Jersey


Jersey
Jerseyan, n., adj.Jerseyite, n.
/jerr"zee/, n.
1. a British island in the English Channel: the largest of the Channel Islands. 79,342; 44 sq. mi. (116 sq. km). Cap.: St. Helier.
2. Informal. New Jersey.

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Jersey

Introduction Jersey -
Background: The island of Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. Geography Jersey
Location: Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France
Geographic coordinates: 49 15 N, 2 10 W
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 116 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 116 sq km
Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 70 km
Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 12 NM territorial sea: 3 NM
Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers
Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 143 m
Natural resources: arable land
Land use: arable land: NEGL% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: NA Environment - current issues: NA
Geography - note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier People Jersey -
Population: 89,775 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.9% (male 8,287; female 7,729) 15-64 years: 67.3% (male 30,099; female 30,347) 65 years and over: 14.8% (male 5,729; female 7,584) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.44% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 10.86 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 9.22 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/ female total population: 0.97 male(s)/ female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 5.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.78 years female: 81.4 years (2002 est.) male: 76.34 years
Total fertility rate: 1.57 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA% HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Channel Islander(s) adjective: Channel Islander
Ethnic groups: UK and Norman-French descent
Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian
Languages: English (official), French (official), Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts
Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA male: NA female: NA Government Jersey -
Country name: conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey conventional short form: Jersey
Dependency status: British crown dependency
Government type: NA
Capital: Saint Helier Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)
Independence: none (British crown dependency)
National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system: English law and local statute
Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch head of government: Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Air Chief Marshall Sir John CHESHIRE (since 24 January 2001) and Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE (since NA February 1995) cabinet: committees appointed by the Assembly of the States
Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States (55 voting members - 12 senators, 12 constables or heads of parishes, 29 deputies; all elected for six-year terms, half elected every third year; the bailiff and the deputy bailiff; and 3 non-voting members - the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General, and the Solicitor General all appointed by the monarch elections: last held NA (next to be held NA) election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 52
Judicial branch: Royal Court (judges elected by an electoral college and the bailiff) Political parties and leaders: none; all independents Political pressure groups and none
leaders: Diplomatic representation in the US: none (British crown dependency) Diplomatic representation from the none (British crown dependency)
US:
Flag description: white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag and in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow crown, a red shield holding the three lions of England in yellow Economy Jersey
Economy - overview: The economy is based largely on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export income earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries. In 1996 the finance sector accounted for about 60% of the island's output. Tourism, another mainstay of the economy, accounts for 24% of GDP. In recent years, the government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry has developed alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs. Light taxes and death duties make the island a popular tax haven.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.2 billion (1999 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,800 (1999 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5% industry: 2% services: 93% (1996) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.7% (1998)
Labor force: 57,050 (1996)
Unemployment rate: 0.7% (1998 est.)
Budget: revenues: $601 million expenditures: $588 million, including capital expenditures of $98 million (2000 est.)
Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - imports: NA kWh note: electricity supplied by France
Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy products
Exports: $NA
Exports - commodities: light industrial and electrical goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Exports - partners: UK
Imports: $NA
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners: UK
Debt - external: none Economic aid - recipient: none
Currency: British pound (GBP); note - there is also a Jersey pound
Currency code: GBP
Exchange rates: Jersey pounds per US dollar - 0.6981 (January 2002), 0.6944 (2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997); the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March Communications Jersey - Telephones - main lines in use: 65,500 (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,400 (1997)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: 3 submarine cables
Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: NA Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)
Televisions: NA
Internet country code: .je Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA
Internet users: NA Transportation Jersey -
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total: 577 km (1995) paved: NA km unpaved: NA km
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier
Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)
Airports: 1 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001) Military Jersey -
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK Transnational Issues Jersey - Disputes - international: none

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I
Breed of small, short-horned dairy cattle that originated on Jersey in the English Channel.

They are believed to have descended from French cattle. Jerseys are usually fawn-or cream-coulored, but darker shades are common. They were introduced in large numbers into England с 1811 and into the U.S. in 1850. Adaptable to a wide range of conditions, the Jersey is found worldwide. Its milk is remarkably high in butterfat, and it is an important breed wherever butter is produced (including New Zealand and Denmark).
II
Largest and southernmost of the Channel Islands, in the English Channel.

Area: 44.9 sq mi (116.2 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 87,400. Capital: St. Helier (pop., 2001: 28,310). Separated from Normandy in 1204, it kept its Norman law and local customs but was administered for the British king by a warden. It was given legislative authority in 1771. It is now governed by a popularly elected assembly, which is presided over by a royally appointed bailiff. There is also a lieutenant governor, who represents the British monarch. Jersey fabric and Jersey cattle take their names from the island.

