/jak"seuhn/, n.1. Andrew ("Old Hickory"), 1767-1845, U.S. general: 7th president of the U.S. 1829-37.3. Helen Hunt (Helen Maria Fiske), 1830-85, U.S. novelist and poet.4. Jesse L(ouis), born 1941, U.S. Baptist minister and civil-rights and political activist.5. Mahalia, 1911-72, U.S. gospel singer.6. Robert Houghwout /how"euht/, 1892-1954, U.S. jurist: associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court 1941-54.7. Thomas Jonathan ("Stonewall Jackson"), 1824-63, Confederate general in the American Civil War.8. a city in and the capital of Mississippi, in the central part. 202,895.9. a city in W Tennessee. 49,131.10. a city in S Michigan. 39,739.11. a town in NW Wyoming: resort near Jackson Hole. 4511.12. a male given name, meaning "son of Jack."
* * *ICity (pop., 2000: 184,256), capital of Mississippi, U.S. It lies along the Pearl River in the west-central part of the state.Settled in 1792 by Louis Le Fleur, a French Canadian trader, it was a trading post called Le Fleur's Bluff until settlers began arriving in 1820. It was made the state capital in 1822 and was named for Andrew Jackson. During the American Civil War it was burned by Union forces (1863). The state's largest city, it is a railroad and distribution centre. It is the seat of Jackson State University (1877) and other educational institutions.II(as used in expressions)Downing Andrew JacksonJackson Alexander YoungJackson AndrewJackson Charles ThomasJackson GlendaJackson Jesse LouisJackson JoeShoeless Joe JacksonJoseph Jefferson JacksonJackson John HughlingsJackson MahaliaJackson Michael JosephJackson ReggieReginald Martinez JacksonJackson Robert HoughwoutJackson Shirley HardieJackson StonewallJackson William HenryShelton Jackson LeePollock Paul JacksonSnead Samuel JacksonThomas Lowell JacksonTurner Frederick JacksonWard Barbara Mary Baroness Jackson of Lodsworth
* * *city, seat (1832) of Jackson county, south-central Michigan, U.S. It lies along the Grand River, about 75 miles (120 km) west of Detroit. Settled in 1829 at the meeting point of several Indian trails, it was named for U.S. Pres. Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew) and was known successively as Jacksonburgh, Jacksonopolis, and finally Jackson in 1833. In 1839 Michigan's first state prison was built there; it has continued to be a major employer in the city. It moved from its original location to just north of town in 1930. The town became the eastern terminus for the Michigan Central Railroad in 1841, and five other railroads soon passed through Jackson, making it an important regional rail centre. The Republican Party held its first convention on July 6, 1854, in Jackson. The city became an early leader in the production of automobiles. With the transfer of the auto industry to other cities, Jackson acquired allied industries (auto parts and tires) and other manufactures, including tools, air-conditioning equipment, and aircraft parts.Jackson Community College was established in 1928. The Michigan Space and Science Center in the city is housed in a geodesic dome. The Cascades (illuminated man-made waterfalls, 1932) are in the Sparks Foundation County Park. The Ella Sharp Museum, on a former working farm, has exhibits dedicated to pioneer and agricultural history. Jackson was the boyhood home of U.S. Supreme Court justice Potter Stewart (Stewart, Potter). Inc. village, 1843; city, 1857. Pop. (2000) city, 36,316; Jackson MSA, 158,422; (2005 est.) city, 34,879; Jackson MSA, 163,629.city, capital of Mississippi, U.S. It lies along the Pearl River, in the west-central part of the state, about 180 miles (290 km) north of New Orleans, Louisiana. Jackson is also the coseat (with nearby Raymond) of Hinds county. Settled (1792) by Louis LeFleur, a French-Canadian trader, and known as LeFleur's Bluff, it remained a trading post until the Treaty of Doak's Stand (October 18, 1820) opened the territory to white settlement. Selected as the site for the state capital and named for General Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew), it was laid out (April 1822) using Thomas Jefferson (Jefferson, Thomas)'s checkerboard plan with alternate squares designated as parks. The state legislature first met there December 23, 1822. The first railroad arrived by 1840.During the Vicksburg campaigns of the American Civil War the city was occupied twice by Union troops; when it was reduced to ashes (July 1863) by General William Tecumseh Sherman's forces, it became known