closed shop

closed shop
a factory, office, or other business establishment in which union membership is a condition of being hired as well as of continued employment. Cf. open shop.
[1900-05, Amer.]

* * *

Arrangement whereby a company employs only workers who are members in good standing of a specified labour union.

It is the most rigid of the various schemes for protecting labour unions (more flexible arrangements include the union shop). Closed shops were declared illegal in the U.S. under the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, but in practice they continue to exist in some industries, such as construction.

* * *

labour
      in union-management relations, an arrangement whereby an employer agrees to hire—and retain in employment—only persons who are members in good standing of the trade union. Such an agreement is arranged according to the terms of a labour contract.

      By the 1930s the closed shop had become a commonly negotiated agreement meant to protect labour organizations. This and other methods became known as “union security.” Less extreme than the closed shop is the union shop, in which the employer may hire a worker who is not a union member if the new employee joins the union within a specified time. Agreements for the maintenance of membership provide that all employees of a company on a specified date who are then members of a union and who do not resign their membership within an “escape period” must remain members of the union for the duration of the agreement; otherwise, they will be dismissed from their jobs. Even more open than the union shop is an agency shop: although employees are required to pay funds equal to union dues, they are not required to join the union. There are many detailed variations of these union arrangements in the United States.

      In the United Kingdom and, to a lesser extent, in all other industrial nations, a closed-shop provision is seldom found in a written contract, but it is understood in some industries that union members will walk off the job before they will work alongside nonunionists. This is so commonly assumed among printers, dockworkers, and miners in Britain that employers rarely attempt to employ nonunion workers. Throughout the nations of northern Europe, labour-management agreements are usually made between large industrial segments and a number of unions. In Britain, where union membership is taken for granted, the closed shop has not been as controversial as in the United States. Indeed, British government boards and commissions traditionally expect unions to represent all employees in an industry.

      Although closed shops were declared illegal in the United States under the Taft-Hartley Act (Taft–Hartley Act) of 1947, they continue to exist in practice; however, they are not written into contracts. They are used by employers who depend on unions for hiring or by industries that employ workers for only a short period of time (e.g., dockworkers and construction workers). In such cases employers might seek job applicants by contacting union hiring halls, but they remain free to recruit elsewhere.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • closed shop — n: a business in which the employer by agreement hires and retains only union members see also labor management relations act in the important laws section compare open shop, union shop ◇ Closed shops are illegal under …   Law dictionary

  • closed shop — ˌclosed ˈshop noun [countable usually singular] 1. HUMAN RESOURCES a place of work where only members of a particular trade union are employed: • Mr Blair was criticised by union leaders when he dropped his support of the closed shop. 2. COMMERCE …   Financial and business terms

  • Closed Shop — [ kloʊzd ʃɔp], der; [s], s: 1. (EDV früher) Betriebsart eines Rechenzentrums, bei der der Benutzer die Daten anliefert u. die Resultate abholt, jedoch zur Datenverarbeitungsanlage selbst keinen Zutritt hat. 2. [engl. closed shop, eigtl. =… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • closed shop — closed shops N COUNT If a factory, shop, or other business is a closed shop, the employees must be members of a particular trade union. ...the trade union which they are required to join under the closed shop agreement …   English dictionary

  • Closed Shop — [ ʃɔp] der; [s], s <aus gleichbed. engl. closed shop, eigtl. »geschlossenes Geschäft«>: 1. Betriebsart eines Rechenzentrums, bei der der Benutzer die Daten anliefert u. die Resultate abholt, jedoch zur Datenverarbeitungsanlage selbst keinen …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • closed shop — ● closed shop nom masculin (anglais closed shop) Pratique syndicale, en vigueur en Belgique, en Grande Bretagne et aux États Unis, qui prévoit, dans une convention collective ou un accord d entreprise, l insertion d une clause engageant l… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • closed shop — n a company, factory etc where all the workers must belong to a particular ↑trade union …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • closed shop — noun count a business where all the workers must be members of a particular LABOR UNION …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • closed shop — closed′ shop′ n. a business establishment in which union membership is a condition of employment • Etymology: 1900–05, amer …   From formal English to slang

  • closed shop — ► NOUN ▪ a place of work where all employees must belong to an agreed trade union …   English terms dictionary

  • closed shop — ☆ closed shop n. 1. a factory, business, etc. operating under a contractual arrangement between a labor union and the employer by which only members of the union may be employed 2. this arrangement …   English World dictionary


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»