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▪ breed of cattle
 breed of small short-horned dairy cattle originating on Jersey, one of the Channel Islands; it is believed to have descended from French cattle. The colour of the Jersey is usually a shade of fawn or cream, but darker shades are common. In the late 18th century measures were passed prohibiting the importation of cattle into Jersey except for immediate slaughter, and by the early 19th century the indigenous breed came to be recognized as pure. Jersey cattle have been introduced in large numbers into England, one of the earliest herds being formed in 1811. The first exportation of registered Jerseys to the United States was in 1850.

      The Jersey is adaptable to a wide range of conditions, and its distribution is worldwide. Jersey milk is remarkably rich in butterfat, and for that reason animals of this breed are in demand for crossing with native stock to improve the butterfat percentage in milk. Jerseys are of great importance where butter is a major product, as in New Zealand and Denmark. Because of their small size and lack of muscular development as well as the yellow colour of body fat, Jerseys have lower beef value than the other major breeds. Their principal capacity lies in their efficient production of milk high in butterfat and milk solids.

Jersey, flag of largest and southernmost of the Channel Islands, 12 miles (19 km) west of the Cotentin peninsula of France; its capital, St. Helier (Saint Helier), is 100 miles south of Weymouth, Eng. Jersey is about 10 miles across and 5 miles from north to south. The Ecrehous rocks (6 miles northwest) and Les Minquiers (12 miles south) are in the Bailiwick of Jersey.

      The island is largely a plateau mantled with loess, with deeply incised valleys sloping from north to south. Picturesque cliffs reaching 485 feet (148 m) in height line the northern coast; elsewhere, rocky headlands enclose sandy bays bordered by infilled lagoons. Coasts are reef-strewn, but a breakwater in St. Aubin's Bay protects St. Helier harbour from southwest gales. Blown sand forms dunes at the northern and southern ends of St. Ouen's Bay on the western coast. The climate is less maritime and more sunny than Guernsey's. Mean annual temperature is 52 °F (11 °C). Frost is rare, but cold air spreading from France in spring occasionally damages the potato crop.

      Prehistoric remains of Paleolithic man have been found at La Cotte de St. Brelade, and there is abundant evidence of the Neolithic and Bronze ages. The island was known to the Romans as Caesarea. Documents (11th century) show 12 parishes as part of the diocese of Coutances. In the 12th century, Norman landowners dominated the island, which was divided into three units for the collection of the king-duke's revenue.

      Separation from Normandy in 1204 made reorganization necessary. Jersey kept its Norman law and local customs but, with the other islands, was administered for the king by a warden and sometimes by a lord. By the end of the 15th century, Jersey had its own captain, later called governor, an office abolished in 1854, when the duties devolved upon a lieutenant governor, who still performs them. In 1617 it was ruled that justice and civil affairs were affairs of the bailiff. The Royal Court, as it came to be called, took the same form as Guernsey's; the surviving court still reveals its medieval origin. The States of Jersey were separated from the Royal Court (1771) and assumed the court's residual powers of legislation. Parish deputies were first elected in 1857.

      In the 17th century the De Carterets, seigneurs of St. Ouen, dominated the island, holding it for the king from 1643 to 1651. In the 18th and 19th centuries the island was torn by feuds—Magots versus Charlots, Laurels versus Roses—but it also prospered from the Newfoundland fisheries, privateering, and smuggling, and, later, from cattle, potatoes, and the tourist trade.

      Jersey is now governed under the British monarch in council by the Assembly of the States, in which the royally appointed bailiff presides over 12 senators, 12 constables (connétables), and 29 deputies, all popularly elected. The lieutenant governor and crown officers have seats and may speak but not vote. The Royal Court consists of the bailiff as chief magistrate and 12 jurats chosen by an electoral college. Judicial and legislative functions of jurats were not separated until 1948, when other reforms excluded from the States the rectors of the 12 parishes. The proceedings are conducted in French, the official language, though English is everywhere understood.

      The inhabitants are mainly of Norman descent with an admixture of Breton, although there was an influx of English after 1830, of political refugees from Europe after 1848, and, after World War I, of men seeking to avoid taxation. St. Helier, the adjoining parishes of St. Saviour and St. Clement, Gorey, and St. Aubin are the main population centres.

 Farming concentrates on dairying (with ancillary cropping) and on breeding for export of Jersey milk cattle, the only breed allowed on the island since 1789. Many small farms grow early potatoes and outdoor tomatoes for export. Greenhouse production of flowers, tomatoes, and vegetables is significant. Soil is fertilized with vraic (French varec, “wrack,” or “seaweed”) fertilizer. The tourist trade is well established. Knitting of the traditional woolen jerseys has declined. Passenger and cargo ships connect Jersey with Guernsey and Weymouth, Eng., and with Saint-Malo, Fr., via the ports of St. Helier and Gorey; and there are cargo services to London and Liverpool. Air links are extensive. Jersey Zoological Park was founded in 1959 in Trinity Parish by Gerald Durrell, the naturalist and writer, to protect animals in danger of extinction. Area Jersey, 44 square miles (115 square km); Bailiwick of Jersey, 46 square miles (118 square km). Pop. (2001) 87,186.
 

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Universalium. 2010.

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