaita), nondual in a qualified way (Vishishtadvaita (Viśiṣṭādvaita)), or simply dual ( Dvaita).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jiva — (Sanskrit, jiva, wörtl. Leben) oder Jivatman ist in der indischen Philosophie das individuelle Selbst oder die Seele. Es bezeichnet den Atman, der dem physischen und feinstofflichen Körper Leben verleiht. Der Jiva ist nicht das mentale Ich… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jiva — est, dans la mythologie slave, la déesse de la vie, du printemps et de la naissance. C est la personnalisation de la force vitale. Dans la main droite elle tient une pomme, et dans la main gauche une grappe de raisin. Parfois elle se transforme… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jiva — désigne en Inde l âme individuelle. Reste à savoir si c est bien le sens du nom de famille …   Noms de famille

  • jiva — ● jiva nom masculin (mot sanskrit signifiant vivant) Dans le jaïnisme et le bouddhisme, l âme en tant que substance vivante, par opposition à ajiva, la substance non vivante …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Jiva —   [dʒ ; von Sanskrit jiv »leben«] die, / s, Hinduismus: die in einem Körper lebende Seele, d. h. der sterbliche Mensch, der sich mit seinem Körper identifiziert und somit an den Kreislauf von Geburt und Tod gebunden ist …   Universal-Lexikon

  • jiva — ž DEFINICIJA v. dživa …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Jiva — In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva ( sa. जीव, IAST|jīva alternate spelling, jiwa ) is a living being [ [http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/7/5/en1 Bhagavad Gita 7.5] Besides these, O mighty armed Arjuna, there is another, superior energy of Mine, which… …   Wikipedia

  • Jiva — Хива Jiva Puerta de entrada de la ciu …   Wikipedia Español

  • jiva — ˈjēvə noun ( s) Usage: sometimes capitalized Etymology: Sanskrit jīva, from jīva living, alive more at quick 1. Hinduism a …   Useful english dictionary

  • JIVA — Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture …   Military dictionary


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