as “Chimneyville.” After the Civil War, Jackson was troubled by a corrupt city government run by carpetbaggers, and its recovery was slow until the arrival of new railroads in the 1880s. The Old Capitol (1840)—scene of the state secession vote (1861) and Constitutional Convention (1890), and restored as a historical museum—was replaced by the New Capitol (1903) in gray stone. The Governor's Mansion (1842) served as headquarters for Sherman.The discovery of nearby natural gas fields in the 1930s supplied cheaper fuel and stimulated industrial growth. Jackson is a major distribution and transportation centre. Telecommunications and government services are major components of the economy; poultry processing and the manufacture of automotive parts are also important. A flood-control project on the Pearl River (constructed in the 1960s and impounding Ross R. Barnett Reservoir) has provided industrial, agricultural, and recreational benefits.The city is the home of Millsaps College (1890), Belhaven College (1883), Jackson State University (1877), University of Mississippi (Mississippi, University of) Medical Center (1955), and two campuses of Hinds Community College (1917). Mississippi College (1826) is in nearby Clinton. Annual events include the Dixie National Western Festival, Rodeo, and Livestock Show (February); the Crossroads Film Festival (April); and the Mississippi State Fair (October). LeFleur's Bluff State Park is nearby. Inc. 1823. Pop. (1990) city, 196,637; Jackson MSA, 395,396; (2000) city, 184,256; Jackson MSA, 440,801.city, seat (1821) of Madison county, western Tennessee, U.S. It lies about 80 miles (130 km) northeast of Memphis. The area was settled about 1819 as a port on the Forked Deer River and developed as a cotton depot and railroad junction. First called Alexandria, the community was renamed in 1822 to honour General (later President) Andrew Jackson (Jackson, Andrew). It was used as a supply point by both Confederate and Union troops during the American Civil War and was the site of a minor engagement (December 19, 1862) led by Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest (Forrest, Nathan Bedford).Jackson's growth was fostered by the establishment there of Union University (1823; affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention), Lambuth University (1843; United Methodist), and Lane College (1882; Christian Methodist Episcopal). Jackson State Community College opened in 1967. The city's modern economy is well diversified, based on agriculture (notably cotton, corn [maize], and soybeans), industry (including the manufacture of lawn and garden equipment, power tools, flooring, appliances, and air compressors), and its educational facilities. Food processing is also important.John Luther (“Casey”) Jones (Jones, Casey), the railroad engineer famed for his skill with a locomotive whistle who was killed in a wreck (1900) on an Illinois Central train, is buried in Jackson's Mount Calvary Cemetery; his home is now a railroad museum. Pinson Mounds State Archaeological Park, about 10 miles (15 km) south of the city, contains prehistoric Native American mounds of the Middle Woodland period. Shiloh National Military Park, the site of one of the bloodiest Civil War battles (Shiloh, Battle of) (April 6–7, 1862), is about 60 miles (100 km) southeast of Jackson, near the Mississippi border. Chickasaw and Natchez Trace state parks are nearby. Inc. town, 1823; city, 1845. Pop. (1990) city, 48,949; Jackson MSA, 90,801; (2000) city, 59,643; Jackson MSA, 107,377.town, seat (1921) of Teton county, northwestern Wyoming, U.S. The town lies at the southern end of the Teton Range, just north of the Snake River, and is the centre of an important recreation and tourist industry. Explored by the fur trapper John Colter (Colter, John) in 1807, Jackson takes its name from another trapper, David Jackson, who worked in the area in the 1820s and who organized summer rendezvous of the mountain men who trapped throughout the Rocky Mountain region. The area surrounding Jackson was later the site of several large ranches, for which the town served as a supply centre. Many of those ranches have given way to large vacation-home developments, and Jackson's economy is now based on service and tourism. Grand Teton National Park, Jackson Hole (also called Jackson Lake), and the National Elk Refuge are nearby. Inc. 1897. Pop. (1990) 4,472; (2000) 8,647.
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