cortisone


cortisone
/kawr"teuh zohn', -sohn'/, n.
1. Biochem. a steroid hormone of the adrenal cortex, C21H28O5, active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
2. Pharm. a commercial form of this compound, obtained by extraction from the adrenal glands of certain domesticated animals or produced synthetically, used chiefly in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatic fever, certain allergies, and other systemic conditions.
[1949; shortening of cortico-sterone; see STEROL, -ONE]

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Steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (see adrenal gland).

It participates in the regulation of the conversion of proteins to carbohydrates, and to some extent it regulates salt metabolism. Introduced medically in 1948 for its anti-inflammatory effect to treat arthritis, it has been largely replaced by related compounds that do not produce its undesired side effects, which include edema, increased stomach acidity, and imbalances in sodium, potassium, and nitrogen metabolism. See also Cushing syndrome.

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      a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. Introduced in 1948 for its anti-inflammatory effect in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, it has been largely replaced by related compounds that do not produce certain undesirable side effects.

      Cortisone and numerous other steroids were isolated from secretions of the adrenal cortex in the period 1935–48 by the American biochemist Edward C. Kendall (Kendall, Edward Calvin) following earlier observations that the secretions of the adrenal cortex are essential to life. Amounts of these substances available from natural sources were too small for clinical evaluation, but a useful amount of cortisone was produced from deoxycholic acid, a bile constituent. In 1948 Kendall and Philip S. Hench tried out cortisone on patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Their clinical trials were dramatically successful, and refinements of the preparative process reduced the cost of the drug from $200 per gram in 1949 to 50 cents in 1965.

      Cortisone is active primarily as an agent for the rapid conversion of proteins to carbohydrates (a glucocorticoid) and to some extent regulates the salt metabolism of the body (a mineralocorticoid). The therapeutic dose, however, when used as an anti-inflammatory drug, is much larger than the amount normally present in the body, and the minor functions of the hormone become exaggerated, leading to edema (swelling), increased gastric acidity, and imbalances in metabolism of sodium, potassium, and nitrogen. Continued research has resulted in drugs in which the glucocorticoid activity is enhanced and undesirable actions are practically eliminated.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • cortisone — [ kɔrtizɔn ] n. f. • 1950; mot angl. , de corti(co) s(ter)one ♦ Hormone du cortex surrénal, employée en thérapeutique. ● cortisone nom féminin (américain cortisone, de cortico sterone) Hormone de la famille des glucocorticostéroïdes, sécrétée par …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Cortisone — Général Nom IUPAC 17,21 dihydroxypregn 4 ene 3 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • cortisone — n. (Chem.) a corticosteroid hormone ({C21H28O5}) produced by the adrenal cortex. It is used in medicine as an antiinflammatory agent. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cortisone — 1949, coined by its discoverer, Dr. Edward C. Kendall, shortening of chemical name, 17 hydroxy 11 dehydrocorticosterone, ultimately from L. corticis (gen. of cortex; see CORTEX (Cf. cortex)). So called because it was obtained from the cortex of… …   Etymology dictionary

  • cortisone — ► NOUN ▪ a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex and used as an anti inflammatory and anti allergy agent. ORIGIN from elements of its chemical name …   English terms dictionary

  • cortisone — ☆ cortisone [kôrt′ə sōn΄, kôrt′əzōn΄ ] n. [contr. < CORTICOSTERONE: so named by Edward C. Kendall (1886 1972), U.S. physician] a corticosteroid, C21H28O5, used as a replacement in adrenal insufficiency and in the treatment of various… …   English World dictionary

  • Cortisone — Not to be confused with cortisol (a.k.a. hydrocortisone), a similar compound with a similar name, genesis, and function. Cortisone …   Wikipedia

  • cortisone — cor·ti·só·ne s.m. TS biochim., farm. sostanza ormonale estraibile dalla ghiandola surrenale od ottenibile per sintesi, attiva sui processi infiammatori e depressiva dei meccanismi immunitari e autoimmunitari, efficace nella cura dell asma, di… …   Dizionario italiano

  • cortisone — cor|ti|sone [ˈko:tızəun US ˈko:rtısoun] n [U] [Date: 1900 2000; Origin: corticosterone type of hormone (20 21 centuries), from cortex + sterol ( STEROID) + one; because it is produced by the outer layer of a body organ] a ↑hormone that is used… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • cortisone — [[t]kɔ͟ː(r)tɪzoʊn[/t]] N UNCOUNT Cortisone is a hormone used in the treatment of arthritis, allergies, and some skin diseases …   English dictionary


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