Creole


Creole
/kree"ohl/, n.
1. a person born in the West Indies or Spanish America but of European, usually Spanish, ancestry.
2. a person born in Louisiana but of usually French ancestry.
3. (sometimes l.c.) a person of mixed black and European, esp. French or Spanish, ancestry who speaks a creolized form of French or Spanish.
4. (usually l.c.) a creolized language; a pidgin that has become the native language of a speech community. Cf. pidgin.
5. the creolized French language of the descendants of the original settlers of Louisiana. Cf. Cajun.
7. (usually l.c.) Archaic. a black person born in the New World, as distinguished from one brought there from Africa.
adj.
8. (sometimes l.c.) of, pertaining to, or characteristic of a Creole or Creoles.
9. (usually l.c.) Cookery. indicating a spicy sauce or dish made esp. with tomatoes, peppers, onions, celery, and seasonings, and often served with rice.
10. (sometimes l.c.) bred or growing in a country, but of foreign origin, as an animal or plant.
[1595-1605; < F < Sp criollo < Pg crioulo native, deriv. of criar to bring up < L creare; see CREATE]

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In the 16th–18th centuries, a person born in Spanish America of Spanish parents, as distinguished from one born in Spain but residing in America.

Under Spanish colonial rule, Creoles suffered from discrimination; it was consequently Creoles who led the 19th-century revolutions against Spain and became the new ruling class. Today Creole has widely varying meanings. In Louisiana it can mean either French-speaking white descendants of early French and Spanish settlers, or people of mixed descent who speak a form of French and Spanish. In Latin America the term may denote a local-born person of pure Spanish extraction or a member of the urban Europeanized classes as opposed to rural Indians. In the West Indies it refers to all people, regardless of ancestry, who are part of the Caribbean culture. See also Creole language.

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people
Spanish  Criollo,  French  Créole,  

      originally, in the 16th–18th century, any white person born in Spanish America of Spanish parents, as distinguished from an American resident who had been born in Spain. The term has since been used with various meanings, often conflicting or varying from region to region.

      In Spanish colonial America, Creoles were generally excluded from high office in both church and state, although legally Spaniards and Creoles were equal. Discrimination arose from Spanish crown policy aimed at rewarding its favoured Spanish subjects with lucrative and honorific colonial posts, while excluding Creoles from such positions and severely restricting their commercial activities. Especially in the 18th century, immigrants from Spain (called peninsulares or, with contempt, gachupines and chapetones in Mexico and South America, respectively) who succeeded in business in the colonies aroused the enmity of the Creoles. The Creoles acquired a reputation for being superficial and indolent, but these generalizations were made without the necessary acknowledgement that Creole education, practical experience, and especially, economic and political opportunities were quite limited. The Creoles led the revolutions that effected the expulsion of the colonial regime from Spanish America in the early 19th century. After independence in Mexico, Peru, and elsewhere, Creoles entered the ruling class. They were generally conservative and cooperated with the higher clergy, the army, large landowners, and, later, foreign investors.

      In the West Indies in recent times the noun creole was used to denote descendants of any European settlers, but commonly now the term is used more largely to refer to all the people, whatever their class or ancestry—European, African, Asian, Indian—who are part of the Caribbean culture. In French Guiana the term refers to those who, whatever the colour of their skin, have adopted a European way of life; in neighbouring Suríname it refers to descendants of African slaves. In Louisiana in the United States it refers, in some contexts, to French-speaking white descendants of early French and Spanish settlers and, in other contexts, to mulattos speaking a form of French and Spanish.

      In different parts of Latin America the term creole has various referents; it may denote any local-born person of pure Spanish extraction; it may refer more restrictively to members of old-line families of predominantly Spanish descent who have roots in the colonial period; or it may simply refer to members of urban Europeanized classes, as contrasted with rural Indians. In such countries as Peru, the adjective creole describes a certain spirited way of life. Important expressions of this way of life are the abilities to speak wittily and persuasively on a wide range of topics, to turn a situation to one's advantage, to be masculine (macho), to exhibit national pride, and to participate in fiestas and other sociable activities with a certain gusto—in sum, to be muy criollo (“very creole”).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • créole — [ kreɔl ] n. et adj. • 1670; altér. de criolle, criollo, a 1643; esp. criollo, du port. crioulo « serviteur nourri dans la maison », de criar « nourrir » 1 ♦ Personne de race blanche, née dans les colonies intertropicales, notamment les Antilles… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Creole — may refer to: Languages A Creole language is a stable, full fledged language that originated from a pidgin or combination of other languages. Creole languages subgroups may include: Arabic based creole languages Dutch based creole languages… …   Wikipedia

  • Creole — Créole Pour les articles homonymes, voir Créole (homonymie) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Creole — steht für: Kreole (Schmuck), eine bestimmte Art von Ohrringen Creole (Louisiana), eine Stadt in Louisiana, USA Kreolen, bestimmte Bevölkerungsgruppen in Nord und Südamerika Creole (Festival), ein deutscher Musikpreis für Weltmusik Creole… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Creole — Cre ole (kr? ?l), n. [F. cr?ole, Sp. criollo, from an American negro word, perh. a corruption of a Sp. criadillo, dim. of criado servant, formerly also, child, fr. L. creatus, p. p. of creare to create. Cf. {Create}.] One born of European parents …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Creole — Cre ole (kr? ?l), a. Of or pertaining to a Creole or the Creoles. [1913 Webster] Note: In New Orleans the word Creole is applied to any product, or variety of manufacture, peculiar to Louisiana; as, Creole ponies, chickens, cows, shoes, eggs,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • creole — A creole is a language formed from the contact of a European language (especially English, French, or Portuguese) with another (especially African) language. Unlike a pidgin, which is an improvised language used mainly by traders who do not have… …   Modern English usage

  • Creole — [krē′ōl΄] n. [Fr créole < Sp criollo < Port crioulo, native to the region, born at home < criar, to rear, nourish < L creare,CREATE] 1. a person of European parentage born in the West Indies, Central America, tropical South America,… …   English World dictionary

  • créole — CRÉOLE. sub. masc. et fém. Nom qu on donne à un Européen d origine qui est né en Amérique. Un créole, une créole …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • creole — (n.) c.1600, from Fr. créole (17c.), from Sp. criollo person native to a locality, from Port. crioulo, dim. of cria person (especially a servant) raised in one s house, from criar to raise or bring up, from L. creare to produce, create (see… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Creole — (vom span. Criollo, erzeugt), in den Colonien geborne Einwohner europäischen, unvermischten Stammes; in Nordamerika die in den Colonien geborenen Neger; in Russischamerika die von Europäern und Einheimischen erzeugten Blendlinge …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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