cracking


cracking
/krak"ing/, n.
1. (in the distillation of petroleum or the like) the process of breaking down certain hydrocarbons into simpler ones of lower boiling points by means of excess heat, distillation under pressure, etc., in order to give a greater yield of low-boiling products than could be obtained by simple distillation. Cf. catalytic cracking.
adv.
2. extremely; unusually: We saw a cracking good match at the stadium.
adj. Informal.
3. done with precision; smart: A cracking salute from the honor guard.
4. get cracking. See crack (def. 31).
[1250-1300; ME; see CRACK, -ING1, -ING2]

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      in petroleum refining, process by which heavy hydrocarbon molecules are broken up into lighter molecules by means of heat and usually pressure and sometimes catalysts. Cracking is the most important process for the commercial production of gasoline.

      Cracking of petroleum yields light oils (corresponding to gasoline), heavier oils, and such gases as methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, and propylene. These gases are important chemical raw materials and are the starting point for the production of a large number of compounds that constitute five major groups of end products: synthetic rubber, plastics, textiles, detergents, and agricultural chemicals.

      Thermal cracking processes came into use in 1913 for breaking up large nonvolatile hydrocarbons to obtain gasoline. In 1936 the cracking process was improved with catalysts to obtain a higher-octane product. Gas oils are cracked to produce high-octane gasoline in the presence of a clay catalyst. See also alkylation.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • cracking — [ krakiŋ ] n. m. • 1922; mot angl., de to crack « briser » ♦ Anglic. Craquage. ● craquage ou cracking nom masculin (anglais cracking, de to crack, briser) Ensemble des procédés de conversion qui transforment, sous l action de la température… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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  • Cracking — may refer to: Cracking, the formation of a fracture or partial fracture in a solid material Fluid catalytic cracking, a catalytic process widely used in oil refineries for cracking large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller molecules Cracking… …   Wikipedia

  • Cracking — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Cracking puede referirse a: En química, cracking o craqueo es la descomposición de una molécula compleja en otras más pequeñas. En informática, puede referirse a varias prácticas similares, o al conjunto de ellas:… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Cracking — ist die Tätigkeit, ein Computerprogramm zu analysieren (meist durch Disassemblieren), um den Kopierschutz zu entfernen. Ein Crack ist ursprünglich die Kopie eines Computerprogramms, bei der ein herstellermäßig angebrachter Kopierschutz entfernt… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • cracking — n. 1. the act of cracking something. Syn: fracture, crack. [WordNet 1.5] 2. (Chem.) the process of making lower molecular weight hydrocarbons from heavier hydrocarbons in petroleum, by exposure to heat and catalysts. It is used to convert heavier …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cracking — adj. same as {groovy}, sense 1. [informal] Syn: bang up, bully, cool, corking, dandy, great, groovy, keen, neat, nifty, not bad(predicate), peachy, slap up, swell, smashing. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cracking — ► ADJECTIVE Brit. informal 1) excellent. 2) fast and exciting: a cracking pace …   English terms dictionary

  • cracking — (ingl.) m. Craqueo. * * * ► masculino INGENIERÍA QUÍMICA Craqueo …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Cracking —   [engl.], Knacken …   Universal-Lexikon

  • cracking — / krækiŋ/, it. / krɛking/ s. ingl. [der. di (to ) crack spezzare ], usato in ital. al masch. (industr.) [scissione termica degli idrocarburi, che si inserisce nel ciclo della lavorazione del petrolio grezzo] ▶◀ piroclasi, pirolisi, piroscissione …   Enciclopedia Italiana