—constructivist, n., adj./keuhn struk"teuh viz'euhm/, n. (sometimes cap.)1. Fine Arts. a nonrepresentational style of art developed by a group of Russian artists principally in the early 20th century, characterized chiefly by a severely formal organization of mass, volume, and space, and by the employment of modern industrial materials. Cf. suprematism.2. Theat. a style of scenic design characterized by abstraction, simplification, and stylization rather than realistic imitation.[1920-25; CONSTRUCTIVE + -ISM]
* * *Russian movement in art and architecture, initiated in 1914 by the abstract geometric constructions of Vladimir Tatlin.In 1920 Tatlin was joined by Antoine Pevsner and Naum Gabo. Their "Realist Manifesto," which directed their followers to "construct art," gave the movement its name. The group, soon joined by Aleksandr Rodchenko and El Lissitzky, produced abstract works reflecting modern machinery and technology, using plastic, glass, and other industrial materials. Applying the same principles to architecture, they spread the movement's ideals throughout Europe and to the U.S. after Soviet opposition dispersed the group. See also Bauhaus; De Stijl.
* * *▪ artRussian KonstruktivizmRussian artistic and architectural movement that was first influenced by Cubism and Futurism and is generally considered to have been initiated in 1913 with the “painting reliefs”—abstract geometric constructions—of Vladimir Tatlin (Tatlin, Vladimir Yevgrafovich). The expatriate Russian sculptors Antoine Pevsner (Pevsner, Antoine) and Naum Gabo (Gabo, Naum) joined Tatlin and his followers in Moscow, and upon publication of their jointly written Realist Manifesto in 1920 they became the spokesmen of the movement. It is from the manifesto that the name Constructivism was derived; one of the directives that it contained was “to construct” art. Because of their admiration for machines and technology, functionalism, and modern industrial materials such as plastic, steel, and glass, members of the movement were also called artist-engineers.Other important figures associated with Constructivism were Alexander Rodchenko (Rodchenko, Aleksandr Mikhailovich) and El Lissitzky (Lissitzky, El). Soviet opposition to the Constructivists' aesthetic radicalism resulted in the group's dispersion. Tatlin and Rodchenko remained in the Soviet Union, but Gabo and Pevsner went first to Germany and then to Paris, where they influenced the Abstract-Creation group with Constructivist theory, and later in the 1930s Gabo spread Constructivism to England and in the 1940s to the United States. Lissitzky's combination of Constructivism and Suprematism influenced the de Stijl artists and architects whom he met in Berlin, as well as the Hungarian László Moholy-Nagy (Moholy-Nagy, László), who was a professor at the Bauhaus. In both Dessau and Chicago, where because of Nazi interference the New Bauhaus was established in 1937, Moholy-Nagy disseminated Constructivist principles. See also Bauhaus; Stijl, De; Suprematism.
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См. также в других словарях:
Constructivism — constructivism … Philosophy dictionary
Constructivism — may refer to: Constructivist epistemology, the philosophical view Constructivism in international relations Constructivism (mathematics), a philosophical view on mathematical proofs and existence of mathematical objects Constructivism (art), a… … Wikipedia
constructivism — CONSTRUCTIVÍSM s.n. Curent artistic apărut după primul război mondial, care concepe realitatea într o viziune de forme geometrice (uneori abstracţioniste) şi care luptă pentru puritatea şi simplitatea liniilor. – Din fr. constructivisme. Trimis… … Dicționar Român
constructivism — 1924, in ref. to an abstract artistic movement begun in Russia c.1920, from Rus. konstruktivizm. Related: Constructivist (1928) … Etymology dictionary
constructivism — [kən struk′tiviz΄əm] n. an early 20th cent. movement in sculpture, painting, architecture, etc., orig., in the Soviet Union, characterized by abstract and geometric design, man made materials, and massive structural form constructivist adj., n … English World dictionary
constructivism — noun a) A Russian movement in modern art characterized by the creation of nonrepresentational geometric objects using industrial materials. There is no single theory of constructivism. In fact, there are many shades and varieties of… … Wiktionary
constructivism — konstruktyvizmas statusas T sritis Politika apibrėžtis Tarptautinių santykių teorija, grindžiama prielaida, kad tarptautinės sistemos būklę lemia ne žmonių prigimtis, bet jų įsitikinimai ir iš jų kylantys socialiniai tarpusavio ryšiai. Pasak… … Politikos mokslų enciklopedinis žodynas
constructivism — noun Usage: often capitalized Date: 1925 a nonobjective art movement originating in Russia and concerned with formal organization of planes and expression of volume in terms of modern industrial materials (as glass and plastic) • constructivist… … New Collegiate Dictionary
constructivism — See constructive … Philosophy dictionary
constructivísm — s. n … Romanian orthography