craven


craven
cravenly, adv.cravenness, n.
/kray"veuhn/, adj.
1. cowardly; contemptibly timid; pusillanimous.
n.
2. a coward.
3. cry craven, to yield; capitulate; give up.
v.t.
4. to make cowardly.
[1175-1225; ME cravant, cravaunde defeated < OF craventé, ptp. of cravanter to crush, overwhelm ( < VL *crepantare), influenced by ME creaunt defeated (see RECREANT)]
Syn. 1. dastardly, fearful, timorous.

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      district, administrative county of North Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, England. The traditional name applies to the distinctive limestone country of the central Pennines, where the gritstone-capped summits of Ingleborough, Pen-y-Ghent, and Whernside exceed 2,000 feet (610 metres) in elevation. These highlands are deeply dissected by the upper dales of the Rivers Greta, Ribble, Aire, and Wharfe and open southward to the Ribble-Aire gap, where Skipton, the administrative centre, is situated. The bleak limestone uplands are part of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and are predominantly rural, with attractive stone-built villages that are now tourist centres (e.g., Malham).

      There is evidence of some scattered settlement in prehistoric times, but Roman occupation, focused on lead mining in the high Pennines, left little imprint. Village life began in the lower dales with Angles penetrating from the Aire valley, followed by Danes coming from the northwest. Extensive ownership of large areas by abbeys—Bolton is the only one within the district—stimulated wool production, and by the 14th century a cottage textile industry had developed.

      The spinning of wool, flax, and cotton at water-powered mills spread through the dales from the 18th century, but in the 19th century the industry became concentrated in larger, steam-operated units near Skipton with access to the Liverpool-Leeds Canal. Small-scale mineral working, which was formerly widespread, included digging low-quality coal for domestic fuel, small limekilns, quarrying stone for local building, and lead mining, most important around Grassington in Wharfedale. Farming is still the dominant activity and is based on livestock, with sheep grazing and dairy farming. Area 456 square miles (1,180 square km). Pop. (2001) 53,621.

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Universalium. 2010.

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