cup fungus

cup fungus
any small, often brightly colored mushroom of the family Pezizaceae, characterized by a fruiting body resembling a cup.

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      any member of a large group of fungi (kingdom Fungi) in the order Pezizales (phylum Ascomycota) and typically characterized by a disk- or cup-shaped structure (apothecium (ascocarp)) bearing spore sacs (asci) on its surface. Some of the cup fungi are important plant pathogens, such as Monilinia (Sclerotinia), causing brown rot in peach and other stone fruits. Others are saprobes, displaying small (2–5 mm [0.08–0.2 inch]), brilliant red or orange disks found on old cow dung and decaying twigs and branches. Each ascus usually contains eight ascospores. Apothecia are usually open to the exterior; however, in subterranean truffles (truffle), the apothecia are completely enclosed, exposed only when the truffle is opened. Many of the cup fungi produce ballistospores, ascospores that are forcibly shot out. Sometimes, as in Helvella and Peziza, they are discharged in such numbers that they form a cloud above the fruiting body, and innumerable tiny explosions may be heard as a hissing sound.

      The term morel is used for the 15 species of edible Morchella mushrooms. They have a convoluted or pitted head, or cap. Morels are varied in shape and occur in diverse habitats. The edible M. esculenta is found during early summer in woods. The bell morel (Verpa), an edible mushroom with a bell-shaped cap, is found in woods and in old orchards in early spring. Most species of Gyromitra, a genus of false morels, are poisonous. G. brunnea is edible, however, and is found in sandy soils or woods.

      Peziza, which contains about 50 widespread species, produces in summer a cup-shaped fruiting body or mushroomlike structure on rotting wood or manure. Fire fungus is the common name for two genera (Pyronema and Anthracobia) of the order that grow on burned wood or steamed soil.

      The edible snow mushroom (Helvella gigas) is found at the edge of melting snow in some localities. Caution is advised for all Helvella species. H. infula has a dull yellow to bay-brown, saddle-shaped cap. It grows on rotten wood and rich soil from late summer to early fall and is poisonous to some people.

      Sarcoscypha and Geopyxis (earth cup) are typically cup- or goblet-shaped.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cup fungus — Taxobox | name = Cup fungi image width = 250px image caption = Orange cup fungus regnum = Fungi phylum = Ascomycota classis = Pezizomycetes ordo = Pezizales familia = Pezizaceae familia authority = Dumort., 1829Cup fungi are fungi (Ascomycota:… …   Wikipedia

  • cup fungus — cup′ fun gus n. fng any small, cup shaped, usu. brightly colored mushroom of the family Pezizaceae • Etymology: 1905–10 …   From formal English to slang

  • cup fungus — noun any fungus that is a member of the subclass Discomycetes • Syn: ↑discomycete • Hypernyms: ↑ascomycete, ↑ascomycetous fungus • Hyponyms: ↑Leotia lubrica, ↑Mitrula elegans, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • cup fungus — /ˈkʌp fʌŋgəs/ (say kup fungguhs) noun (plural cup fungi /ˈkʌp fʌŋgi/ (say kup funggee) or cup funguses) any of various ascomycetes with a fruiting body that is shaped like a shallow cup or saucer …   Australian English dictionary

  • cup fungus — noun Date: circa 1905 any of an order (Pezizales) of mostly saprophytic ascomycetous fungi with a fleshy or horny apothecium that is often colored and typically shaped like a cup, saucer, or disk …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • fungus — fungic /fun jik/, adj. funguslike, adj. /fung geuhs/, n., pl. fungi /fun juy, fung guy/, funguses, adj. n. 1. any of a diverse group of eukaryotic single celled or multinucleate organisms that live by decomposing and absorbing the organic… …   Universalium

  • cup mushroom — noun : cup fungus …   Useful english dictionary

  • Fungus — Fungi redirects here. You may be looking for Fungi (music) or Fungus (XM). Fungi Temporal range: Early Devonian–Recent (but see text) …   Wikipedia

  • Cup sponge — Sponge Sponge (sp[u^]nj), n. [OF. esponge, F. [ e]ponge, L. spongia, Gr. spoggia , spo ggos. Cf. {Fungus}, {Spunk}.] [Formerly written also {spunge}.] 1. (Zo[ o]l.) Any one of numerous species of Spongi[ae], or Porifera. See Illust. and Note… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • blood cup — noun a scarlet European fungus with cup shaped ascocarp • Syn: ↑fairy cup, ↑Peziza coccinea • Hypernyms: ↑discomycete, ↑cup fungus • Member Holonyms: ↑Peziza, ↑genus Peziza …   Useful english dictionary