- Spener, Philipp Jakob
▪ German theologian and authorborn Jan. 23, 1635, Rappoltsweiler, Upper Alsace [now Ribeauvillé, France]died Feb. 5, 1705, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]theologian, author, and a leading figure in German Pietism, a movement among 17th- and 18th-century Protestants that stressed personal improvement and upright conduct as the most important manifestations of Christian faith.During his studies at Strassburg (1651–59) Spener developed an interest in reforming Lutheran orthodox practice. In particular, he objected to the rigidity of ecclesiastical structures and the lack of moral discipline among the clergy. At the age of 31, Spener became superintendent of the Lutheran Church at Frankfurt am Main, where he began his collegia pietatis (“schools of piety”), devotional gatherings intended to encourage personal spiritual growth, prayer, and Bible study. His extensive correspondence with the German clergy contributed to the growth of Pietism, as did his major work, Pia Desideria (1675; Pious Desires). That work outlined Pietism's basic program and earned Spener a reputation throughout Germany as the spokesman for the movement. His emphasis upon practice was often considered extreme, to the detriment of doctrine. But the doctrinal conflicts of his time deeply concerned Spener, who considered many of them harmful and irrelevant. In 1686 he was made first court chaplain at Dresden, then the most valued position in the German Lutheran Church, but his views soon aroused opposition. Attacks upon Pietism came from the orthodox Lutherans at the University of Leipzig and from the Saxon court, whose elector, John George III, had been rebuked by Spener for drunkenness.Spener consequently moved to Berlin in 1691 to become provost of St. Nicholas' Church. There he gained from the Brandenburg-Prussian court the support that enabled him to carry out numerous reforms. At the new University of Halle, founded on a Pietist basis by the Elector of Brandenburg in 1694, Spener obtained positions for his disciples Christian Thomasius and August H. Francke. By the time of Spener's death, Pietism was well established in Germany, and its influence reached to England and eventually to the British colonies in America. Other important works among Spener's more than 300 writings are Das geistliche Priestertum (1677; “The Spiritual Priesthood”) and Die allgemeine Gottesgelehrtheit (1680; “General Theology”).
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